National Academies Press: OpenBook

Maintenance Productivity Practices (2004)

Chapter: CHAPTER THREE - TRANSIT AGENCY PROGRAMS AND ISSUES CASE STUDIES

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Suggested Citation:"CHAPTER THREE - TRANSIT AGENCY PROGRAMS AND ISSUES CASE STUDIES." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2004. Maintenance Productivity Practices. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23049.
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Suggested Citation:"CHAPTER THREE - TRANSIT AGENCY PROGRAMS AND ISSUES CASE STUDIES." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2004. Maintenance Productivity Practices. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23049.
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Suggested Citation:"CHAPTER THREE - TRANSIT AGENCY PROGRAMS AND ISSUES CASE STUDIES." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2004. Maintenance Productivity Practices. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23049.
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Suggested Citation:"CHAPTER THREE - TRANSIT AGENCY PROGRAMS AND ISSUES CASE STUDIES." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2004. Maintenance Productivity Practices. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23049.
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Suggested Citation:"CHAPTER THREE - TRANSIT AGENCY PROGRAMS AND ISSUES CASE STUDIES." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2004. Maintenance Productivity Practices. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23049.
×
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Suggested Citation:"CHAPTER THREE - TRANSIT AGENCY PROGRAMS AND ISSUES CASE STUDIES." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2004. Maintenance Productivity Practices. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23049.
×
Page 33
Page 34
Suggested Citation:"CHAPTER THREE - TRANSIT AGENCY PROGRAMS AND ISSUES CASE STUDIES." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2004. Maintenance Productivity Practices. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23049.
×
Page 34
Page 35
Suggested Citation:"CHAPTER THREE - TRANSIT AGENCY PROGRAMS AND ISSUES CASE STUDIES." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2004. Maintenance Productivity Practices. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23049.
×
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Page 36
Suggested Citation:"CHAPTER THREE - TRANSIT AGENCY PROGRAMS AND ISSUES CASE STUDIES." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2004. Maintenance Productivity Practices. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23049.
×
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18 CHAPTER THREE TRANSIT AGENCY PROGRAMS AND ISSUES—CASE STUDIES This chapter summarizes responses by selected transit agencies to the survey questionnaire for this synthesis. Some properties have moved forward in improving mainte- nance productivity, whereas others have delayed their pro- grams for one reason or another. The systems described in this chapter vary in size, climate, operating conditions, and union affiliation. Some use repair times as a standard, but most use them only as a guide. All of these agencies have widely different PM programs and maintenance repair pro- grams, and all have goals they use to monitor productivity and quality. MILWAUKEE COUNTY TRANSIT SYSTEM Introduction MCTS provides transit services for Milwaukee County, Wisconsin. A private contractor, Milwaukee Transport Ser- vices, Inc., operates the service. It has a fleet of approxi- mately 500 buses. Milwaukee has been establishing formal documented maintenance practices with time standards. Its PM program is based on a 6,000-mi interval. There are three operating locations, one main shop facility for large maintenance work, and a fully equipped paint shop. All maintenance employees are represented by the Amalga- mated Transit Union (ATU). Development of Work Standards Milwaukee has been developing work standards for PM programs and many other repair and rebuild functions, in- cluding SRT, for many years. It uses IE procedures to es- tablish time standards for its process sheets (standard work procedures). The SRT are used only as a guide for the foreper- son monitoring the work, to ensure that the employees are working within an acceptable range. A supervisor will consult with an employee who consistently fails to meet the goal. MCTS has reviewed the SRT provided by the OEM and uses them only as a guide. MCTS prefers to include more detail when developing its standards than does the OEM. MCTS’s PM inspections have been allotted 2 h using two different classifications of mechanics, thereby requir- ing four inspections per day by the two different mechan- ics. Any necessary repair work found during the inspec- tions is assigned to other mechanics, using a work order report. All work is reported on the individual employee’s time card on a job-by-job basis. Job codes have been set up for each job assignment. This information is then trans- ferred to a computer database, where the data can be used to compare the cost of in-house repairs with the cost of work by outside vendors. A recent bus painting program successfully improved productivity by reducing the time to paint by 50%. Paint products and equipment were selected on the basis of cost comparison data provided by com- pleted paint jobs. The program compared job data that in- dicated reduced job time when superior paint products and equipment were used. MCTS has an advantage in that most of its buses are supplied by the same manufacturer and are equipped with similar equipment options. MCTS maintenance personnel use electronic diagnostic equipment to successfully reduce problem identification times. They do not use kits but maintain the parts in stor- age racks located in the component rebuild areas, making it easy to obtain the necessary parts. The mechanic decides when a part is to be reused. The MCTS process sheet pro- vides the information on all other parts that are to be re- placed. MCTS has also developed special tools to assist mechanics in performing their jobs in a safe, cost-effective, and efficient manner. MCTS has been posting its process sheets on the TRB WebBoard under the heading of Process Sheets, which are available to all members of the WebBoard to use as a guide for their own agencies. Productivity Agreement with Labor MCTS is a private company. Its collective bargaining agreement with the local ATU does not have any wording that addresses the use of time standards to be used in per- formance of maintenance work. Monitoring of Productivity and Compliance The supervisor monitors employees working under his or her jurisdiction to verify the quality of work and comple- tion of the assigned work within the appropriate time stan- dards set for the work assigned. Time standards are used as a guide when management is discussing productivity with an employee who has not met these standards. A meeting with management and the employee usually resolves any problems that may have occurred.

19 Road-call mileages are broken down by fleet and sys- tems. Other work processes (time and quality) and goals have been set for each area and are monitored for compli- ance. For example, brake mileage for each fleet, cost per mile by fleet and labor hours, miles traveled per person- hours worked, and fuel economy by fleet are monitored (see Figure 7 for details). METROPOLITAN TRANSPORTATION AUTHORITY NEW YORK CITY TRANSIT Introduction MTA NYCT has documented detailed and formal mainte- nance procedures and practices, which include standard FIGURE 7 MCTS’s cost comparison for brake work.

20 times. MTA NYCT has the largest fleet in North America, with more than 4,800 buses. The buses are maintained in 22 depots and 4 major repair facilities. There are three hourly worker unions and two supervisory unions: ATU Locals 726 and 1056, the Transport Workers Union Local 100, Subway Surface Supervisors Association, and Transit Supervisors Organization, respectively. MTA NYCT em- ployees perform approximately 10,000 different mainte- nance activities, and they have developed a comprehensive strategy for maintenance productivity. Development of Work Standards In the early stages of the program, MTA NYCT used the same system developed in other transportation organiza- tions, which consisted of the application of standards, methods, and procedures to obtain high-quality and effi- cient repairs. MTA NYCT’s strategy involved the develop- ment of SRT for the maintenance procedures unique to MTA NYCT transit vehicles. An internal industrial stan- dards group was created to develop work standards for fre- quently performed maintenance activities with the use of IE procedures and work sampling data. The objective was to provide credible and equitable labor time and standards and procedures for the maintenance work. The result was a controlled list of industrial standards and procedures, along with times required to accomplish given tasks that met the appropriate safety, quality, reliability, functionality, and ap- pearance requirements. MTA NYCT requires OEM SRT in its bus specification requirements on bus orders and uses that information for comparison purposes. The agency also uses data from other transit agencies, bus testing programs, and industry groups, such as APTA and the Technology and Mainte- nance Council of the American Trucking Association. That information is available to all maintenance personnel. MTA NYCT maintenance personnel use electronic di- agnostic equipment to reduce troubleshooting time. MTA NYCT also uses kits/BOMs for most work performed in its overhaul and unit rebuild shops. Kits/BOMs have greatly improved productivity by reducing setup time and waiting time for parts at the storeroom. In the small unit shop, kits/BOMs are provided on a daily basis and delivered to the individual employee’s workbench before the start of his or her shift. The kits/BOMs contain 100% replacement parts and eliminate the need for the employee to sort out and retrieve parts from bins. MTA NYCT has also devel- oped special tools to facilitate safety and efficiency. Productivity Agreement with Labor MTA NYCT successfully negotiated productivity improve- ments with the hourly workers unions in successive con- tracts from 1994 through 1999. Contracts include approval of SRT, a joint committee of union and management to de- velop SRT, an independent expert to resolve any disputed SRT, training provisions for employees not at specific skill levels, methods for reclassifying employees who cannot meet the SRT owing to a lack of mechanical aptitude, ap- proval of OEM flat rate SRT, and adoption of a PIP that in- cludes a bonus for complying with SRT (see Appendix C for more details). Monitoring of Productivity and Compliance MTA NYCT uses electronic databases to track and report time spent to complete tasks. An employee’s supervisor ini- tiates a work order for a given job and then tracks the work performance on that job. Each SRT has a unique code, and the numbering system is common to all directives and bul- letins distributed by MTA NYCT. Compliance is monitored daily by both management and the union. Supervisor pro- ductivity is monitored biweekly in a comprehensive per- formance evaluation. METROPOLITAN TRANSIT AUTHORITY OF HARRIS COUNTY, TEXAS Introduction This agency, known as Houston Metro, operates 1,460 buses. It has six operating facilities (one is operated by a contractor) and one main overhaul shop. Houston Metro has a formal documented maintenance program that uses time standards. The PM program is based on a 3,000-mi in- terval. There is one maintenance employee union: Trans- port Workers Union Local 260. Houston Metro has 30 bus maintenance job position categories, not including cleaners, that use union employees. Development of Work Standards Houston Metro uses historical data to develop maintenance repair programs with standard times. It has also developed a unique PM program in which all the inspections are cate- gorized into 8-h (full-shift) jobs. At Houston Metro, an in- spection task includes reporting defects, minor repairs, and additional PM inspection items. If the maintenance em- ployee completes the inspection in less time than the 8-h standard, inspections and minor repairs may be done earlier than programmed to fill the 8-h time (full-shift) interval or the employee may be asked to finish out the day on run- ning repairs. However, if the employee does not complete the PM assignment within the 8-h interval and does not provide justification for not completing the inspection, the employee faces progressively tougher disciplinary action.

21 Road-call data are categorized by operating location, fleet, mechanical defect, shop defect, vendor warranty, and fleet defect. These performance indicators are used to monitor the quality of work and adherence to work stan- dards. Houston Metro also prepares an Annual Rebuild Forecast report, where estimates of labor and material are determined for all components that will be rebuilt in the next year. These estimates are also used to monitor productivity by comparisons with actual labor and material costs. Houston Metro is currently evaluating in-house work by comparing labor, material, and warranty costs with those of vendor’s work. It has completed evaluation of the paint jobs and found efficiencies that reduced the preparation and painting times. New target goals for a complete paint job for its 45-ft and 60-ft buses have been established (see Ap- pendix D for additional details). Component rebuild times also have been established by using historical data for labor and material costs. The shop provides the same warranty as does an outside vendor on re- built components. If a shop-built part fails within the war- ranty time that an outside vendor would provide, the oper- ating location is credited the cost for the replacement part. Buses are always parked in the same parking slot when not in service, allowing an operator to drive the same bus every day. This practice facilitates pride of ownership, bet- ter reporting of defects, and increased employee responsi- bility for the bus. OEM manuals, service bulletins, and parts catalogs are required in the contracts from the OEM in a computerized format and are kept updated. All maintenance documenta- tion, including in-house maintenance bulletins and proce- dures, is readily accessible by all employees by means of computers in the shops and at the operating locations. Cur- rently, there are not enough data to evaluate productivity improvements derived from the use of electronic diagnostic equipment. Kits are used for productivity improvements during PM inspections, brake relines, and small component rebuilds. ORANGE COUNTY TRANSPORTATION AUTHORITY Introduction OCTA operates transit service in Orange County, Califor- nia, with more than 570 buses and three operating facili- ties. One facility has a section dedicated to rebuilding components. OCTA’s PM program is based on a 6,000-mi interval. The agency does have formal documented main- tenance procedures, but it has not developed time standards for those procedures. All of the agency’s maintenance workers are classified as Journeyman Mechanics and are members of the International Brotherhood of Teamsters. Productivity Agreement with Labor There is nothing in the Houston Metro union agreements that restricts the use of SRT for any maintenance work. The agreements allow for a systemwide performance cash payment for meeting productivity goals every 6 months. All of the systemwide performance indicators must fall within two ranges for employees to receive a 3% or 1.5% bonus, and both maintenance and operations must meet all the goals for any bonus to be paid. The four indicators are on-time performance, miles between service interruptions, accidents per 100,000 mi, and employee-influenced com- plaints per 100,000 passenger boardings. An individual employee can receive a bonus for perfect attendance or having no on-the-job injuries for an entire year (see Figure 4 for the contract wording for these incentive programs). Development of Work Standards OCTA has established a PM program that includes a de- tailed bus inspection. The inspection for a diesel bus takes approximately 8 h. Any defects found are repaired later through a work order. OCTA is in the process of finaliz- ing the inspection program for liquid natural gas (LNG) buses, which have been recently added to the fleet. The agency estimates that the inspection of LNG buses will take 10 to 12 h, primarily because of the complexity of the fuel system. OCTA has determined, but not formally published, in- formal time standards for other repair work. The agency has established average repair times for some component rebuilds by averaging historical work records. Procedures and time standards are reviewed with each new bus order. During an employee’s training, the time to complete each repair is discussed, but it is used only as a guide. OCTA provides its maintenance staff with hard copies of the pro- cedures and is installing computers on the shop floor to en- able the staff to access maintenance manuals, parts manu- als, bulletins from the OEMs, and OCTA’s own internal Monitoring of Productivity and Compliance Standards are upgraded yearly or when a new bus fleet is delivered. Computer-generated reports that track labor hours and material costs are compared with historical data. If the goals are not met and no acceptable reason is given, progressively tougher disciplinary measures are taken. If an employee has a problem that delays completion of the work and the supervisor validates it, a new work order is provided to address the additional work.

22 documents. OCTA encourages all its mechanics to achieve ASE certification and provides educational reimbursement to encourage continuing education (see Appendix E for un- ion contract agreements). OCTA uses electronic diagnostic equipment to reduce troubling shooting labor hours, and it reported that the diagnostic equipment produces higher quality diagnosis and less equipment downtime. OCTA also uses kits to expedite brake component repair and re- hab. Productivity Agreement with Labor Nothing is written in the union agreement that restricts OCTA from setting repair times for maintenance work. However, concerns have been expressed about setting time standards for any maintenance work. Therefore, time stan- dards are considered a guide or estimate of how much time should be spent on a maintenance job. During training, employees are given the average time expected to complete an assignment during training, but the given time is not considered a standard. Monitoring of Productivity and Compliance OCTA has established monthly maintenance goals: miles per gallon for diesel for both 40-ft and articulated buses and for LNG for all buses. Goals for the following parame- ters are also set for each operating location: (1) cost per mile, (2) miles per quart of oil, (3) attendance (including overtime), (4) spare buses on hold, (5) miles between road calls, and (6) on-the-job injuries. Goals have also been es- tablished for six measurable indicators that are used for the employees’ bonus program: (1) miles per gallon, (2) cost per mile (not including fuel and overhead), (3) attendance, (4) spare buses on hold, (5) miles between road calls, and (6) warranty recovery. The yearly average bonus is $650 per person. OCTA averages 10,000 mi between road calls and the average maintenance cost per mile is 46 cents (la- bor and material cost to maintain the bus only). OCTA also monitors brake mileage, transmission overhaul mileage, engine overhaul mileage, and fuel mileage. All goals are summarized, compared, and posted every month at all op- erating locations (see Figure 8 for details). Supervisors currently monitor the work as it is progress- ing. They determine if there is a problem and will counsel employees to resolve any issues. Additional training or counseling is used if no justifiable reason for the longer time can be verified. Discipline measures are used as the last resort. OCTA is developing a quality assurance group that will provide analysis and research. The group will also monitor vehicle performance, parts usage, labor utilization, cam- paigns, vendor performance, and other maintenance per- formance aspects. KING COUNTY METRO TRANSIT—SEATTLE Introduction Metro Transit in King County, Washington, operates more than 1,320 buses. The fleet includes a mixture of diesel- powered (more than 770) and trackless trolley buses, oper- ating out of seven facilities and one component supply cen- ter. There are two unions: ATU Local 587 for hourly staff and ATU Local 17 for supervisory staff. Metro Transit uses documented maintenance procedures and does have some time guidelines for those procedures. Quality is its main concern, and the agency has a quality assurance group. Development of Work Standards In the 1980s, Metro Transit was highlighted in NCTRP Synthesis of Transit Practice 4: Allocation of Time for Tran- sit Bus Maintenance Functions (4). Metro Transit’s study used an independent consultant to develop time standards for a portion of the bus fleet and then used those same standards on another bus fleet. The component life of that bus fleet was poor, and the buses were in need of substan- tial maintenance. The use of the time standards on those buses was unsuccessful, and further use of any of the ele- ments in the study continued to be problematic and contro- versial. Therefore, the study and resultant time standards were discontinued. Recent efforts concentrate on training and on making the correct repair the first time. Safety and effectiveness of the repair is emphasized over speed. Because current vehi- cles are equipped with complex components, efficiency can no longer be measured only by speedy work. Metro Transit focuses on the work environment necessary for ef- fective repairs, which includes providing shop tools and sup- port equipment, lighting, expedited parts, and accurate manu- als. If the shops are appropriately equipped and the employees are properly trained, effective and timely repairs will occur. Electronic diagnostic equipment has not yet provided productivity improvement increases. Metro Transit pro- vides hard copies and computer access to OEM manuals and bulletins, as well as internal service and maintenance bulletins. Kits for brake relines and engine and transmis- sion overhauls have been used for more than 20 years. The agency has standardized drive train components to improve productivity and has reduced the average vehicle age to be- low 8 years. Metro Transit has PM, quality assurance, and training and failure analysis programs that provide effec- tive productivity improvements.

23 FIGURE 8 OCTA’s maintenance standards and performance indicators. Productivity Agreement with Labor There is nothing in the union agreement that restricts the use of repair times. However, there is language in the agreement that prevents outsourcing of significant maintenance work. Monitoring of Productivity and Compliance Metro Transit monitors miles between road calls and cost per mile and compares that information with budget stan- dards on a monthly basis. The agency also measures labor hours per 1,000 revenue miles by fleet type. Furthermore, Metro Transit also monitors the time it takes to perform typical repetitive repairs, as indicated on work order re- cords. If an employee takes an extraordinary amount of time for a repetitive or routine repair, the lead shift me- chanic will be questioned. Metro Transit will not question the employee at the first instance of such a problem. If the same discrepancy recurs with the same employee, training records and work history will be reviewed before question- ing the employee. The employee is then interviewed to deter- mine if any supportive or corrective measures are needed. The interview is of a nondisciplinary nature. MASSACHUSETTS BAY TRANSPORTATION AUTHORITY Introduction The Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority (MBTA) has a fleet of more than 900 buses in 8 operating facilities and 1 main bus repair facility. The International Union of Machin- ists and Aerospace Workers represent MBTA’s maintenance workers. MBTA uses documented maintenance procedures, but it does not have time standards for those procedures. The agency has average times for most maintenance practices, al- though the times are not used for setting goals and standards, but rather as a guide. MBTA would have to negotiate with the union to use time standards for performance measurement.

24 Development of Work Standards MBTA has had maintenance procedures and policies for many years. These procedures and policies are modified annually and when new buses enter service. PM programs allow 4 h for a 6,000-mi inspection and 8 h for a 12,000-mi inspection, with additional work done during the latter. Other maintenance work uses repair times established from historical transit industry information sources only as a guide. The allotted hours for component rebuilding tasks have been agreed on by a foreperson, union representative, and management. These parameters are used for every re- buildable component for monitoring productivity, forecast- ing labor requirements, and justifying hiring. In addition, an annual productivity study is conducted in the main repair shop for adjusting staffing. The study ana- lyzes repairs and recommends whether to continue in- house repairs, contract repair work to outside vendors, or buy new equipment. The study bases its recommendations on manpower usage, cost, and demand levels from garages. If the price to outsource is 30% higher or lower than the in- house cost to repair, the study will recommend either out- sourcing or purchasing a new component. MBTA also focuses on a variety of practices that pro- vide productivity improvements. The agency uses elec- tronic diagnostics and hand-held electronic readers for faster failure resolution. Kits are used to improve produc- tivity for the PM inspections, brake relines, engine re- builds, and other component rebuilds. MBTA has improved training programs to update mechanical skills. Training programs also advise employees on the expected time to complete certain tasks. Furthermore, MBTA has imple- mented mid-life and life-extending overhaul programs that have had a positive impact on mechanical reliability, re- duced failures, and improved quality of service and general safety. Productivity Agreement with Labor There are no restrictions in the union labor agreement on the use of repair times. If MBTA wanted to require that maintenance employees meet time standards, it would have to negotiate with the unions. Monitoring of Productivity and Compliance MBTA uses maintenance forepersons to provide quality in- spection. The foreperson does not formally monitor the time it takes to complete a task, but is responsible for de- termining what problems may delay efficient completion. Productivity is measured by monitoring road-call mileage between failures. Road-call reports are broken down by fleet, assigned garage, and system. Maintenance costs are tracked on a cost-per-mile basis. Variations in this parame- ter can be investigated to ensure proper maintenance func- tions and cost control. These data can also be used to evaluate whether maintenance tasks should be outsourced. MBTA also monitors maintenance areas on a monthly basis. A partial list of monthly reports includes the follow- ing data: number of bus inspections, inspections completed on time, and person-hours per task. Figure 9 shows a sam- ple of a Monthly Bus Maintenance Report. MBTA quanti- fies its productivity programs according to increased reli- ability, cleaner emissions, and ability to meet increased availability without significant core fleet replacement. COAST MOUNTAIN BUS COMPANY Introduction The Coast Mountain Bus Company operates in the greater Vancouver area of British Columbia, Canada, with a fleet of approximately 1,100 diesel and trolley buses, 6 operat- ing facilities, and 1 main shop. Coast Mountain employees are represented by Canadian Auto Workers Union Local 2200. Development of Work Standards Previously, SRT for all major and minor repetitive tasks were developed in conjunction with the union, and the pro- ductivity program was presented in a very informal man- ner. Coast Mountain has recently made some organiza- tional changes and initiated a new strategy for fleet maintenance. All procedures, practices, and standards are currently under review and are being documented. A proc- ess known as Activity Based Costing has been introduced to the overhaul shop and will soon be introduced into the operating maintenance area. The process compares the internal costs with outside vendor costs and, after a thorough review, makes a decision to keep the repair in- house or outsource the repair work. Coast Mountain provides hard copy and computer access of OEM manuals and their bulletins, along with Coast Mountain’s internal manuals and bulletins on the shop floor. The employees can also access the trainers directly or through an intranet web page bulletin board to ask questions or provide suggestions on procedures and practices. Coast Mountain has dedicated a portion of its budget to invest in special tools and equipment. Kits are used for some component results and other maintenance tasks. The agency is currently upgrading its training program and providing each employee with a minimum of 15 h of an- nual training.

25 some component rebuilds and other maintenance tasks. The agency is currently upgrading its training program and pro- vides each employee with a minimum of 15 h of annual training. FIGURE 9 Sample of MBTA’s monthly maintenance report. Productivity Agreement with Labor There is nothing in the collective bargaining agreement re- stricting the use of repair times for vehicle maintenance work. Coast Mountain is currently in favor of formally us- ing repair times as part of the work order system. Also, Coast Mountain is in the process of establishing a full-time committee to investigate the development and use of time- based standards, and it plans to invite union participation. Monitoring of Productivity and Compliance Coast Mountain monitors road calls by mean distance be- tween failures. That information is compared with an es- tablished goal within an established annual work plan and budget. Each month, the following indicators are com- pared: number of tasks completed versus what was stated in the work plan, actual labor hours versus the standard time, actual material costs versus the budget, overtime ver- sus the forecast, and attendance versus the plan. Each work order is reviewed to ensure that labor hours and materials compare with the standard procedure. Reports identify the average hours, materials, or costs on a given overhaul by component, fleet, or operating location. Reports can also identify how employees perform compared with other em- ployees on a given overhaul or repair. There is a monthly analysis on failed components from road-call information. Coast Mountain analyzes the cause of the failure from the data in this report and then proposes a solution to reduce or eliminate it from future roads calls. In 1999, Coast Moun- tain determined that exterior lights were their major source

26 of road calls (17.3%). The agency replaced the incandes- cent bulbs with light-emitting diodes, except for headlights and backup lights. The replacement was completed in 2003, and exterior lights now account for only 4.3% of the road calls. Figure 10 shows data on this productivity im- provement. Flyer 40’(D40) FIGURE 10 Coast Mountain’s reduction in road calls by converting to light-emitting diode lamps.

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TRB’s Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP) Synthesis 54: Maintenance Productivity Practices provides descriptions of successful maintenance productivity programs and creative modifications to existing programs.

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