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Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2012. Traveler Response to Transportation System Changes Handbook, Third Edition: Chapter 16, Pedestrian and Bicycle Facilities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22791.
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Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2012. Traveler Response to Transportation System Changes Handbook, Third Edition: Chapter 16, Pedestrian and Bicycle Facilities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22791.
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Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2012. Traveler Response to Transportation System Changes Handbook, Third Edition: Chapter 16, Pedestrian and Bicycle Facilities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22791.
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Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2012. Traveler Response to Transportation System Changes Handbook, Third Edition: Chapter 16, Pedestrian and Bicycle Facilities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22791.
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Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2012. Traveler Response to Transportation System Changes Handbook, Third Edition: Chapter 16, Pedestrian and Bicycle Facilities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22791.
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Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2012. Traveler Response to Transportation System Changes Handbook, Third Edition: Chapter 16, Pedestrian and Bicycle Facilities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22791.
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Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2012. Traveler Response to Transportation System Changes Handbook, Third Edition: Chapter 16, Pedestrian and Bicycle Facilities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22791.
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Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2012. Traveler Response to Transportation System Changes Handbook, Third Edition: Chapter 16, Pedestrian and Bicycle Facilities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22791.
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Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2012. Traveler Response to Transportation System Changes Handbook, Third Edition: Chapter 16, Pedestrian and Bicycle Facilities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22791.
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Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2012. Traveler Response to Transportation System Changes Handbook, Third Edition: Chapter 16, Pedestrian and Bicycle Facilities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22791.
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Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2012. Traveler Response to Transportation System Changes Handbook, Third Edition: Chapter 16, Pedestrian and Bicycle Facilities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22791.
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Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2012. Traveler Response to Transportation System Changes Handbook, Third Edition: Chapter 16, Pedestrian and Bicycle Facilities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22791.
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Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2012. Traveler Response to Transportation System Changes Handbook, Third Edition: Chapter 16, Pedestrian and Bicycle Facilities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22791.
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Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2012. Traveler Response to Transportation System Changes Handbook, Third Edition: Chapter 16, Pedestrian and Bicycle Facilities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22791.
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Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2012. Traveler Response to Transportation System Changes Handbook, Third Edition: Chapter 16, Pedestrian and Bicycle Facilities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22791.
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Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2012. Traveler Response to Transportation System Changes Handbook, Third Edition: Chapter 16, Pedestrian and Bicycle Facilities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22791.
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Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2012. Traveler Response to Transportation System Changes Handbook, Third Edition: Chapter 16, Pedestrian and Bicycle Facilities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22791.
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Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2012. Traveler Response to Transportation System Changes Handbook, Third Edition: Chapter 16, Pedestrian and Bicycle Facilities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22791.
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Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2012. Traveler Response to Transportation System Changes Handbook, Third Edition: Chapter 16, Pedestrian and Bicycle Facilities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22791.
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Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2012. Traveler Response to Transportation System Changes Handbook, Third Edition: Chapter 16, Pedestrian and Bicycle Facilities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22791.
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Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2012. Traveler Response to Transportation System Changes Handbook, Third Edition: Chapter 16, Pedestrian and Bicycle Facilities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22791.
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Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2012. Traveler Response to Transportation System Changes Handbook, Third Edition: Chapter 16, Pedestrian and Bicycle Facilities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22791.
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Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2012. Traveler Response to Transportation System Changes Handbook, Third Edition: Chapter 16, Pedestrian and Bicycle Facilities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22791.
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Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2012. Traveler Response to Transportation System Changes Handbook, Third Edition: Chapter 16, Pedestrian and Bicycle Facilities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22791.
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Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2012. Traveler Response to Transportation System Changes Handbook, Third Edition: Chapter 16, Pedestrian and Bicycle Facilities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22791.
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Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2012. Traveler Response to Transportation System Changes Handbook, Third Edition: Chapter 16, Pedestrian and Bicycle Facilities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22791.
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Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2012. Traveler Response to Transportation System Changes Handbook, Third Edition: Chapter 16, Pedestrian and Bicycle Facilities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22791.
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Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2012. Traveler Response to Transportation System Changes Handbook, Third Edition: Chapter 16, Pedestrian and Bicycle Facilities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22791.
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Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2012. Traveler Response to Transportation System Changes Handbook, Third Edition: Chapter 16, Pedestrian and Bicycle Facilities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22791.
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Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2012. Traveler Response to Transportation System Changes Handbook, Third Edition: Chapter 16, Pedestrian and Bicycle Facilities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22791.
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Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2012. Traveler Response to Transportation System Changes Handbook, Third Edition: Chapter 16, Pedestrian and Bicycle Facilities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22791.
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Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2012. Traveler Response to Transportation System Changes Handbook, Third Edition: Chapter 16, Pedestrian and Bicycle Facilities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22791.
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Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2012. Traveler Response to Transportation System Changes Handbook, Third Edition: Chapter 16, Pedestrian and Bicycle Facilities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22791.
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Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2012. Traveler Response to Transportation System Changes Handbook, Third Edition: Chapter 16, Pedestrian and Bicycle Facilities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22791.
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Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2012. Traveler Response to Transportation System Changes Handbook, Third Edition: Chapter 16, Pedestrian and Bicycle Facilities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22791.
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Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2012. Traveler Response to Transportation System Changes Handbook, Third Edition: Chapter 16, Pedestrian and Bicycle Facilities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22791.
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Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2012. Traveler Response to Transportation System Changes Handbook, Third Edition: Chapter 16, Pedestrian and Bicycle Facilities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22791.
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Below is the uncorrected machine-read text of this chapter, intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text of each book. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

(396), Muir Woods Shuttle brochure (391), Stagecoach brochure (388), WTG tote bag (358), Golden Gate Bike to Transit Guide (351), Seniors Transit Guide (338), 511 Service Guide (305), 511 Rideshare Guide (298), bike light (284), Marin County Safe Routes to School brochure (205), transit tickets (164), Tuesday evening guided walks (52 total, 6 events), Saturday walks and rides (42 total, 7 events), Thursday evening classes and workshops (10 total, 6 events), Tuesday evening guided bicycle rides (1 total, 4 events). Aside from the 30 percent of events that had no participants, individual event participation ranged from one to 14 persons. Sources. Overall observations including judgment of relative intervention intensities and program assignment to approach categories (utilizing categories set forth in Horst and Brög, 2010) are by the Handbook authors. • Tools of Change, “Seattle Neighborhoods In Motion.” Case study. Prepared by Cullbridge Marketing and Communications on behalf of Health Canada and Natural Resources Canada. http://www.toolsofchange.com/en/case-studies/detail/186/ (Website accessed November 2, 2010). • Alta Planning + Design, “Way to Go Sausalito—Program Report & Evaluation” (May, 2009b). • City of Portland, “Eastside Hub Target Area Program Comprehensive Evaluation Report—Options for Portland Transportation.” Office of Transportation, Portland, OR (the following web address applies to all Portland reports) http://www.portlandonline.com/trans- portation/index.cfm?c=43819 (December, 2005a). • Portland Office of Transportation, “Appendix A— Eastside Hub Target Area Program Measurement Tools and Results Report.” Portland, OR (December, 2005). • Portland Office of Transportation, “Appendices—SmartTrips Northeast Hub.” Portland, OR (December, 2006). • Portland Office of Transportation, “Appendices—SmartTrips Southeast.” Portland, OR (December, 2007). • Portland Bureau of Transportation, “Appendices— SmartTrips Southwest.” Portland, OR (February, 2009). • City of Portland, “SmartTrips North/ Northwest.” Final Report. Bureau of Transportation, Portland, OR (March, 2010). • Hofbauer, D., Socialdata America Ltd. Personal Interview (July 3, 2007). • Whatcom Council of Governments, “Whatcom Smart Trips—A Transferable Model of Vehicle Trip Reduction for US Cities.” Bellingham, WA (October, 2010). • Horst, S., and Brög, W., “Neighborhood Smart Trips: How Individualized Marketing Can Work in Your Community.” PowerPoint notes (Horst only) and slides. Session 54, Pro Walk/Pro Bike® 2010 Chattanooga (September 13–16, 2010). • Horst, S., Whatcom Council of Governments. Telephone and personal interviews (December 2, 20, and 22, 2010b). REFERENCES Special Note: This “References” listing includes only Primary sources cited in this chapter. A num- ber of the chapter’s summary tables start with a “Study (Date)” column that provides either the primary source(s) for information in corresponding rows or, where applicable, secondary source(s). The secondary (original) source is listed first, if there is one, and a dash (“—”) separates the author(s) and the date instead of having the date in parentheses. For example, in the case of the fourth entry in summary Table 16-1, there is a secondary source. It is indicated in the “Study (Date)” column as “Painter—1996” while the primary sources are identified as “Cao, Mokhtarian, and Handy (2007) and Heath et al. (2006).” In some tables this information is provided instead in the “Source” entry under the table. In any case, where there is a secondary source, the primary source(s) will need to be consulted for full secondary source bibliographic information, as well as for further background. Aarts, H., Verplanken, B., and van Knippenberg, A., “Habit and Information Use in Travel Mode Choices.” Acta Psychologica, Vol. 96, Issue 1–2 (1997). AASHTO (American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials), “A Policy on Geometric Design of Highways and Streets.” Washington, DC (2001). 16-442

AASHTO (American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials), “Guide for the Development of Bicycle Facilities.” Washington, DC (1999). AASHTO (American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials), “Guide for the Planning, Design, and Operation of Pedestrian Facilities.” Washington, DC (2004). Abdel-Aty, M., and Abdelwahab, H., “Calibration of Nested-Logit Mode-Choice Models for Florida.” Final Report. Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL. http://www.fsutmsonline.net/images/uploads/reports/FDOT_BC415rpta.pdf (November, 2001). Aboelata, M. J., Mikkelsen, L., Cohen, L., Fernandes, S., Silver, M., and Parks, L. F., The Built Environment and Health—11 Profiles of Neighborhood Transformation. Prepared for National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, by Prevention Institute, Oakland, CA (July, 2004). Abrahams, H., Has the Goodwill Bridge Induced Walking and Cycling Trips for Commuting to Brisbane’s Central Business District? Post Graduate Dissertation. University of New England, Armidale, New South Wales, Australia (October, 2002). Agrawal, A. Weinstein, and Schimek, P., “Extent and correlates of walking in the USA.” Transportation Research Part D, Vol. 12, Issue 8 (December, 2007). Alan M. Voorhees & Associates, Inc., “Traffic Forecast—Proposed Interim RF&P Railroad Commuter Demonstration Project.” Prepared for Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority (January, 1968). Alliance for Biking & Walking, “Bicycling and Walking in the United States: 2010 Benchmarking Report.” Washington, DC. http://peoplepoweredmovement.org/site/index. php/site/member services/alliance_2010_benchmarking_report_information_findings (2010). Alta Planning + Design, “Fundamentals of Bicycle Boulevard Planning & Design.” Prepared for Initiative for Bicycle & Pedestrian Innovation, Portland State University, OR, http://www.ibpi. usp.pdx.edu/guidebook.php (July, 2009a). Alta Planning + Design, “National Bicycle and Pedestrian Project—Summary Report.” Portland, OR (December 18, 2008). Alta Planning + Design, “Way to Go Sausalito—Program Report & Evaluation” (May, 2009b). American Public Health Association, “Backgrounder—The Hidden Health Costs of Transportation.” http://www.apha.org/NR/rdonlyres/B96B32A2-FA00-4D79-99AB-F0446 C63B254/0/TheHidden HealthCostsofTransportationBackgrounder.pdf (February, 2010). American Public Transportation Association, “2010 Public Transportation Fact Book.” Washington, DC http://www.apta.com/resources/statistics/Documents/FactBook/APTA_2010_Fact_Book.pdf (April, 2010). American Public Transit Association, “SunLine Bike Racks Attract New Riders.” Passenger Transport. Newsletter of American Public Transit (now Transportation) Association, Washington, DC (February 10, 1997). 16-443

Antonakos, C. L., “Environmental and Travel Preferences of Cyclists.” Transportation Research Record 1438 (1994). Ashton-Graham, C., and John, G., “TravelSmart Household Program: Frequently Asked Questions in Travel Demand Management and Dialogue Marketing.” Department of Transport Working Paper, Government of Western Australia (April, 2006). Aultman-Hall, L., and Adams, M. F., “Sidewalk Bicycling Safety Issues.” Transportation Research Record 1636 (1998). Aultman-Hall, L., and LaMondia, J., “Evaluating the Safety of Shared-Use Paths: Results from Three Corridors in Connecticut.” Transportation Research Record 1939 (2005). Aultman-Hall, L., Hall, F. L., and Baetz, B. B., “Analysis of Bicycle Commuter Routes Using Geographic Information Systems: Implications for Bicycle Planning.” Transportation Research Record 1578 (1997). Australian Government, “Evaluation of Australian TravelSmart Projects in the ACT, South Australia, Queensland, Victoria, and Western Australia 2001–2005.” Australian Greenhouse Office, Department of the Environment and Heritage, Parkes ACT, Australia. www.travelsmart.gov.au/ publications/pubs/evaluation-2005.pdf (2005). Bandara, S., Wirasinghe, S. C., Gurofsky, D., and Chan, P., “Grade-Separated Pedestrian Circulation Systems.” Transportation Research Record 1438 (1994). Barnes, G., Thompson, K., and Krizek, K., “A Longitudinal Analysis of the Effect of Bicycle Facilities on Commute Mode Share.” TRB 85th Annual Meeting Compendium of Papers CD-ROM. Washington, DC (January 22–26, 2006). Barton-Aschman Associates, Inc., “Extending the Skyway System into Gateway Center.” Prepared for the Minneapolis Housing & Redevelopment Authority. Minneapolis, MN (1978). Bassett, D. R., Pucher, J., Buehler, R., Thompson, D. L., and Crouter, S. E., “Walking, Cycling, and Obesity Rates in Europe, North America, and Australia.” Journal of Physical Activity and Health, Vol. 5, Issue 6 (November, 2008). Beck, L. F., Dellinger, A. M., and O’Neil, M. E., “Motor Vehicle Crash Injury Rates by Mode of Travel, United States: Using Exposure-Based Methods to Quantify Differences.” American Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 166, No. 2, Advance Access publication (April 21, 2007). Bennett, G. G., McNeill, L. H., Wolin, K. Y., Duncan, D. T., Puleo, E., and Emmons, K. M., “Safe to Walk? Neighborhood Safety and Physical Activity Among Public Housing Residents.” PLoS Medicine 4(10) http://medicine.plosjournals.org/perlserv/?request=get-document&doi=10.1371/journal.pmed. 0040306 (October 23, 2007). Berrigan, D., and Troiano, R. P., “The Association between Urban Form and Physical Activity in U.S. Adults.” American Journal of Preventative Medicine, Vol. 23, No. 2, Supplement 1 (August, 2002). Berke, E. M., Gottlieb, L. M., Moudon, A. V., and Larson, E. B., “Protective Association Between Neighborhood Walkability and Depression in Older Men.” Journal of the American Geriatric Association, Vol. 55, No. 4 (April, 2007a). 16-444

Berke, E. M., Koepsell, T. D., Moudon, A. V., Hoskins, R. E., and Larson, E. B., “Association of the Built Environment With Physical Activity and Obesity in Older Persons.” American Journal of Public Health, Vol. 97, No. 3 (March, 2007b). Berry, B. J. L., Geography of Market Centers and Retail Distribution. Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ (1967). Besser, L. M., and Dannenberg, A. L., “Walking to Public Transit: Steps to Help Meet Physical Activity Recommendations.” American Journal of Preventive Medicine, Vol. 29, Issue 4 (November, 2005). Bhatia, R., and Wier, M., “’Safety in Numbers’ re-examined: Can we make valid or practical infer- ences from available evidence?” Accident Analysis and Prevention, Vol. 43, Issue 1 (January, 2011). Bicycle Federation of America, “Case Study No. 18—Analyses of Successful Provincial, State, and Local Bicycle and Pedestrian Programs in Canada and the United States.” National Bicycling And Walking Study. Prepared for Federal Highway Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation, Washington, DC (1993). Bikestation. “Bikestation© Long Beach.” http://www.bikestation.org/longbeach/index.asp (Website accessed August 15, 2003). Bikesummer ’99, “SF’s Valencia Street: Two Lanes Better Than Four.” Bikesummer ’99 Zine (1999). Birk, M., A Tale of Portland Bridges. Alta Planning + Design, Portland, Oregon. (Accessed May 10, 2010 as BIKESAFE Bicycle Countermeasure Selection System Case Study #2) http://www.bi- cyclinginfo.org/bikesafe/case_studies.cfm [2003]. Birk, M., and Geller, R., “Bridging the Gaps: How the Quality and Quantity of a Connected Bikeway Network Correlates with Increasing Bicycle Use.” TRB 85th Annual Meeting Compendium of Papers CD-ROM. Washington, DC (January 22–26, 2006). Boarnet, M. G., Anderson, C. L., Day, K., McMillan, T., and Alfonzo, M., “Evaluation of the California Safe Routes to School Legislation—Urban Form Changes and Children’s Active Transportation to School.” American Journal of Preventative Medicine, Vol. 28, Issue 2, Supplement 2 (February, 2005a). Boarnet, M. G., Day, K., Anderson, C., McMillan, T., and Alfonzo, M., “California’s Safe Routes to School Program—Impacts on Walking, Bicycling, and Pedestrian Safety.” Journal of the American Planning Association, Vol. 71, No. 3 (Summer, 2005b). Booz Allen Hamilton, “International Approaches to Tackling Transport Congestion—Paper 5 (Final): Walking and Cycling.” Prepared for the Victorian Competition and Efficiency Commission, Australia. http://www.vcec.vic.gov.au/CA256EAF001C7B21/0/DEED6E489 A0E8F33CA2571470008CE9B?OpenDocument (April, 2006). Bowker, J. M., Bergstrom, J. C., Gill, J., and Lemanski, U., The Washington & Old Dominion Trail: An Assessment of User Demographics, Preferences, and Economics. Final Report. Prepared for the Virginia Department of Conservation by the Southern Forest Research Station, the University of Georgia, and the National Park Service (December 9, 2004). 16-445

Boyle, J., RTD bike-n-ride Survey Overview. Web article summarizing 1999 bike survey prepared by Kent Epperson of the Denver RTD. http://www.bikemap.com/transit/rtdsurvey.htm accessed July 11, 2003 (Article dated September 9, 2002). Bricka, S. G., Sen, S., Paleti, R., and Bhat, C. R., “An Analysis of the Factors Influencing Differences in Survey-Reported and GPS-Recorded Trips.” TRB 90th Annual Meeting Compendium of Papers DVD. Washington, DC (January 23–27, 2011). Brisbane City Council, “Bikeway maps.” http://www.brisbane.qld.gov.au (Webpage accessed January 22, 2009a). Brisbane City Council, “Brisbane Active Transport Strategy: Walking and Cycling Plan 2005–2010.” http://www.jcu.edu.au/soc/bug/resources/BCC%20Active%20Transport%20Strategy%202 005-2010. pdf (Webpages accessed January 22, 2009b). Broach, J., Gliebe, J., and Dill, J., “Bicycle Route Choice Model Developed Using Revealed Preference GPS Data.” TRB 90th Annual Meeting Compendium of Papers DVD. Washington, DC (January 23–27, 2011). Broach, J., Gliebe, J., and Dill, J., Development of a Multi-class Bicyclist Route Choice Model Using Revealed Preference Data. Paper submitted to the 12th International Conference on Travel Behavior Research, Jaipur, India (December 13–18, 2009a). Broach, J., Gliebe, J., and Dill, J., Development of a Multi-class Bicyclist Route Choice Model Using Revealed Preference Data. PowerPoint presentation, Session S27, 12th International Conference on Travel Behavior Research, Jaipur, India (December 13–18, 2009b). Brög, W., and Barta, F., “National Demonstration Project (FTA): Individualized Marketing Demons- tration Program.” TRB 86th Annual Meeting Compendium of Papers CD-ROM. Washington, DC (January 21–25, 2007). Brög, W., and Ker, I., “Myths, (Mis)perceptions and Reality in Measuring Voluntary Behavior Change.” Workshop on Surveys for Behavioural Experiments. Resource Paper, 8th International Conference on Survey Methods in Transport. Annecy, France (May 25–31, 2008). Brög, W., Erl, E., Ker, I., Ryle, J., and Wall, R., “Evaluation of voluntary travel behaviour change: Experiences from three continents.” Transport Policy, Vol. 16, Issue 6 (2009). Bruce, P., 2002 Minneapolis Downtown Pedestrian Count and Analysis. Report and Work Files. Prepared by Community Enhancement/Pedestrian Studies, Minneapolis, MN [2002a]. Bruce, P., 2002 Pedestrian Traffic Count in Downtown Minneapolis Public Ramp Areas. Prepared for Minneapolis Public Works Transportation Section by Community Enhancement & Organizing, Minneapolis, MN (July, 2002b). Bruce, P., Community Enhancement/Pedestrian Studies/www.pedestrianstudies.com, email to the Handbook authors with attached map, “2007 Downtown Minneapolis Count Project—Skyway Level Daily Volumes—2002–2007 percent change” [redacted version] (July 27, 2009). Bruce, P., Nicollet Mall Pedestrian Count—September 2002 Daily Volumes. Report and Work Files. Prepared by Community Enhancement/Pedestrian Studies, Minneapolis, MN [2002c]. 16-446

Bruce, P., “Special Conditions Should Not Be Hidden on Data Record.” Pedestrian Studies News, Issue 12, Community Enhancement and Organizing, Minneapolis, MN (Summer, 2004a). Bruce, P., “Sporting Event Impacts Around an Entertainment Center.” Pedestrian Studies News, Issue 11, Community Enhancement and Organizing, Minneapolis, MN (March, 2004b). Buehler, T., and Handy, S., “Fifty years of bicycle policy in Davis, California.” Transportation Research Record 2074 (2008). Buehler, H., and Pucher, J., “Impacts of Bike Paths and Lanes on Cycling in Large American Cities.” TRB 90th Annual Meeting Compendium of Papers DVD. Washington, DC (January 23–27, 2011). Burbidge, S. K., and Goulias, K. G., “Evaluating the Impact of Neighborhood Trail Development on Active Travel Behavior and Overall Physical Activity of Suburban Residents.” Transportation Research Record 2135 (2009). Bureau of Transportation Statistics, “Highlights of the 2001 National Household Travel Survey.” U.S. Department of Transportation, Washington, DC, http://www.bts.gov/publications/high lights_of_the_2001_national_household_travel_survey/ (2003a). Bureau of Transportation Statistics, “Omnibus Household Survey Results April 2003.” Washington, DC (April, 2003b). Bureau of Transportation Statistics, OmniStats. Vol. 2, Issues 6 and 8, Washington, DC (December, 2002). Burgess, D. F., and Zerbe, R. O., “Appropriate Discounting for Benefit-Cost Analysis.” Journal of Benefit- Cost Analysis, Vol. 2, Issue 2, Article 2 (2011). Burnier, C. V., Pedestrian-Vehicular Crashes: The Influence of Personal and Environmental Factors. Masters Thesis. University of Maryland, College Park, MD. http://drum.lib.umd.edu/bitstream/1903/2551/ 1/umi-umd-2435.pdf (2005). Caltrain Bicycle Master Plan Technical Advisory Group, Agenda with Attachment: “2007 Caltrain Online Bicycle Survey: Selected Preliminary Results.” http://bikesiliconvalley.org/files/documents/ caltrain/july112007-agendadocs.pdf (July 11, 2007). Calvert, S., “For Howard Street, it’s been rough road.” Baltimore Sun, Baltimore, Maryland, (July 29, 2001). Cambridge Community Development, The Department of, “Safety Benefits of Bike Lanes.” Cambridge, Massachusetts. http://www2.cambridgema.gov/cdd/et/bike/bike_safety.html (Webpages accessed August 2, 2011). Cambridge Systematics, Inc., Parsons Brinckerhoff, Mark Bradley Research & Consulting, CCS Planning & Engineering, Inc., Hausrath Economics Group, Hunt Analytics Incorporated, Lawton Consulting, and Corey, Canapary & Galanis, “San Francisco Travel Demand Forecasting Model Development.” Final Report. Prepared for San Francisco County Transportation Authority, San Francisco, CA (2002). Cambridge Systematics, S. H. Putman Associates, and Calthorpe Associates, “Model Modifications.” LUTRAQ Project, Vol. 4, 1000 Friends of Oregon, Portland, OR (1992). 16-447

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TRB’s Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP) Report 95: Traveler Response to Transportation System Changes Handbook, Third Edition; Chapter 16, Pedestrian and Bicycle Facilities examines pedestrian and bicyclist behavior and travel demand outcomes in a relatively broad sense.

The report covers traveler response to non-motorized transportation (NMT) facilities both in isolation and as part of the total urban fabric, along with the effects of associated programs and promotion. The report looks not only at transportation outcomes, but also recreational and public health outcomes.

TCRP Report 95, Chapter 16 focuses on the travel behavior and public health implications of pedestrian/bicycle area-wide systems; NMT-link facilities such as sidewalks, bicycle lanes, and on-transit accommodation of bicycles; and node-specific facilities such as street-crossing treatments, bicycle parking, and showers.

The report also includes discussion of the implications of pedestrian and bicycle “friendly” neighborhoods, policies, programs, and promotion.

The report is complemented by illustrative photographs provided as a “Photo Gallery” at the conclusion of the report. In addition, PowerPoint slides of the photographs are available for download..

The Traveler Response to Transportation System Changes Handbook consists of these Chapter 1 introductory materials and 15 stand-alone published topic area chapters. Each topic area chapter provides traveler response findings including supportive information and interpretation, and also includes case studies and a bibliography consisting of the references utilized as sources.

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