National Academies Press: OpenBook
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2010. Enhancing Airport Land Use Compatibility, Volume 1: Land Use Fundamentals and Implementation Resources. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22960.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2010. Enhancing Airport Land Use Compatibility, Volume 1: Land Use Fundamentals and Implementation Resources. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22960.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2010. Enhancing Airport Land Use Compatibility, Volume 1: Land Use Fundamentals and Implementation Resources. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22960.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2010. Enhancing Airport Land Use Compatibility, Volume 1: Land Use Fundamentals and Implementation Resources. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22960.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2010. Enhancing Airport Land Use Compatibility, Volume 1: Land Use Fundamentals and Implementation Resources. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22960.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2010. Enhancing Airport Land Use Compatibility, Volume 1: Land Use Fundamentals and Implementation Resources. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22960.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2010. Enhancing Airport Land Use Compatibility, Volume 1: Land Use Fundamentals and Implementation Resources. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22960.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2010. Enhancing Airport Land Use Compatibility, Volume 1: Land Use Fundamentals and Implementation Resources. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22960.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2010. Enhancing Airport Land Use Compatibility, Volume 1: Land Use Fundamentals and Implementation Resources. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22960.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2010. Enhancing Airport Land Use Compatibility, Volume 1: Land Use Fundamentals and Implementation Resources. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22960.
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A I R P O R T C O O P E R A T I V E R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M Research sponsored by the Federal Aviation Administration Subscriber Categories Aviation and Law TRANSPORTAT ION RESEARCH BOARD WASHINGTON, D.C. 2010 www.TRB.org ACRP REPORT 27 Enhancing Airport Land Use Compatibility Volume 1: Land Use Fundamentals and Implementation Resources Stephanie A.D. Ward Regan A. Massey Adam E. Feldpausch Zachary Puchacz MEAD & HUNT, INC. Lansing, MI Christopher J. Duerksen Erica Heller CLARION ASSOCIATES, INC. Denver, CO Nicholas P. Miller HARRIS MILLER MILLER & HANSON, INC. Burlington, MA Robin C. Gardner HARRIS MILLER MILLER & HANSON, INC. Sacramento, CA Geoffrey D. Gosling AVIATION SYSTEM CONSULTING, LLC Berkeley, CA Sharon Sarmiento UNISON CONSULTING, INC. Laguna Hills, CA Richard W. Lee Berkeley, CA

AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM Airports are vital national resources. They serve a key role in trans- portation of people and goods and in regional, national, and inter- national commerce. They are where the nation’s aviation system connects with other modes of transportation and where federal respon- sibility for managing and regulating air traffic operations intersects with the role of state and local governments that own and operate most airports. Research is necessary to solve common operating problems, to adapt appropriate new technologies from other industries, and to introduce innovations into the airport industry. The Airport Coopera- tive Research Program (ACRP) serves as one of the principal means by which the airport industry can develop innovative near-term solutions to meet demands placed on it. The need for ACRP was identified in TRB Special Report 272: Airport Research Needs: Cooperative Solutions in 2003, based on a study spon- sored by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). The ACRP carries out applied research on problems that are shared by airport operating agencies and are not being adequately addressed by existing federal research programs. It is modeled after the successful National Coopera- tive Highway Research Program and Transit Cooperative Research Pro- gram. The ACRP undertakes research and other technical activities in a variety of airport subject areas, including design, construction, mainte- nance, operations, safety, security, policy, planning, human resources, and administration. The ACRP provides a forum where airport opera- tors can cooperatively address common operational problems. The ACRP was authorized in December 2003 as part of the Vision 100-Century of Aviation Reauthorization Act. The primary partici- pants in the ACRP are (1) an independent governing board, the ACRP Oversight Committee (AOC), appointed by the Secretary of the U.S. Department of Transportation with representation from airport oper- ating agencies, other stakeholders, and relevant industry organizations such as the Airports Council International-North America (ACI-NA), the American Association of Airport Executives (AAAE), the National Association of State Aviation Officials (NASAO), and the Air Transport Association (ATA) as vital links to the airport community; (2) the TRB as program manager and secretariat for the governing board; and (3) the FAA as program sponsor. In October 2005, the FAA executed a contract with the National Academies formally initiating the program. The ACRP benefits from the cooperation and participation of airport professionals, air carriers, shippers, state and local government officials, equipment and service suppliers, other airport users, and research orga- nizations. Each of these participants has different interests and respon- sibilities, and each is an integral part of this cooperative research effort. Research problem statements for the ACRP are solicited periodically but may be submitted to the TRB by anyone at any time. It is the responsibility of the AOC to formulate the research program by iden- tifying the highest priority projects and defining funding levels and expected products. Once selected, each ACRP project is assigned to an expert panel, appointed by the TRB. Panels include experienced practitioners and research specialists; heavy emphasis is placed on including airport pro- fessionals, the intended users of the research products. The panels pre- pare project statements (requests for proposals), select contractors, and provide technical guidance and counsel throughout the life of the project. The process for developing research problem statements and selecting research agencies has been used by TRB in managing cooper- ative research programs since 1962. As in other TRB activities, ACRP project panels serve voluntarily without compensation. Primary emphasis is placed on disseminating ACRP results to the intended end-users of the research: airport operating agencies, service providers, and suppliers. The ACRP produces a series of research reports for use by airport operators, local agencies, the FAA, and other interested parties, and industry associations may arrange for work- shops, training aids, field visits, and other activities to ensure that results are implemented by airport-industry practitioners. ACRP REPORT 27 Project 03-03 ISSN 1935-9802 ISBN 978-0-309-11823-1 Library of Congress Control Number 2010922167 © 2010 National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. COPYRIGHT INFORMATION Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously published or copyrighted material used herein. Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permission is given with the understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB or FAA endorsement of a particular product, method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the material in this document for educational and not-for-profit uses will give appropriate acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of the material, request permission from CRP. NOTICE The project that is the subject of this report was a part of the Airport Cooperative Research Program conducted by the Transportation Research Board with the approval of the Governing Board of the National Research Council. Such approval reflects the Governing Board’s judgment that the project concerned is appropriate with respect to both the purposes and resources of the National Research Council. The members of the technical advisory panel selected to monitor this project and to review this report were chosen for recognized scholarly competence and with due consideration for the balance of disciplines appropriate to the project. The opinions and conclusions expressed or implied are those of the research agency that performed the research, and while they have been accepted as appropriate by the technical panel, they are not necessarily those of the Transportation Research Board, the National Research Council, or the Federal Aviation Administration of the U.S. Department of Transportation. Each report is reviewed and accepted for publication by the technical panel according to procedures established and monitored by the Transportation Research Board Executive Committee and the Governing Board of the National Research Council. The Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, the National Research Council, and the Federal Aviation Administration (sponsor of the Airport Cooperative Research Program) do not endorse products or manufacturers. Trade or manufacturers’ names appear herein solely because they are considered essential to the clarity and completeness of the project reporting. Published reports of the AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM are available from: Transportation Research Board Business Office 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 and can be ordered through the Internet at http://www.national-academies.org/trb/bookstore Printed in the United States of America

CRP STAFF FOR ACRP REPORT 27 Christopher W. Jenks, Director, Cooperative Research Programs Crawford F. Jencks, Deputy Director, Cooperative Research Programs Michael R. Salamone, ACRP Manager Joseph J. Brown-Snell, Program Associate Eileen P. Delaney, Director of Publications Margaret B. Hagood, Editor ACRP PROJECT 03-03 PANEL Field of Policy and Planning Frederick R. Busch, Denver International Airport, Denver, CO (Chair) Mark R. Johnson, Ricondo & Associates, Overland Park, KS Sandra J. Lancaster, Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport, DFW Airport, TX Steven F. Pflaum, McDermott Will & Emery, Chicago, IL Raymond J. Rought, Minnesota DOT, St. Paul, MN Amiy Varma, North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND Patricia A. Friesenhahn, FAA Liaison Ashraf Jan, FAA Liaison Richard Marchi, Airports Council International–North America Liaison Stacy Swigart, Aircraft Owners and Pilots Association Liaison (formerly) Kimberly Fisher, TRB Liaison C O O P E R A T I V E R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M S

ACRP Report 27: Enhancing Airport Land Use Compatibility presents a comprehensive account of issues associated with land uses around airports. The report is a comprehensive resource to both airports and local jurisdictions near airports. Volume 1 provides guidance to help protect airports from incompatible land uses that impair current and future airport and aircraft operations and safety. Volume 2 details 15 case studies that targeted a wide range of airports and land use issues. The case study sites include large commercial service, military, and general aviation airports and were geographically diverse. Volume 2 also offers states and local governments examples and a common basis for establishing zoning that protects the public interest and investment in airports. Volume 3 includes aircraft accident data, a framework for an economic assessment of airport costs, and an annotated bibliog- raphy. Volumes 1 and 2 are printed volumes. Volume 3 is located at www.trb.org. Under ACRP Project 03-03, Mead & Hunt was asked to investigate and present the cur- rent breadth and depth of knowledge surrounding land uses around airports and to develop guidance to protect airports from incompatible land uses that impair current and future air- port and aircraft operations and safety and constrain airport development. The research focused on providing a summary of current information on the topic of compatible land use near airports. Key tasks in this research included collecting published material related to land uses that are incompatible with federal and/or state land use safety standards for air- ports; collecting and evaluating state compatible land use legislation, rules and directives to identify commonality; collecting data on aircraft accident locations in the vicinity of air- ports to establish potential high risk areas; identifying airports where major expansion proj- ects have been delayed or abandoned due to opposition from surrounding communities that arose from a failure to have taken appropriate measures to ensure compatible land uses around those airports; and developing land use compatibility zoning examples incorporat- ing land use and third party risk that state and local governments can use as a basis for their ordinances. F O R E W O R D By Michael R. Salamone Staff Officer Transportation Research Board

xi Preface V O L U M E 1 Land Use Fundamentals and Implementation Resources 1.3 Summary 1.11 Chapter 1 Introduction 1.12 History of Land Use Compatibility 1.14 National Value of Aviation 1.16 Consequences of Incompatible Land Uses 1.18 Consequences and Costs to the Aviation System and Its Users 1.22 Consequences and Costs to People Who Live Near Airports 1.22 Consequences and Costs to Concerned Local and Regional Jurisdictions 1.23 Summary 1.25 Chapter 2 Airport Land Use Compatibility Concerns 1.25 Definition of Compatible Land Use 1.26 Noise-Related Issues 1.27 Safety-Related Issues 1.37 Example Guidance 1.40 Common Land Uses Near Airports 1.41 Residential Activities 1.42 Commercial Activities 1.44 Industrial/Manufacturing Activities 1.46 Institutional Activities 1.46 Infrastructure Activities 1.48 Agriculture and Open Space Activities 1.50 Parks and Recreational Activities 1.51 Summary 1.52 Chapter 3 Roles and Responsibilities of Stakeholders 1.52 Responsibilities for Compatible Land Use Overview 1.52 Federal Stakeholders 1.53 FAA 1.55 Other Federal Agencies 1.57 State Stakeholders 1.57 State Aviation Agencies 1.59 Additional State Agency Stakeholders 1.60 Regional Stakeholders 1.61 Local Stakeholders 1.61 Planning and Zoning Authorities 1.64 Airport Related 1.64 Airport Sponsors C O N T E N T S

1.64 Airport Managers 1.65 Airport Master Plan 1.65 Airport Users and Pilots 1.66 Local Citizens 1.67 Real Estate Interests 1.67 Summary 1.68 Chapter 4 Federal Land Use Regulations and Guidance 1.68 The Doolittle Report 1.74 Primary FAA Criteria Related to Land Use 1.74 Grant Assurances, Airport and Airway Improvements Act of 1982, United States Code (USC), Title 49, Subtitle VII as Amended 1.75 FAA Design Standards 1.77 FAR Part 150, Noise Compatibility Program, CFR Title 14 1.78 FAR Part 77, “Objects Affecting Navigable Airspace” (14 CFR 77) 1.82 Other Airport-Related Surfaces 1.82 Terminal Instrument Flight Procedures (TERPS) 1.82 One-Engine Inoperative (OEI) Obstacle Identification Surface 1.82 Departure Surface for Instrument Runways 1.82 Other Federal Regulations Related to Land Use 1.83 Planning and Design Related Regulations and Policies 1.84 Noise-Related Laws and Policies 1.85 Environmental Related Laws and Policies 1.87 Land Acquisition 1.87 Operational and Management Guidance 1.88 Summary 1.89 Chapter 5 Economic Costs of Airport Land Use Incompatibility 1.89 Economic Valuation 1.90 Economic Valuation Methods 1.91 Limitations of Economic Valuation 1.91 Relevant Economic Values for Evaluating the Costs of Airport Land Use Incompatibility 1.91 Valuation of the Cost of Travel Delays 1.92 Value of Travel Time 1.92 Aircraft Operating Costs 1.93 Value of Statistical Life 1.93 Other Injury Costs 1.95 Aircraft Replacement and Restoration Costs 1.95 Accident Investigation Costs 1.98 Benefit-Cost Analysis 1.98 Official Guidance 1.99 The BCA Process 1.99 Basic Principles and Other Considerations 1.100 Economic Impact Analysis 1.100 Economic Impact Analysis – Modeling Options 1.101 Components and Sources of Airport Economic Impact 1.101 Measures of Economic Impact 1.101 Fiscal Impact Analysis 1.102 Approaches to Fiscal Impact Analysis 1.102 Fiscal Impact Estimation Process

1.103 Limitations of Fiscal Impact Analysis 1.103 Summary 1.104 Chapter 6 Aircraft Noise and Land Use Compatibility 1.104 Definition of Some Noise-Related Terms and Metrics 1.106 Effects of Noise 1.106 Annoyance 1.107 House Vibrations 1.108 Learning 1.108 Nonauditory Health Effects 1.108 Sleep Disturbance 1.109 Evolution of Noise/Land Use Compatibility Guidelines 1.110 Including Noise in a Local Land Use Ordinance 1.113 What Are the Goals of the Airport and of the Surrounding Jurisdictions? 1.113 Choosing Noise and Land Use Compatibility Criteria 1.116 Implementation of the Noise Section 1.117 Summary 1.118 Chapter 7 Aircraft Accidents and Safety Considerations 1.119 Aircraft Accidents 1.121 Aircraft Accident Locations 1.124 Safety Considerations for Those on the Ground Near Airports 1.124 Defining Risk 1.128 Determining Acceptable Risk 1.129 Implications for Risk Assessment 1.130 Analysis of the Risk of Aircraft Accidents to Those on the Ground 1.132 Risk of Fatalities from Unintentional Aircraft Crashes 1.133 Minnesota Airport Land Use Compatibility Manual 1.133 Analysis of Risk to Those on the Ground Near Specific Airports 1.133 UK Public Safety Zone Policy 1.134 Airport Hazard Overlay Zone Analysis for the Town of Hilton Head Island 1.135 NLR Model of External Risk Around Airports 1.135 HNTB Study of Aircraft Accident Risk at Minneapolis– St. Paul International Airport 1.136 Examples of State Guidance on Aircraft Accident Risks and Safety of Those on the Ground 1.136 California 1.140 Minnesota 1.143 Texas 1.143 Washington 1.143 Summary 1.145 Chapter 8 Tools and Techniques for Land Use Compatibility 1.146 Planning and Zoning Techniques 1.150 Comprehensive Plan 1.151 Area Plans 1.151 Joint or Regional Planning and Extraterritorial Zoning 1.152 Airport Land Use Compatibility Plans

1.153 Sample Compatibility Zones 1.163 Airport Master Plan/Airport Layout Plan 1.164 Site Plan and Plat Review 1.165 Deed Restrictions 1.165 Natural Features Techniques 1.166 Wildlife Management Plan 1.168 Natural Features Inventory and Mitigation 1.168 Acquisition and Notification Techniques 1.169 Fee Simple Acquisition 1.171 Avigation and Noise Easements 1.172 Conservation Easement 1.172 Transfer of Development Rights 1.173 Purchase of Development Rights 1.174 Nonsuit Covenants and Hold Harmless Agreements 1.174 Disclosure Notices 1.174 Real Estate Disclosure Notice 1.175 Noise Mitigation Techniques 1.175 Noise Compatibility Program 1.177 Building Codes 1.178 Sound Barriers 1.179 Sound Insulation 1.180 Education and Communication Techniques 1.182 Implementation 1.183 Summary 1.188 Chapter 9 Conclusions 1.188 General Findings for Enhancing Airport Land Use Compatibility 1.190 Airspace-Related Findings 1.190 Noise-Related Findings 1.191 Safety-Related Findings 1.192 Further Research 1.192 Analysis of More Current Accident Data 1.193 Avigation Easements 1.194 Development Density 1.194 Development of a Third-Party Risk Model 1.195 Economic Implications 1.195 Noise Impacts and the 65 DNL Contour 1.196 Public Education/Involvement 1.197 Bibliography A1 Appendix A European Approach To Third-Party Risk Analysis B1 Appendix B Airport Land Use Compatibility Model State Legislation C1 Appendix C Airport Land Use Compatibility Model Local Zoning Ordinance D1 Appendix D Sample Easements E1 Appendix E Non-Suit Covenant F1 Appendix F Hold Harmless Agreement G1 Appendix G Disclosure Statement H1 Appendix H Disclosure to Real Estate Buyer

This document, produced in fulfillment of ACRP Project 03-03: Enhancing Airport Land Use Compatibility, consists of • Volume 1: Land Use Fundamentals and Implementation Resources provides information that helps frame the discussion of land use compatibility; provides the background of why land use compatibility near airports is important; and focuses on the various regulations, tools, and techniques that can be utilized to address land use compatibility issues. • Volume 2: Land Use Survey and Case Study Summaries contains summaries of both the case study survey that was an integral part of the data collection effort, as well as the indi- vidual case study summary reports for the 15 case study sites. • Volume 3: Additional Resources contains some of the resource documents developed to support the information discussed in the first volume. It provides additional detail for those readers who may want to delve deeper into the specific topics of aircraft accident data and third-party risk, as well as the economic methodology for assessing the costs associated with incompatible land uses. An annotated bibliography also is provided which contains approximately 300 entries related to airport land use compatibility Volumes 1 and 2 are printed volumes. Volume 3 is located at www.TRB.org. P R E F A C E

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TRB’s Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Report 27: Enhancing Airport Land Use Compatibility, Volume 1: Land Use Fundamentals and Implementation Resources is part of a three-volume report that explores issues related to land use around airports. Volume 1 provides guidance designed to help protect airports from incompatible land uses that impair current and future airport and aircraft operations and safety.

Volume 2: Land Use Survey and Case Study Summaries includes 15 case studies that targeted a wide range of airports and land use issues. The case study sites include large commercial service, military, and general aviation airports and are geographically diverse. Volume 2 also provides states and local governments with examples and a common basis for establishing zoning that protects the public interest and investment in airports. Volume 3 includes aircraft accident data, a framework for an economic assessment of airport costs, and an annotated bibliography. Volumes 1 and 2 are available in print and online. Volume 3 is only available in electronic format.

Volume 3: Additional Resources is made up of three individual components that collectively contain some of the resource documents developed to support the information explored in Volume 1. Volume 3 includes additional detail on specific topics of aircraft accident data and third party risk, and on the economic methodology for assessing the costs associated with incompatible land uses. Volume 3 also includes an annotated bibliography that contains approximately 300 entries related to airport land use compatibility.

View more information about the September 2, 2010 TRB Webinar: Enhancing Airport Land Use Compatibility, which focuses on Volume 1: Land Use Fundamentals and Implementation Resources.

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