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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2005. Research on Women's Issues in Transportation - Volume 2: Technical Papers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23299.
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C O N F E R E N C E P R O C E E D I N G S 3 5 Research on Women’s Issues in Transportation Report of a Conference VOLUME 2: TECHNICAL PAPERS November 18–20, 2004 Chicago, Illinois Sponsored by Transportation Research Board Federal Highway Administration Department for Transport, United Kingdom Michigan Department of Transportation General Motors Corporation Iowa Department of Transportation New Mexico Department of Transportation National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Federal Transit Administration Maritime Administration Washington State Department of Transportation Oak Ridge National Laboratory Washington, D.C. 2005 www.TRB.org 98709mvpTxt i_x 9/20/05 4:49 PM Page i

Transportation Research Board Conference Proceedings 35 ISSN 1073-1652 ISBN 0-309-09394-5 Subscriber Categories IA planning and administration IVB safety and human performance Transportation Research Board publications are available by ordering individual publications directly from the TRB Business Office, through the Internet at www.TRB.org or national-academies.org/trb, or by annual subscription through organizational or individual affiliation with TRB. Affiliates and library subscribers are eligible for substantial discounts. For further information, contact the Transportation Research Board Business Office, 500 Fifth Street, NW, Washington, DC 20001 (telephone 202-334-3213; fax 202-334- 2519; or e-mail TRBsales@nas.edu). Printed in the United States of America. NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsi- ble for the report were chosen for their special competencies and with regard for appropriate balance. This report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to the procedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The views expressed in the presentations and papers contained in this report are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the committee, the Transportation Research Board, the National Research Council, or the sponsors of the conference. The conference was sponsored by the Transportation Research Board; the Federal Highway Administration; the Department for Transport, United Kingdom; the Michigan Department of Transportation; General Motors Corporation; the Iowa Department of Transportation; the New Mexico Department of Transportation; the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration; the Federal Transit Administration; the Maritime Administration; the Washington State Department of Transportation; and Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Committee on Research on Women’s Issues in Transportation: A Conference Sandra Rosenbloom, University of Arizona, Chair Susan A. Ferguson, Insurance Institute for Highway Safety Susan L. Handy, University of California, Davis Sara McLafferty, University of Illinois, Urbana–Champaign Michael D. Meyer, Georgia Institute of Technology Laura L. Ray, Metropolitan Atlanta Rapid Transit Authority Jane C. Stutts, Highway Safety Research Center, University of North Carolina Beverly G. Ward, Center for Urban Transportation Research, University of South Florida Liaison Members Jesse Blatt, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Linda Ng Boyle, University of Iowa Miranda Carter, Department for Transport, United Kingdom Jill Hochman, Federal Highway Administration Gloria Jean Jeff, Michigan Department of Transportation Elaine Murakami, Federal Highway Administration Effie Stallsmith, Federal Transit Administration Sherry B. Ways, Federal Highway Administration Consultant Susan B. Herbel, Cambridge Systematics, Inc. Transportation Research Board Staff Elaine King, Senior Program Officer Kimberly M. Fisher, Senior Program Officer Freda R. Morgan, Senior Program Associate Nancy Doten, Senior Program Assistant Bruce Millar, Meeting Coordinator TRB Publications Office Naomi Kassabian, Editor Mary McLaughlin, Proofreader Jennifer J. Weeks, Editorial Services Specialist 98709mvpTxt i_xR1 9/23/05 9:42 PM Page ii

The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. On the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. William A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters per- taining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, on its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to asso- ciate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both the Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. William A. Wulf are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. The Transportation Research Board is a division of the National Research Council, which serves the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering. The Board’s mission is to promote innovation and progress in transportation through research. In an objective and interdisci- plinary setting, the Board facilitates the sharing of information on transportation practice and pol- icy by researchers and practitioners; stimulates research and offers research management services that promote technical excellence; provides expert advice on transportation policy and programs; and disseminates research results broadly and encourages their implementation. The Board’s varied activities annually engage more than 5,000 engineers, scientists, and other transportation researchers and practitioners from the public and private sectors and academia, all of whom contribute their expertise in the public interest. The program is supported by state transportation departments, fed- eral agencies including the component administrations of the U.S. Department of Transportation, and other organizations and individuals interested in the development of transportation. www.TRB.org www.national-academies.org 98709mvpTxt i_x 9/20/05 4:49 PM Page iii

98709mvpTxt i_x 9/20/05 4:49 PM Page iv

vPreface On November 18–20, 2004, the TransportationResearch Board (TRB) convened a Conferenceon Research on Women’s Issues in Trans- portation in Chicago, Illinois. The conference—TRB’s third held on this subject—was sponsored by the fol- lowing agencies, organizations, and companies with an interest in advancing the understanding of women’s issues in transportation: TRB; the Office of Planning, Office of Interstate and Border Planning, and Office of Transportation Policy Studies of the Federal Highway Administration; the Department for Transport, United Kingdom; the Michigan Department of Trans- portation; General Motors Corporation; the Iowa Department of Transportation; the New Mexico Department of Transportation; the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration; the Federal Transit Administration; the Maritime Administration; the Washington State Department of Transportation; and Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Approximately 120 individuals from across the transportation research community—at national, state, regional, and local levels and from the public and pri- vate sectors and academia—participated. An unusual number of international participants attended, includ- ing individuals from the United Kingdom, Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Finland, Germany, the Netherlands, Bangladesh, Cambodia, Cameroon, Australia, Canada, South Africa, and Burkina Faso. BACKGROUND This event followed two earlier conferences on women’s issues in transportation, the first of which was sponsored by the U.S. Department of Transporta- tion in 1978. Attendees at that groundbreaking con- ference were predominantly researchers and scholars. By the time the second conference was held in 1996, concerns about women’s issues had moved well beyond the research community into policy making and the planning and engineering processes. The sec- ond conference, sponsored by the Federal Highway Administration, was organized by the Drachman Insti- tute of the University of Arizona and by Morgan State University. The third conference has continued the trend of expanding the sponsorship, the breadth of topics covered, and participants’ backgrounds. CONFERENCE PLANNING This conference had two primary objectives: (a) to iden- tify and explore additional research and data needed to inform transportation policy decisions that address women’s mobility, safety, and security needs and (b) to encourage research by young researchers. TRB assem- bled a committee, appointed by the National Research Council, to organize and develop the conference pro- gram. The committee members, who are listed on page ii, possessed expertise in the wide range of transporta- tion topics that affect women’s travel. The committee selected four subject areas as a basis for organizing the conference, and four committee members assumed responsibility as the topic leaders, as follows: • Understanding Travel Issues—Sandra Rosen- bloom, committee chair; • Transportation, Access, and Community Design— Susan L. Handy; • Injury Prevention and Ergonomics—Susan A. Fer- guson; and • Policy and Planning—Michael D. Meyer. After identifying the four main topic areas listed above, the committee issued a call for abstracts. The 98709mvpTxt i_x 9/20/05 4:49 PM Page v

process for soliciting and conducting peer reviews of full papers to be presented at the conference is described later in this preface. Topic leaders drew on information and findings in the papers to be presented at the conference, together with their own extensive knowledge, to prepare an overview paper to frame the issues within their respective topic areas and to summarize the findings of the accepted papers. The overview papers were peer reviewed and are published in Volume 1 of these proceedings. CONFERENCE FORMAT The conference program was designed to maximize the exchange of information and perspectives among the par- ticipants. The four overview papers were each presented in a plenary session, and each paper was followed by an open discussion with the audience. Breakout sessions fol- lowed each plenary session to encourage the exchange of research findings and relevant information and experi- ence. Additional papers were presented in poster sessions during the conference. Each type of session is described in further detail below. Plenary Sessions The plenary sessions began with each of the topic lead- ers making a presentation (based on the leader’s written overview paper). The plenary sessions were designed to • Frame the issues within the respective subject areas, • Provide a summary of current issues, • Summarize the state of current research, and • Summarize the conclusions of research papers pre- sented in the related breakout sessions. Breakout Sessions Following each plenary session were three or four con- current breakout sessions, during which several peer- reviewed papers were presented. These sessions allowed the participants to hear more in-depth information on specific research or policy issues. The sessions also pro- vided an opportunity to share similarities and differences in the communities represented by the participants. Poster Session Additional peer-reviewed papers accepted by the com- mittee that could not be accommodated in the breakout sessions were presented in a poster session. The poster session allowed for a lively exchange of ideas directly with the authors. CONFERENCE PROCEEDINGS FORMAT Volume 1 Volume 1 includes the conference summary, the four peer-reviewed overview papers presented by the topic leaders, the keynote presentation, and a list of confer- ence participants. Volume 2 Volume 2 contains the peer-reviewed breakout and poster papers and several abstracts of papers on subjects of particular interest to the committee. PEER REVIEW PROCESS The full committee reviewed 100 abstracts initially sub- mitted in response to the call for papers and selected 70 that would go to the second step of the review process. The accepted abstracts were organized into the four conference topic areas, and at this point the topic lead- ers assumed responsibility for the review process for the papers falling within their respective topic areas. The selected authors were asked to write a first draft paper for the next stage of the review process. Each topic leader, with other committee members, reviewed the resulting papers. The best papers were selected for presentation at the conference: 43 papers for presenta- tion in the breakout sessions and 10 for the poster ses- sion. Authors also received extensive comments to assist in developing the final version of their papers. After the conference, authors submitted their final papers, updated on the basis of the review comments received and the discussion held at the conference. The 22 full papers and nine abstracts that were accepted for publication at that final stage appear in Volume 2. RESEARCH ON WOMEN’S ISSUES IN TRANSPORTATIONv i 98709mvpTxt i_x 9/20/05 4:49 PM Page vi

Contents UNDERSTANDING TRAVEL ISSUES Travel Characteristics of Native- and Foreign-Born Women in the United States (Abstract only) ......................................................................................................................................3 Jonaki Bose and June Taylor Jones Influence of Residential Location on Travel Behavior of Women in Chennai, India .................................4 Sumeeta Srinivasan Comparing Women’s and Men’s Morning Commute Trip Chaining in Atlanta, Georgia, by Using Instrumented Vehicle Activity Data ......................................................................................14 Hainan Li, Randall Guensler, and Jennifer Ogle Activities, Time, and Travel: Changes in Women’s Travel Time Expenditures, 1990–2000 ....................21 Rachel Gossen and Charles L. Purvis Do High-Occupancy Toll Lanes Serve Women’s Travel Needs? (Abstract only) ......................................30 Theresa M. Dau Gender Differences in Bicycling Behavior and Facility Preferences .........................................................31 Kevin J. Krizek, Pamela Jo Johnson, and Nebiyou Tilahun Gender Differences in Automobile Choice Behavior ...............................................................................41 Abolfazl (Kouros) Mohammadian Differences in Trip Chaining by Men and Women ..................................................................................49 Nancy McGuckin and Yukiko Nakamoto TRANSPORTATION, ACCESS, AND COMMUNITY DESIGN Gender as a Determinant of Car Use: Evidence from Germany ..............................................................59 Colin Vance, Sabine Buchheim, and Elmar Brockfeld Does Residential Density Affect the Travel “Gender Gap”?....................................................................68 Noreen C. McDonald Gender Differences in Travel Behavior of 13-, 14-, and 15-Year-Olds and Role of Built Environment (Abstract only)..........................................................................................76 Lisa M. Weston 98709mvpTxt i_x 9/20/05 4:49 PM Page vii

Connection Between Travel and Physical Activity: Differences by Age and Gender (Abstract only) .......77 Amy Helling Gender Differences in Walking Behavior, Attitudes About Walking, and Perceptions of the Environment in Three Maryland Communities...................................................................................79 Kelly J. Clifton and Andréa D. Livi Women’s Travel Behavior and Land Use: Will New Styles of Neighborhoods Lead to More Women Walking?..........................................................................................................89 Kelly J. Clifton and Jennifer Dill Gender Differences in Experience with and Fear of Crime in Relation to Public Transport (Abstract only) ..................................................................................................................................100 Miranda Carter Technology as a Strategy for Addressing Personal Security Concerns of Women on Public Transit (Abstract only) ...........................................................................................................101 Marsha Anderson Bomar Is It Safe to Walk Here? Design and Policy Responses to Women’s Fear of Victimization in Public Places..................................................................................................................................102 Anastasia Loukaitou-Sideris Part-Time Employment and Travel Patterns of Women in the Netherlands (Abstract only)..................113 Anne Boumans and Lucas Harms Gender Differences in Travel Patterns: Role of Employment Status and Household Structure..............114 Claudia Nobis and Barbara Lenz INJURY PREVENTION AND ERGONOMICS Safety of Pregnant Drivers in the United Kingdom (Abstract only) .......................................................127 B. Serpil Acar and Alix M. Weekes Pregnant Women and Safety Belts: What Do We Know? ......................................................................128 Laurie F. Beck, Ruth A. Shults, and Brenda Colley Gilbert Protecting the Pregnant Occupant and Fetus in Motor Vehicle Crashes: Biomechanical Perspective.....135 Kathleen DeSantis Klinich, Jonathan D. Rupp, Lawrence W. Schneider, and Mark D. Pearlman Computational Model of Pregnant Motor Vehicle Occupant ................................................................141 Stefan M. Duma, Dave Moorcroft, Joel Stitzel, and Greg Duma What Are Young Female Drivers Made Of? Differences in Driving Behavior and Attitudes of Young Women and Men in Finland...................................................................................................148 Sirkku Laapotti Women’s Involvement in Pedestrian–Vehicle Crashes: Influence of Personal and Environmental Factors ......................................................................................................................155 Kelly J. Clifton, Carolina Burnier, and Kandice Kreamer Fults 98709mvpTxt i_x 9/20/05 4:49 PM Page viii

Nonfatal Transportation-Related Injury Among Women: Differences in Injury Patterns and Severity by Age..................................................................................................................................163 Ann M. Dellinger POLICY AND PLANNING Market Research on Gender-Based Attitudinal Preferences and Travel Behavior..................................171 Yushuang Zhou, Maren L. Outwater, and Kimon Proussaloglou Integration of Gender Equality into Transport Policy and Practice in Sweden ......................................180 Merritt Polk Gender Equality as a Subsidiary Objective of Swedish Transport Policy...............................................189 Åsa Vagland Women’s Travel: Can the Circle Be Squared?........................................................................................196 Barbara Noble Integrating Gender into the Dhaka, Bangladesh, Urban Transport Project: Impact of Road Improvement Strategies on Women (Abstract only) .................................................................210 Salma Chaudhuri Zohir 98709mvpTxt i_x 9/20/05 4:49 PM Page ix

TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD 2005 EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE* Chair: John R. Njord, Executive Director, Utah Department of Transportation, Salt Lake City Vice Chair: Michael D. Meyer, Professor, School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta Executive Director: Robert E. Skinner, Jr., Transportation Research Board Michael W. Behrens, Executive Director, Texas Department of Transportation, Austin Allen D. Biehler, Secretary, Pennsylvania Department of Transportation, Harrisburg Larry L. Brown, Sr., Executive Director, Mississippi Department of Transportation, Jackson Deborah H. Butler, Vice President, Customer Service, Norfolk Southern Corporation and Subsidiaries, Atlanta, Georgia Anne P. Canby, President, Surface Transportation Policy Project, Washington, D.C. John L. Craig, Director, Nebraska Department of Roads, Lincoln Douglas G. Duncan, President and CEO, FedEx Freight, Memphis, Tennessee Nicholas J. Garber, Professor of Civil Engineering, University of Virginia, Charlottesville Angela Gittens, Vice President, Airport Business Services, HNTB Corporation, Miami, Florida Genevieve Giuliano, Director, Metrans Transportation Center, and Professor, School of Policy, Planning, and Development, University of Southern California, Los Angeles (Past Chair, 2003) Bernard S. Groseclose, Jr., President and CEO, South Carolina State Ports Authority, Charleston Susan Hanson, Landry University Professor of Geography, Graduate School of Geography, Clark University, Worcester, Massachusetts James R. Hertwig, President, CSX Intermodal, Jacksonville, Florida Gloria Jean Jeff, Director, Michigan Department of Transportation, Lansing Adib K. Kanafani, Cahill Professor of Civil Engineering, University of California, Berkeley Herbert S. Levinson, Principal, Herbert S. Levinson Transportation Consultant, New Haven, Connecticut Sue McNeil, Professor, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Delaware, Newark Michael R. Morris, Director of Transportation, North Central Texas Council of Governments, Arlington Carol A. Murray, Commissioner, New Hampshire Department of Transportation, Concord Michael S. Townes, President and CEO, Hampton Roads Transit, Virginia (Past Chair, 2004) C. Michael Walton, Ernest H. Cockrell Centennial Chair in Engineering, University of Texas, Austin Linda S. Watson, Executive Director, LYNX–Central Florida Regional Transportation Authority, Orlando Marion C. Blakey, Administrator, Federal Aviation Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation (ex officio) Joseph H. Boardman, Administrator, Federal Railroad Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation (ex officio) Rebecca M. Brewster, President and COO, American Transportation Research Institute, Smyrna, Georgia (ex officio) George Bugliarello, Chancellor, Polytechnic University, Brooklyn, New York; Foreign Secretary, National Academy of Engineering, Washington, D.C. (ex officio) J. Richard Capka, Acting Administrator, Federal Highway Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation (ex officio) Thomas H. Collins (Adm., U.S. Coast Guard), Commandant, U.S. Coast Guard, Washington, D.C. (ex officio) Jennifer L. Dorn, Administrator, Federal Transit Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation (ex officio) James J. Eberhardt, Chief Scientist, Office of FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies, U.S. Department of Energy (ex officio) Jacqueline Glassman, Deputy Administrator, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation (ex officio) Edward R. Hamberger, President and CEO, Association of American Railroads, Washington, D.C. (ex officio) John C. Horsley, Executive Director, American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, Washington, D.C. ex officio) John E. Jamian, Acting Administrator, Maritime Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation (ex officio) Edward Johnson, Director, Applied Science Directorate, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, John C. Stennis Space Center, Mississippi (ex officio) Ashok G. Kaveeshwar, Administrator, Research and Innovative Technology Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation (ex officio) Brigham McCown, Deputy Administrator, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation (ex officio) William W. Millar, President, American Public Transportation Association, Washington, D.C. (ex officio) (Past Chair, 1992) Suzanne Rudzinski, Director, Transportation and Regional Programs, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (ex officio) Annette M. Sandberg, Administrator, Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation (ex officio) Jeffrey N. Shane, Under Secretary for Policy, U.S. Department of Transportation (ex officio) Carl A. Strock (Maj. Gen., U.S. Army), Chief of Engineers and Commanding General, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Washington, D.C. (ex officio) * Membership as of September 2005. 98709mvpCovB.indd 2 9/20/05 4:15:12 PM

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TRB’s Conference Proceedings 35: Research on Women’s Issues in Transportation – Volume 2: Technical Papers contains peer-reviewed breakout and poster papers and several abstracts of papers presented at the November 18–20, 2004, conference in Chicago, Illinois. The conference was designed to identify and explore additional research and data needed to inform transportation policy decisions that address women’s mobility, safety, and security needs and to encourage research by young researchers. Volume 1, which will be released this winter, will include the conference summary, the four peer-reviewed overview papers presented by the topic leaders, and a list of conference participants.

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