National Academies Press: OpenBook
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2012. Track Design Handbook for Light Rail Transit, Second Edition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22800.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2012. Track Design Handbook for Light Rail Transit, Second Edition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22800.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2012. Track Design Handbook for Light Rail Transit, Second Edition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22800.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2012. Track Design Handbook for Light Rail Transit, Second Edition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22800.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2012. Track Design Handbook for Light Rail Transit, Second Edition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22800.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2012. Track Design Handbook for Light Rail Transit, Second Edition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22800.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2012. Track Design Handbook for Light Rail Transit, Second Edition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22800.
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T R A N S I T C O O P E R A T I V E R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M TCRP REPORT 155 TRANSPORTAT ION RESEARCH BOARD WASHINGTON, D.C. 2012 www.TRB.org Research sponsored by the Federal Transit Administration in cooperation with the Transit Development Corporation Subscriber Categories Public Transportation • Railroads Track Design Handbook for Light Rail Transit Second Edition Parsons Brinckerhoff, inc. Washington, DC i n a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h Metro tech consulting services, engineering & architecture, P.c. New York, NY track guy consultants Canonsburg, PA Wilson, ihrig & associates, inc. Emeryville, CA

TCRP REPORT 155 Project D-14 ISSN 1073-4872 ISBN 978-0-309-25824-1 Library of Congress Control Number 2012940282 © 2012 National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. COPYRIGHT INFORMATION Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously published or copyrighted material used herein. Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permission is given with the understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB, AASHTO, FAA, FHWA, FMCSA, FTA, or Transit Development Corporation endorsement of a particular product, method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the material in this document for educational and not-for-profit uses will give appropriate acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of the material, request permission from CRP. NOTICE The project that is the subject of this report was a part of the Transit Cooperative Research Program, conducted by the Transportation Research Board with the approval of the Governing Board of the National Research Council. The members of the technical panel selected to monitor this project and to review this report were chosen for their special competencies and with regard for appropriate balance. The report was reviewed by the technical panel and accepted for publication according to procedures established and overseen by the Transportation Research Board and approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council. The opinions and conclusions expressed or implied in this report are those of the researchers who performed the research and are not necessarily those of the Transportation Research Board, the National Research Council, or the program sponsors. The Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, the National Research Council, and the sponsors of the Transit Cooperative Research Program do not endorse products or manufacturers. Trade or manufacturers’ names appear herein solely because they are considered essential to the object of the report. TRANSIT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM The nation’s growth and the need to meet mobility, environmental, and energy objectives place demands on public transit systems. Current systems, some of which are old and in need of upgrading, must expand service area, increase service frequency, and improve efficiency to serve these demands. Research is necessary to solve operating problems, to adapt appropriate new technologies from other industries, and to intro- duce innovations into the transit industry. The Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP) serves as one of the principal means by which the transit industry can develop innovative near-term solutions to meet demands placed on it. The need for TCRP was originally identified in TRB Special Report 213—Research for Public Transit: New Directions, published in 1987 and based on a study sponsored by the Urban Mass Transportation Administration—now the Federal Transit Admin istration (FTA). A report by the American Public Transportation Association (APTA), Transportation 2000, also recognized the need for local, problem- solving research. TCRP, modeled after the longstanding and success- ful National Cooperative Highway Research Program, undertakes research and other technical activities in response to the needs of tran- sit service providers. The scope of TCRP includes a variety of transit research fields including planning, service configuration, equipment, facilities, operations, human resources, maintenance, policy, and administrative practices. TCRP was established under FTA sponsorship in July 1992. Pro- posed by the U.S. Department of Transportation, TCRP was autho- rized as part of the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991 (ISTEA). On May 13, 1992, a memorandum agreement out- lining TCRP operating procedures was executed by the three cooper- ating organizations: FTA, the National Academies, acting through the Transportation Research Board (TRB); and the Transit Development Corporation, Inc. (TDC), a nonprofit educational and research orga- nization established by APTA. TDC is responsible for forming the independent governing board, designated as the TCRP Oversight and Project Selection (TOPS) Committee. Research problem statements for TCRP are solicited periodically but may be submitted to TRB by anyone at any time. It is the responsibility of the TOPS Committee to formulate the research program by identi- fying the highest priority projects. As part of the evaluation, the TOPS Committee defines funding levels and expected products. Once selected, each project is assigned to an expert panel, appointed by the Transportation Research Board. The panels prepare project state- ments (requests for proposals), select contractors, and provide techni- cal guidance and counsel throughout the life of the project. The process for developing research problem statements and selecting research agencies has been used by TRB in managing cooperative research pro- grams since 1962. As in other TRB activ ities, TCRP project panels serve voluntarily without com pensation. Because research cannot have the desired impact if products fail to reach the intended audience, special emphasis is placed on dissemi- nating TCRP results to the intended end users of the research: tran- sit agencies, service providers, and suppliers. TRB provides a series of research reports, syntheses of transit practice, and other support- ing material developed by TCRP research. APTA will arrange for workshops, training aids, field visits, and other activities to ensure that results are implemented by urban and rural transit industry practitioners. The TCRP provides a forum where transit agencies can cooperatively address common operational problems. The TCRP results support and complement other ongoing transit research and training programs. Published reports of the TRANSIT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM are available from: Transportation Research Board Business Office 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 and can be ordered through the Internet at http://www.national-academies.org/trb/bookstore Printed in the United States of America

The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. On the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Charles M. Vest is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, on its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. Charles M. Vest are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. The Transportation Research Board is one of six major divisions of the National Research Council. The mission of the Transporta- tion Research Board is to provide leadership in transportation innovation and progress through research and information exchange, conducted within a setting that is objective, interdisciplinary, and multimodal. The Board’s varied activities annually engage about 7,000 engineers, scientists, and other transportation researchers and practitioners from the public and private sectors and academia, all of whom contribute their expertise in the public interest. The program is supported by state transportation departments, federal agencies including the component administrations of the U.S. Department of Transportation, and other organizations and individu- als interested in the development of transportation. www.TRB.org www.national-academies.org

C O O P E R A T I V E R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M S CRP STAFF FOR TCRP REPORT 155 Christopher W. Jenks, Director, Cooperative Research Programs Crawford F. Jencks, Deputy Director, Cooperative Research Programs Stephan A. Parker, Senior Program Officer Megha Khadka, Senior Program Assistant Eileen P. Delaney, Director of Publications Ellen M. Chafee, Editor TCRP PROJECT D-14 PANEL Field of Engineering of Fixed Facilities Charles L. Stanford, North Olmsted, OH (Chair) David N. Bilow, Skokie, IL Arthur J. Keffler, Leesburg, VA Kenneth J. Kirse, Tri-County Metropolitan Transportation District, Portland, OR Dingqing Li, Transportation Technology Center, Inc., Pueblo, CO Eric Madison, District of Columbia DOT, Washington, DC Najmedin Meshkati, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA William H. Moorhead, TRAMMCO, LLC, Smithfield, VA David F. Peterson, AECOM, Fortitude Valley, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia Jessica Shaw, FTA Liaison Martin Schroeder, APTA Liaison Peter Shaw, TRB Liaison Jennifer Rosales, TRB Liaison Ann Purdue, TRB Liaison

F O R E W O R D TCRP Report 155: Track Design Handbook for Light Rail Transit, Second Edition provides guidelines and descriptions for the design of various common types of light rail transit (LRT) track. The track structure types include ballasted track, direct fixation (“ballastless”) track, and embedded track. The components of the various track types are discussed in detail. The guidelines consider the characteristics and interfaces of vehicle wheels and rail, tracks and wheel gauges, rail sections, alignments, speeds, and track moduli. The Hand- book includes chapters on vehicles, alignment, track structures, track components, special trackwork, aerial structures/bridges, corrosion control, noise and vibration, signals, traction power, and the integration of LRT track into urban streets. These chapters provide insight into other systems that impact the track design and require interface coordination. In addition, the Handbook includes chapters on the construction and maintenance of LRT trackwork. This Handbook will be of interest to designers, operators, manufacturers, and those maintaining LRT systems. In the research effort led by Parsons Brinckerhoff, Inc., the research team collected over 500 documents related to the topic through literature searches and contacts with professional colleagues, agencies, and the industry. The collected information was uploaded to a project collaboration website. Site visits were made to the San Francisco Municipal Railway and the two LRT systems in Germany. In addition, numerous contacts were made by phone or e-mail with operating agency LRT personnel. The primary focus of the first phase of work was to identify opportunities to improve on the first edition of the Handbook (published in 2000 as TCRP Report 57), collect and analyze information addressing those opportunities, and identify an action plan for the revised Handbook. The second phase was concerned with the production of the revised Handbook, incorporating the findings of the first phase and including such additional investigations as might be required, plus the production of a final report documenting all efforts. This Handbook and a PowerPoint presentation describing the entire project are available on the TRB website at http://www.trb.org/Main/Blurbs/166970.aspx. By Stephan A. Parker Staff Officer Transportation Research Board

AUTHOR ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The research for and development of the Track Design Handbook for Light Rail Transit, Second Edition, was performed under TCRP Project D-14 by a team including PB Americas, Inc. (also known as Parsons Brinckerhoff or PB), Wilson, Ihrig & Associates, Inc. (WIA), Metro Tech Consulting Services, Engineer- ing & Architecture, P.C. (MT), and Track Guy Consultants (TGC). Parsons Brinckerhoff was the prime contractor and Lawrence G. Lovejoy, P.E., was the principal investigator. Subcontractor responsibilities included the following: • Vehicle issues were addressed by Metro Tech. • Noise and vibration investigations were done by Wilson, Ihrig & Associates. • LRT track construction and maintenance topics were addressed by Track Guy Consultants. While all members of the team contributed to virtually all of the individual chapters, the principal and secondary authors of each of the Handbook chapters (and their affiliations) were as follows: Chapter 1 General Introduction: Lawrence G. Lovejoy, P.E. (PB) Chapter 2 Light Rail Transit Vehicles: Stelian Canjea (MT) and Lawrence G. Lovejoy, P.E. Chapter 3 Light Rail Transit Track Geometry: Lawrence G. Lovejoy, P.E., and Gordon W. Martyn (PB) Chapter 4 Track Structure Design: Gordon W. Martyn, Thomas R. Carroll, P.E., and Lawrence G. Lovejoy, P.E. Chapter 5 Track Components and Materials: Gordon W. Martyn and Lawrence G. Lovejoy, P.E. Chapter 6 Special Trackwork: Lawrence G. Lovejoy, P.E., and Gordon W. Martyn Chapter 7 Structures and Bridges: David A. Charters, P.E. (PB) and Jason Doughty, P.E. (PB) Chapter 8 Corrosion Control: Geradino A. Pete, P.E. (PB), Herbert S. Zwilling, P.E. (PB), and Lawrence G. Lovejoy, P.E. Chapter 9 Noise and Vibration Control: James T. Nelson, P.E. (WIA) Chapter 10 Transit Signal Work: Harvey Glickenstein, P.E. (PB), Gary E. Milanowski, P.E. (PB), Thomas R. Carroll, P.E., and Lawrence G. Lovejoy, P.E. Chapter 11 Transit Traction Power: Herbert S. Zwilling, P.E., and Lawrence G. Lovejoy, P.E. Chapter 12 LRT Track in Mixed Traffic: Jack W. Boorse, P.E., P.L.S. (PB), and Lawrence G. Lovejoy, P.E Chapter 13 LRT Track Construction: John Zuspan (TGC) and Lawrence G. Lovejoy, P.E. Chapter 14 LRT Track and Trackway Maintenance: John Zuspan and Lawrence G. Lovejoy, P.E. Technical editing of all chapters was performed by Lawrence G. Lovejoy, P.E. The authors of this second edition would be remiss if we did not recognize the extensive work per- formed by the team that wrote TCRP Report 57, the first edition of the Track Design Handbook for Light Rail Transit, which was also prepared by Parsons Brinckerhoff under TCRP Project D-6 and published in 2000. Those persons included, in addition to many of the gentlemen named above, Eugene G. Allen, Harold B. Henderson, Theodore C. Blaschke, Lee Roy Padgett, Kenneth J. Moody, Kenneth Addison, Laurence E. Daniels, Alan C. Boone, and Charles G. Mendell.

C O N T E N T S 1-1 Chapter 1 General Introduction 2-1 Chapter 2 Light Rail Transit Vehicles 3-1 Chapter 3 Light Rail Transit Track Geometry 4-1 Chapter 4 Track Structure Design 5-1 Chapter 5 Track Components and Materials 6-1 Chapter 6 Special Trackwork 7-1 Chapter 7 Structures and Bridges 8-1 Chapter 8 Corrosion Control 9-1 Chapter 9 Noise and Vibration Control 10-1 Chapter 10 Transit Signal Work 11-1 Chapter 11 Transit Traction Power 12-1 Chapter 12 LRT Track in Mixed Traffic 13-1 Chapter 13 LRT Track Construction 14-1 Chapter 14 LRT Track and Trackway Maintenance

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TRB’s Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP) Report 155: Track Design Handbook for Light Rail Transit, Second Edition provides guidelines and descriptions for the design of various common types of light rail transit (LRT) track.

The track structure types include ballasted track, direct fixation (“ballastless”) track, and embedded track.

The report considers the characteristics and interfaces of vehicle wheels and rail, tracks and wheel gauges, rail sections, alignments, speeds, and track moduli.

The report includes chapters on vehicles, alignment, track structures, track components, special track work, aerial structures/bridges, corrosion control, noise and vibration, signals, traction power, and the integration of LRT track into urban streets.

A PowerPoint presentation describing the entire project is available online.

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