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N a t i o N a l c o o p e r a t i v e H i g H w a y r e s e a r c H p r o g r a m NcHrp REpORt 710 Practical Approaches for Involving Traditionally Underserved Populations in Transportation Decisionmaking David Aimen The Louis Berger group, inc. New York, NY Anne Morris ATkins Columbia, SC TRANSPORTAT ION RESEARCH BOARD Washington, D.C. 2012 www.tRB.org Subscriber Categories society Research sponsored by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials in cooperation with the Federal Highway Administration
NATIONAl COOPERATIVE HIgHwAy RESEARCH PROgRAM Systematic, well-designed research provides the most effective approach to the solution of many problems facing highway administrators and engineers. Often, highway problems are of local interest and can best be studied by highway departments individually or in cooperation with their state universities and others. However, the accelerating growth of highway transportation develops increas- ingly complex problems of wide interest to highway authorities. These problems are best studied through a coordinated program of cooperative research. In recognition of these needs, the highway administrators of the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials initiated in 1962 an objective national highway research program employing modern scientific techniques. This program is supported on a continuing basis by funds from participating member states of the Association and it receives the full cooperation and support of the Federal Highway Administration, United States Department of Transportation. The Transportation Research Board of the National Academies was requested by the Association to administer the research program because of the Boardâs recognized objectivity and understanding of modern research practices. The Board is uniquely suited for this purpose as it maintains an extensive committee structure from which authorities on any highway transportation subject may be drawn; it possesses avenues of communications and cooperation with federal, state and local governmental agencies, universities, and industry; its relationship to the National Research Council is an insurance of objectivity; it maintains a full-time research correlation staff of specialists in highway transportation matters to bring the findings of research directly to those who are in a position to use them. The program is developed on the basis of research needs identified by chief administrators of the highway and transportation departments and by committees of AASHTO. Each year, specific areas of research needs to be included in the program are proposed to the National Research Council and the Board by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials. Research projects to fulfill these needs are defined by the Board, and qualified research agencies are selected from those that have submitted proposals. Administration and surveillance of research contracts are the responsibilities of the National Research Council and the Transportation Research Board. The needs for highway research are many, and the National Cooperative Highway Research Program can make significant contributions to the solution of highway transportation problems of mutual concern to many responsible groups. The program, however, is intended to complement rather than to substitute for or duplicate other highway research programs. Published reports of the NATIONAl COOPERATIVE HIgHwAy RESEARCH PROgRAM are available from: Transportation Research Board Business Office 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 and can be ordered through the Internet at: http://www.national-academies.org/trb/bookstore Printed in the United States of America NCHRP REPORT 710 Project 8-72 ISSN 0077-5614 ISBN 978-0-309-21390-5 Library of Congress Control Number 2012932150 Â© 2012 National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. COPyRIgHT INfORMATION Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously published or copyrighted material used herein. Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permission is given with the un- derstanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB, AASHTO, FAA, FHWA, FMCSA, FTA, or Transit Development Corporation endorsement of a particular product, method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the material in this document for educational and not-for-profit uses will give appropriate acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of the material, request permission from CRP. NOTICE The project that is the subject of this report was a part of the National Cooperative Highway Research Program, conducted by the Transportation Research Board with the approval of the Governing Board of the National Research Council. The members of the technical panel selected to monitor this project and to review this report were chosen for their special competencies and with regard for appropriate balance. The report was reviewed by the technical panel and accepted for publication according to procedures established and overseen by the Transportation Research Board and approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council. The opinions and conclusions expressed or implied in this report are those of the researchers who performed the research and are not necessarily those of the Transportation Research Board, the National Research Council, or the program sponsors. The Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, the National Research Council, and the sponsors of the National Cooperative Highway Research Program do not endorse products or manufacturers. Trade or manufacturersâ names appear herein solely because they are considered essential to the object of the report.
The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. On the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Charles M. Vest is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, on its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academyâs purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. Charles M. Vest are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. The Transportation Research Board is one of six major divisions of the National Research Council. The mission of the Transporta- tion Research Board is to provide leadership in transportation innovation and progress through research and information exchange, conducted within a setting that is objective, interdisciplinary, and multimodal. The Boardâs varied activities annually engage about 7,000 engineers, scientists, and other transportation researchers and practitioners from the public and private sectors and academia, all of whom contribute their expertise in the public interest. The program is supported by state transportation departments, federal agencies including the component administrations of the U.S. Department of Transportation, and other organizations and individu- als interested in the development of transportation. www.TRB.org www.national-academies.org
CRP STAff fOR NCHRP REPORT 710 Christopher W. Jenks, Director, Cooperative Research Programs Crawford F. Jencks, Deputy Director, Cooperative Research Programs Lori L. Sundstrom, Senior Program Officer Megan Chamberlain, Senior Program Assistant Eileen P. Delaney, Director of Publications Scott E. Hitchcock, Editor NCHRP PROJECT 8-72 PANEl Area of transportation planningâField of Forecasting Gregory P. King, Parsons Transportation Group, San Francisco, CA (Chair) Donna Lynn Brown, Wisconsin DOT, Milwaukee, WI Judith B. Dovers, Atlanta Regional Commission, Atlanta, GA Robert A. âDrewâ Joyner, North Carolina DOT, Raleigh, NC Kathleen G. McKinney, PRR, Olympia, WA Elizabeth âLibbyâ Rushley, Ohio DOT, Columbus, OH Yvonne M. Vallette, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Portland, OR Brian Betlyon, FHWA Liaison Martine A. Micozzi, TRB Liaison AUTHOR ACKNOwlEDgMENTS The research reported herein was performed under National Cooperative Highway Research Program Project 08-72, âPractical Approaches for Involving Traditionally Underserved Populations in Transporta- tion Decisionmaking.â The project team was led by David Aimen (Principal Investigator), currently with the Voorhees Transportation Center at the Edward J. Bloustein School of Planning and Public Policy, Rutgers University, and Anne Morris of Atkins (Co-Principal Investigator). Major research contributions were provided by Leah Flax and Dara Braitman of The Louis Berger Group; Jacquelyne Grimshaw and Edward Oser, Center for Neighborhood Technology; Glenn Robinson, Morgan State University; Thomas Sanchez, Virginia Tech; Beverly Ward, BGW Associates; Linda Ximenes, Ximenes Associates; and Paul Brockington and Don Klima of Brockington Associates. The Louis Berger Group was the prime contractor for this study. The authors would also like to acknowledge all the individuals who participated in interviews or who worked with the project team in providing their valuable observations and examples of effective prac- tices and techniques. During the course of the research, the authors received valuable participation from Departments of Transportation, Metropolitan Planning Organizations, Transit Agencies, regional and local governments, universities, consulting firms, and a variety of organizations from the nonprofit sector, including advocacy-, community-, faith-, and social serviceâbased organizations. We greatly appreciate the willingness of all of these stakeholders to share their time and insights. Finally, the contribution and guidance of the NCHRP Panel must be acknowledged. This work could not have been completed without their passion for the topic, their valuable experience in the field, and their diligence in providing quality review and comments throughout the study. c o o p e r a t i v e r e s e a r c h p r o g r a m s
This report provides state departments of transportation (DOTs), metropolitan planning organizations (MPOs), and other transportation agencies with a rich source of practical and effective tools, techniques, and approaches for identifying and connecting with populations that have traditionally been underserved and underrepresented in transportation decision- making. The report is organized in an easy-to-use format that gives transportation agency staff responsible for developing and maintaining community relationshipsâfor one project or on a continuous basisâproven tools, techniques, and approaches to be successful. This report should be of immediate use to transportation professionals who manage, develop, or implement public involvement activities for a transportation agency. State DOTs, MPOs, and other transportation agencies implement a variety of approaches designed to meet both the spirit and the letter of Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and Executive Orders 12898, âFederal Actions to Address Environmental Justice in Minor- ity Populations and Low-Income Populationsâ and 13166, âImproving Access to Services for Persons with Limited English Proficiency.â In response to a growing awareness that the demographics of this countryâs population have changed dramatically since the early 1950s when public involvement was first required on federal projects, a number of resources have recently been published that provide guidance and practical advice to transporta- tion agencies on how to implement Title VI and Presidential Executive Orders 12898 and 13166. These include How to Engage Low-Literacy and Limited-English-Proficiency Popula- tions in Transportation Decisionmaking and Transportation and Environmental Justice: Case Studies, published by FHWA. These technical resources and others have cautioned that traditional public involvement techniques may fall short of establishing meaningful oppor- tunities for traditionally underserved populations to participate in decisionmaking about a proposed transportation activity that will affect their environment, safety, or health. Under NCHRP Project 08-72, the Louis Berger Group was asked to build upon these existing resources, update and capture new and innovative techniques and approaches being used within the transportation industry and in other industries, and to develop a compendium of practical and easy-to-use best practices that practitioners can use to involve traditionally underserved populations, particularly minority, low-income, limited English proficiency, and low-literacy groups, in transportation decisionmaking. There is no âone- size-fits-allâ strategy but rather a continuum of approaches that can be taken or customized to reach different communities or that are particularly appropriate for a specific stage of transportation decisionmaking. Relevant new practices and/or new applications of existing public involvement practices are documented and emerging demographic and commu- nications trends and their implications for transportation decisionmaking are discussed. f o r e w o r d By Lori L. sundstrom staff officer transportation Research Board
Abbreviated case studies provide examples of how each tool, technique, or practice has been successfully used. Transportation agencies are increasingly recognizing the value of professional pub- lic involvement expertise, whether obtained from consultants or agency staff. The report should serve as a significant resource to public involvement professionals as well as to trans- portation planners, engineers, and project managers who are responsible for ensuring that public involvement activities are meaningful, effective, and efficient and of relevance to traditionally underserved populations.
S-1 summary 1-1 Chapter 1 introduction 1-1 Purpose of Guidebook 1-3 Organization of Guidebook 1-5 The Historical Mission and Its Consequences 1-7 Landmark Legislation: Opening Transportation Decision-making Processes 1-8 Environmental Legislation and Policy under the NEPA Umbrella 1-10 U.S. Civil Rights Laws and Policy 1-13 Major Transportation Legislation and Supporting Policy Guidance 1-15 No Guarantee That Public Involvement Will Foster Meaningful Involvement 1-16 What Is Meaningful Involvement? 1-18 Barriers to Achieving Meaningful Involvement 1-19 Cultural Competency to Bridge the Social and Cultural Gaps 1-23 Concluding Observations: State of the Practice Review/Need for Guidebook 2-1 Chapter 2 Patterns, trends, and Factors Driving Change 2-2 U.S. Population Size and Growth Trends 2-5 Minority, Race, and Hispanic Population Patterns 2-8 Poverty and Low-Income Persons 2-9 Who Are the Poor? 2-11 Location of the Poor 2-11 Foreign-Born Residents 2-13 Destinations for Foreign-Born Populations Are Changing 2-20 Refugees and Asylum Seekers 2-21 Limited English Proficiency 2-24 Persons with Disabilities 2-27 Means of Transportation and Zero-Car Households 2-30 Senior Population and the Graying Baby Boomers 2-32 Low Literacy 2-33 Divide in Access and Use of Technology 2-39 Transportation Costâs Rising Share of Household Budget 2-41 Population Growth Projections and the MajorityâMinority âTipping Pointâ 2-43 Preparing for Change, Holding to Core Values 3-1 Chapter 3 Practical approaches 3-3 Identify Populations 3-4 Develop Social and Economic Profile 3-4 Define the Project and Study Area 3-5 Utilize GIS to Engage Communities 3-6 Conduct a Community Characteristics Inventory 3-8 Identify âAffected Populationsâ Using a Community Attribute Index c o n t e n t s
3-9 Implement Public Involvement Plan 3-9 Upfront Site Visits to Establish Scope of PIP 3-10 Develop and Maintain Community Contacts Database 3-10 Prepare a Limited English Proficiency (LEP) Plan 3-12 Use âI Speakâ Cards to Ensure Communications with LEP Populations 3-12 Offer Assistance for Hearing Impaired 3-14 Offer Assistance for Sight Impaired 3-15 Offer Assistance for Low-Literacy Populations 3-15 Treat People Courteously and Respectfully 3-16 Assess Public Involvement Plan (PIP) Effectiveness 3-18 Offer Refreshments 3-18 Brand Project through Clothing and Other Paraphernalia 3-20 Provide Information 3-20 Use Videos to Convey Information 3-21 Distribute Flyers 3-21 Advertise on Billboards, Marquees, and Variable Message Signs 3-23 Publicize through Local and Ethnic Media Outlets 3-24 Employ Visualization Techniques 3-26 Conduct Periodic Field Visits 3-28 Gather Feedback 3-28 Conduct Outreach at Nontraditional Locations 3-28 Go to âTheirâ Meetings 3-30 Go to the Schools 3-31 Go to the Faith-Based Institutions 3-32 Apply Social and New Media Appropriately 3-33 Conduct Market Research Interviews and Focus Groups 3-35 Undertake Surveys to Understand Needs, Preferences, and Impacts 3-36 Try âMeeting-in-a-Boxâ 3-37 Use Computer-Assisted Technologies to Explore Preferences 3-38 Use Games to Educate and Explore Priorities 3-39 Build Relationships 3-40 Form Advisory Boards, Committees, Taskforces, and Working Groups 3-41 Foster Understanding of Communities through Relationships with Community Organizations and Other Local Experts 3-42 Recruit and Mobilize Community Ambassadors, âBeacons,â or âTrusted Advocatesâ 3-43 Provide Technical Training to Citizen Groups 3-45 Mitigate Impacts/Deliver Benefits 3-45 Develop Mitigation Strategies 3-47 Provide a Citizen-Driven Community Enhancement Fund 3-48 Recognize Community Benefits Agreements 3-48 Create Transportation Planning Grant Programs to Support Environmental Justice and Community-Based Planning 3-50 Implement Safe Routes to Schools Programs 3-51 Develop Solutions for High Risk Pedestrian Crossings 3-52 Conduct a Health Impact Assessment 3-55 Monitor Health and Environmental Impacts 3-56 Overcome Institutional Barriers 3-57 Train Community Members to Be Transportation Leaders 3-57 Establish Public Involvement Training Programs
3-58 Establish Cultural Competency Training Programs 3-59 Develop Community Hiring Program 3-59 Commit to On-the-Job Training and Workforce Development Programs 3-60 Institute an Internship Program 3-61 Serve as a Mentor 3-62 Unbundle Project Contracts 3-62 Implement DBE Programs 4-1 Chapter 4 Effective Practices 4-5 Conducting Focus Groups to Examine Immigrantsâ Needs and Values: Minne- sota Department of Transportation and the University of Minnesota, Urban and Rural Minnesota, Statewide 4-10 Using Convenience Surveys to Sample Hispanic Populations: Coastal Carolina University, Conway, SC 4-14 Demonstrating Commitment to Communication with the Public through Databases and Management Teams: Miami-Dade Metropolitan Planning Organization 4-19 Using âDegrees of Disadvantageâ to Identify âAffected Populationsâ: Delaware Valley Regional Planning Commission 4-26 Identifying âAffected Populationsâ Using a Community Attribute Index: Atlanta, Georgia 4-32 Building Trust through Transparency: Memorial Boulevard, Kingsport, Tennessee 4-38 Using Games to Solicit Priorities in Regional and Statewide Planning: Barren River and Bluegrass Area Development Districts, Kentucky 4-44 Engaging a Wider Public through Community Conversations: Community Planning Association of Southwest Idaho 4-49 Playing Board Games to Educate Decisionmakers about Reservation Road Planning: Lummi Nation, Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA), Northwest Region 4-54 Adjusting the Strategies and Pace of Outreach to Develop Understanding of Community Values: DineâBiiâTah Scenic Road, Navajo Nation, Arizona 4-60 Using Popular Shopping Areas and Phone Trees to Engage Immigrant Commu- nities about Pedestrian Safety: Buford Highway, DeKalb County, Georgia 4-65 Using Student Internet Access to Reach Diverse Populations: Southwest Georgia Interstate Study, Georgia Department of Transportation 4-69 Building Relationships with Service and Transport Providers to Measure Paratransit Needs: Southwest Region Planning Commission, Keene, New Hampshire 4-74 Using a âBeaconâ to Conduct Outreach in Low-Income and Minority Communities: San Antonio, Texas 4-78 Recruiting and Training Community Insiders to Lead Outreach and Engagement Processes: City of Seattle, Washington 4-85 Applying the Framework of Environmental Justice in Transportation Toolkit to Support Community-Based Initiatives: Baltimore, Maryland 4-95 Designing a Tiered-Outreach Approach to Foster Meaningful Involvement: Colorado DOT 4-100 Hiring Local Residents to Conduct Outreach: I-40 Business Public Involvement Project, Winston-Salem, North Carolina 4-105 Establishing a Model Comprehensive Tribal Consultation Process: Washington State Department of Transportation 4-109 Replacing a Community Resource in a Minority Neighborhood through Functional Replacement: Gulfport, Mississippi
4-115 Holding a Student Film Competition to Engage Diverse Youth: Sound Transit, Seattle, Washington 4-120 Training Diverse Leaders for Seats on Boards and Commissions: Boards and Commissions Leadership Institute, Oakland, CA 4-124 Training and Hiring Minority, Low-Income, and Female Workers: The New I-64, St. Louis, Missouri 4-130 Creating Workforce Diversity through Internship Programs: Baltimore, Maryland, Maryland DOT and Morgan State University 4-134 Training Project Managers and Engineers in Public Involvement Principles: Phoenix, AZ, Arizona DOT 4-139 Guaranteeing Mobilization Loans for Disadvantaged Business Enterprises: Wisconsin Department of Transportation 5-1 Chapter 5 tools and techniques 5-10 Develop a Social and Economic Profile 5-14 Define the Project and Study Area 5-17 Utilize GIS to Engage Communities 5-23 Conduct a Community Characteristics Inventory 5-26 Identify âAffected Populationsâ Using a Community Attribute Index 5-29 Upfront Site Visits to Establish Scope of Public Involvement Plan 5-32 Develop and Maintain a Community Contacts Database 5-34 Prepare an LEP Plan 5-38 Use âI Speakâ Cards to Ensure Communications with LEP Populations 5-40 Offer Assistance for Hearing Impaired and Sight Impaired Persons 5-44 Offer Assistance for Low-Literate Persons 5-47 Treat People Courteously and with Respect 5-51 Assess Public Involvement Planâs Effectiveness 5-55 Brand Project through Clothing and Other Paraphernalia 5-57 Offer Refreshments 5-59 Use Videos to Convey Information 5-62 Distribute Flyers 5-65 Advertise on Billboards, Marquees, and Variable Message Signs 5-67 Publicize through Local and Ethnic Media Outlets 5-71 Employ Visualization Techniques 5-74 Recruit and Mobilize âCommunity Ambassadors,â âBeacons,â or âTrusted Advocatesâ 5-77 Provide Technical Training to Citizen Groups 5-81 Conduct Periodic Field Visits 5-83 Conduct Outreach at Nontraditional Locations 5-86 Go to âTheirâ Meetings 5-89 Go to the Schools 5-92 Go to Faith-Based Institutions 5-96 Apply Social and New Media Appropriately 5-99 Conduct Market Research Interviews and Focus Groups 5-102 Undertake Surveys to Understand Needs, Preferences, and Impacts 5-105 Try Meeting-in-a-Box 5-107 Use Computer-Assisted Technologies to Explore Preferences 5-111 Use Games to Educate and Explore Priorities 5-114 Form Advisory Boards, Committees, Taskforces, and Working Groups 5-117 Foster Understanding of Communities through Relationships with Community Organizations and Other Local Experts
5-120 Develop Mitigation Strategies 5-124 Provide a Citizen-Driven Community Enhancement Fund 5-127 Recognize Community Benefits Agreements 5-129 Create Transportation Planning Grant Programs to Support Environmental Justice and Community-Based Planning 5-133 Implement Safe Routes to Schools Programs 5-138 Develop Solutions for High-Risk Pedestrian Crossings 5-142 Conduct a Health Impact Assessment 5-146 Monitor Health and Environmental Impacts 5-150 Train Community Members to Be Transportation Leaders 5-152 Establish Public Involvement Training Programs 5-155 Establish Cultural Competency Training Programs 5-159 Develop Community Hiring Program 5-162 Commit to On-the-Job Training and Workforce Development Programs 5-165 Institute an Internship Program 5-167 Serve as a Mentor 5-169 Unbundle Project Contracts 5-171 Implement DBE Programs 6-1 Chapter 6 Data sources and tools 6-4 ABYZ News Links 6-4 African American Yearbook 6-4 American Community Survey Data 6-5 American FactFinder 6-6 Arab American Yearbook 6-6 Asian American Yearbook 6-7 Black Church Page 6-7 Census Hard to Count 2010 6-8 Census Transportation Planning Package Data 6-9 Disability Statistics 6-10 DiversityData Project 6-10 Eldercare Locator 6-11 Food Stamp Program Map Machine 6-11 GreatSchools, Inc. 6-11 Hispanic Yearbook 6-12 Housing + Transportation Affordability Index 6-13 Kids Count Data Center 6-14 Literacy Information and Communications System (LINCS) 6-14 Melissa Data Nonprofit Organization Lookup 6-15 MetroTrends (Urban Institute) 6-15 Migration Policy InstituteâImmigration Data Hub 6-16 Mobile Home Park Store 6-16 Modern Language Association (MLA) Language Map and Data Center 6-16 National Association for the Advancement of Colored People 6-17 National Black Chamber of Commerce 6-17 National Center for Education Statistics 6-18 National Center for Health Statistics 6-18 National Congress of American Indians 6-19 National Council of La Raza 6-19 National Neighborhood Indicators Partnership 6-20 National School Lunch Program Data
6-20 National Transit-Oriented Development Database 6-21 National Urban League 6-22 OnTheMap 6-23 100 Black Men of America, Inc. 6-23 Public Use Microdata Sample (PUMS) Files 6-24 RadioBlack.Com 6-24 Refugee Council USA 6-25 Salvation Army 6-25 Small Area Income and Poverty Estimates 6-26 Southern Poverty Law Center 6-26 State Handbook and Guide Resources 6-26 U.S. Department of Housing and Urban DevelopmentâLow Rent 6-27 U.S. Department of Labor & Bureau of Labor Statistics 6-27 U.S. Hispanic Chamber of Commerce (USHCC) 6-28 Wal-Mart Store Locator 6-28 Yearbook of Immigration Statistics B-1 Bibliography B-1 Community and Cultural Perspectives B-2 Cultural Competency B-3 Demographic and Cultural Trends and Patterns B-7 Environmental Justice/Title VI, Community Impact Assessment, Health Impact Assessment, and Mitigation B-11 Job Training, Mentoring, and Disadvantaged Business Procurement B-12 Legislation, U.S. Code, Regulations, and Guidance Policies B-13 Planning and Project Development: Context Sensitive Solutions, Bicycle and Pedestrian, and Safe Routes to Schools and Transit B-14 Public Involvement in Decisionmaking B-19 Transportation History B-19 Tribal Transportation and Tribal Consultation I-1 Image Credits Note: Many of the photographs, figures, and tables in this report have been converted from color to grayscale for printing. The electronic version of the report (posted on the Web at www.trb.org) retains the color versions.