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Public Perception of Mileage-Based User Fees (2016)

Chapter: APPENDIX B Tables Presenting Survey Question Findings, by Theme

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Suggested Citation:"APPENDIX B Tables Presenting Survey Question Findings, by Theme." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Public Perception of Mileage-Based User Fees. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23401.
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Suggested Citation:"APPENDIX B Tables Presenting Survey Question Findings, by Theme." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Public Perception of Mileage-Based User Fees. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23401.
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Suggested Citation:"APPENDIX B Tables Presenting Survey Question Findings, by Theme." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Public Perception of Mileage-Based User Fees. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23401.
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Suggested Citation:"APPENDIX B Tables Presenting Survey Question Findings, by Theme." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Public Perception of Mileage-Based User Fees. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23401.
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Suggested Citation:"APPENDIX B Tables Presenting Survey Question Findings, by Theme." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Public Perception of Mileage-Based User Fees. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23401.
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Suggested Citation:"APPENDIX B Tables Presenting Survey Question Findings, by Theme." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Public Perception of Mileage-Based User Fees. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23401.
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Suggested Citation:"APPENDIX B Tables Presenting Survey Question Findings, by Theme." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Public Perception of Mileage-Based User Fees. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23401.
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Suggested Citation:"APPENDIX B Tables Presenting Survey Question Findings, by Theme." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Public Perception of Mileage-Based User Fees. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23401.
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Suggested Citation:"APPENDIX B Tables Presenting Survey Question Findings, by Theme." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Public Perception of Mileage-Based User Fees. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23401.
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Suggested Citation:"APPENDIX B Tables Presenting Survey Question Findings, by Theme." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Public Perception of Mileage-Based User Fees. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23401.
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Suggested Citation:"APPENDIX B Tables Presenting Survey Question Findings, by Theme." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Public Perception of Mileage-Based User Fees. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23401.
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Suggested Citation:"APPENDIX B Tables Presenting Survey Question Findings, by Theme." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Public Perception of Mileage-Based User Fees. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23401.
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Suggested Citation:"APPENDIX B Tables Presenting Survey Question Findings, by Theme." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Public Perception of Mileage-Based User Fees. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23401.
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Suggested Citation:"APPENDIX B Tables Presenting Survey Question Findings, by Theme." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Public Perception of Mileage-Based User Fees. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23401.
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Suggested Citation:"APPENDIX B Tables Presenting Survey Question Findings, by Theme." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Public Perception of Mileage-Based User Fees. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23401.
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Suggested Citation:"APPENDIX B Tables Presenting Survey Question Findings, by Theme." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Public Perception of Mileage-Based User Fees. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23401.
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Suggested Citation:"APPENDIX B Tables Presenting Survey Question Findings, by Theme." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Public Perception of Mileage-Based User Fees. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23401.
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Suggested Citation:"APPENDIX B Tables Presenting Survey Question Findings, by Theme." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Public Perception of Mileage-Based User Fees. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23401.
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Suggested Citation:"APPENDIX B Tables Presenting Survey Question Findings, by Theme." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Public Perception of Mileage-Based User Fees. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23401.
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Suggested Citation:"APPENDIX B Tables Presenting Survey Question Findings, by Theme." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Public Perception of Mileage-Based User Fees. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23401.
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Suggested Citation:"APPENDIX B Tables Presenting Survey Question Findings, by Theme." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Public Perception of Mileage-Based User Fees. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23401.
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Suggested Citation:"APPENDIX B Tables Presenting Survey Question Findings, by Theme." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Public Perception of Mileage-Based User Fees. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23401.
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Suggested Citation:"APPENDIX B Tables Presenting Survey Question Findings, by Theme." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Public Perception of Mileage-Based User Fees. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23401.
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109 APPENDIX B Tables Presenting Survey Question Findings, by Theme This appendix presents five tables showing specific polling questions asked and the responses. The tables each cover questions on a single theme: Table B1: Survey Questions on General Support for MBUFs Table B2: Survey Questions Asking About Replacing the Gas Tax with an MBUF Table B3: Survey Questions on Privacy Issues Table B4: Survey Questions on Fairness Table B5: Summary of MBUF Poll Questions Categorized as “Other” than General Support or Focused on Replacing the Gas Tax, Excluding Questions Focused on Privacy or Fairness TABLE B1 SURVEY QUESTIONS ON GENERAL SUPPORT FOR MBUFs Poll Sponsor (and author, if different) Publication Year Sampling Frame Geography MBUF Question Findings Minnesota DOT (Wilbur Smith Associates) 1995 Adults State Using a scale of 1 to 10 in which 10 means very acceptable and 1 means totally unaccept- able how would you rate the idea of a one- cent per mile mileage-based tax to pay for transportation needs that are not currently funded? 19% of respondents in Minne- sota expressed acceptance for the idea of using a 1-cent-per- mile tax to pay for transporta- tion needs that are not currently funded by rating the statement 8 or higher on a 10 point scale. Mineta Transportation Institute (Weinstein et al.) 2006 Adults State One idea (another idea) is to eliminate the 18-cents-a-gallon gas tax altogether and replace it with a so-called “mileage fee” based on the number of miles a vehicle is driven. Each driver would pay a fee of one cent per mile for every mile driven within the state. For example, every 100 miles driven would incur a mileage fee of $1. Each vehicle would be equipped with an electronic means to keep track of miles driven and the fee would be paid at the pump when drivers buy gas. 23% of respondents said they would “strongly support” or “somewhat support” replacing the state gas tax with a system in which “each driver would pay a fee of 1 cent for every mile driven within the state” and “vehicles would be equipped with an electronic means to keep track of miles driven and the fee would be paid when drivers buy gas.” Mineta Transportation Institute (Agrawal and Nixon) 2009 Adults State A variation on the mileage fee just described is to have the fee vary depending upon how much the vehicle pollutes. On average, vehi- cles would pay one cent per mile, but vehicles that pollute the least would pay less and vehi- cles that pollute the most would pay more per mile. Would you strongly support, somewhat support, somewhat oppose, or strongly oppose that idea? 50% of respondents said they would “strongly support” or “somewhat support” a mileage fee in which “on average, vehi- cles would be charged 1 cent per mile, but vehicles that pol- lute less would be charged less, and vehicles that pollute more would be charged more.” Mineta Transportation Institute (Agrawal and Nixon) 2009 Adults State One idea (another idea) is to eliminate the eighteen-cents-per-gallon state gas tax alto- gether and replace it with a fee based on the number of miles you drive. Each driver would pay a fee of one cent per mile for every mile driven within the state. For example, every one hundred miles driven would pay a fee of one dollar. Vehicles would be equipped with an electronic means to keep track of miles driven and the fee would be paid when drivers buy gas. Would you strongly support, some- what support, somewhat oppose, or strongly oppose that idea? 28% of respondents said they would “strongly support” or “somewhat support” replacing the state gas tax with a system in which “each driver would pay a fee of 1 cent for every mile driven within the state” and “vehicles would be equipped with an electronic means to keep track of miles driven and the fee would be paid when drivers buy gas.” Table B1 Continued on p.110

110 Poll Sponsor (and author, if different) Publication Year Sampling Frame Geography MBUF Question Findings Civitas Institute (NC Legislative Committee) 2009 Regis- tered voters State In order to fund transportation projects in North Carolina, a legislative commission has recommended changing the current system to a plan that would charge all drivers based on the number of miles they drive in North Caro- lina each year. Would you view such a system favorably or unfavorably? 21% of respondents said they would “favorably” view “a plan that would charge all drivers based on the number of miles they drive in North Carolina each year” as a way “to fund transportation projects in North Carolina.” Minnesota DOT (Dieringer Research Group) 2009 Adults State I am going to read some other solutions that are being considered to help fund roads. If a decision were made to supplement or replace lost funding, how open would you be to each of the following? Please use a 1-10 scale with “1” meaning “Strongly oppose” and “10” meaning “Strongly support”: h. Mileage- based user fee. 23% of respondents indicated support for a “mileage-based user fee” as a means “to supple- ment or replace lost funding” for roads by rating it 8, 9, or 10 on a 10-point scale. 35% indi- cated opposition to the fee by rating it 1, 2, or 3. Minnesota DOT (Dieringer Research Group) 2009 Adults State Of the solutions that you just rated, which one do you feel would be most acceptable? (READ LIST IF NECESSARY. PROBE WITH “IF YOU HAD TO CHOOSE ONE, WHICH ONE WOULD YOU CHOOSE?” ENTER ONE RESPONSE.) 19% of respondents, when asked to choose from among eight “solutions that are being consid- ered to help fund roads,” said they felt a “mileage-based user fee” would be the “most accept- able.” The fee was only slightly less popular than the top 2 options; 20% chose “raising fuel taxes” and 19% chose “adding toll roads to the road system.” Minnesota DOT (Dieringer Research Group) 2009 Adults State To clarify, a mileage-based user fee is being considered in the U.S. and in other countries as a means to supplement or eliminate the gas- oline tax or another type of vehicle fee. Driv- ers would be charged a fee based on the num- ber of miles driven. Now we’d like to get your opinions specifically on Approach K [GPS device, rates vary by type of travel]. What was your initial reaction to Approach K? Please use a 10-point scale where “1” means “Extremely Negative” and “10” means “Extremely Positive.” *Approaches refer to the information sheets provided 8% of respondents, who were asked to consider a mileage- based user fee that would use a GPS device to collect data and vary rates by time and place of travel, indicated that their “ini- tial reaction” to the approach was positive by rating it 8, 9, or 10 on a 10-point scale. 56% had a negative reaction indicated by rating it 1, 2, or 3. Minnesota DOT (Dieringer Research Group) 2009 Adults State To clarify, a mileage-based user fee is being considered in the U.S. and in other countries as a means to supplement or eliminate the gas- oline tax or another type of vehicle fee. Driv- ers would be charged a fee based on the num- ber of miles driven. Now we’d like to get your opinions specifically on Approach S [odome- ter readings, rates vary by type of vehicle]. What was your initial reaction to Approach S? Please use a 10-point scale where “1” means “Extremely Negative” and “10” means “Extremely Positive.” *Approaches refer to the information sheets provided 18% of respondents, who were asked to consider a mileage- based user fee that would use odometer readings reported annually and vary rates by type of vehicle, indicated that their “initial reaction” to the approach was positive by rating it 8, 9, or 10 on a 10-point scale. 32% had a negative reaction indicated by rating it 1, 2, or 3. Rasmussen Reports 2009 Adults National On another topic…to help fund the building and repair of roads and bridges, the Obama administration is considering a mileage tax that would tax drivers based on how many miles they drive. Do you favor or oppose a mileage tax? 18% of respondents said they favor “a mileage tax that would tax drivers based on how many miles they drive” in order “to help fund the building and repair of roads and bridges.” Indian Nation Council of Governments (Collective Strength) 2011 Adults Local Please indicate how willing you would be to use the following sources of revenue to help fund public transportation improvements? A small user tax that would be based on the number of miles a vehicle is driven each year 33% of respondents said they would be “very willing” or “somewhat willing” to use “a small user tax that would be based on the number of miles a vehicle is driven each year” to “help fund public transportation improvements.” Table B1 Continued from p.109

111 Poll Sponsor (and author, if different) Publication Year Sampling Frame Geography MBUF Question Findings Mineta Transportation Institute (Agrawal and Nixon) 2010 Adults National A VARIATION on the mileage tax just described is to have the tax rate VARY depending upon how much the vehicle pollutes. On average, vehicles would be charged 1 cent per mile, but vehicles that pollute less would be charged less, and vehi- cles that pollute more would be charged more. Would you strongly support, somewhat support, somewhat oppose, or strongly oppose THIS new mileage tax? 33% of respondents said they would “strongly support” or “somewhat support” a mileage tax in which “on average, vehi- cles would be charged 1 cent per mile, but vehicles that pol- lute less would be charged less, and vehicles that pollute more would be charged more.” Mineta Transportation Institute (Agrawal and Nixon) 2010 Adults National One idea (a DIFFERENT idea) is to adopt a new tax based on the number of miles a person drives. Each driver would pay a tax of 1 cent for every mile driven. For example, someone driv- ing 100 miles would pay a tax of 1 dollar. Vehi- cles would have an electronic meter to keep track of the miles driven, and the tax would be paid each time drivers buy gas. Would you strongly support, somewhat support, somewhat oppose, or strongly oppose this new mileage tax? 21% of respondents said they would “strongly support” or “somewhat support” the adoption of “a new tax” in which “each driver would pay a tax of 1 cent for every mile driven” and “vehi- cles would have an electronic meter to keep track of the miles driven, and the tax would be paid each time drivers buy gas.” HNTB Companies (Kelton Research) 2011 Adults National Aside from a gas tax, where do you think the government should get additional funds for transportation-related infrastructure projects? Please choose all that apply. Relevant option: annual fee for highway miles traveled. 12% of respondents chose an “annual fee for highway miles traveled, collected at the pump or through a regular inspection or registration process,” as a good source for “additional funds for transportation-related infrastructure projects.” Mineta Transportation Institute (Agrawal and Nixon) 2011 Adults National A VARIATION on the mileage tax just described is to have the tax rate VARY depend- ing upon how much the vehicle pollutes. On average, vehicles would be charged 1 cent per mile, but vehicles that pollute less would be charged less, and vehicles that pollute more would be charged more. Would you strongly support, somewhat support, somewhat oppose, or strongly oppose THIS new mileage tax? 36% of respondents said they would “strongly support” or “somewhat support” a mileage tax in which “on average, vehi- cles would be charged 1 cent per mile, but vehicles that pol- lute less would be charged less, and vehicles that pollute more would be charged more.” Mineta Transportation Institute (Agrawal and Nixon) 2011 Adults National One idea (a DIFFERENT idea) is to adopt a new tax based on the number of miles a person drives. Each driver would pay a tax of 1 cent for every mile driven. For example, someone driv- ing 100 miles would pay a tax of 1 dollar. Vehi- cles would have an electronic meter to keep track of the miles driven, and the tax would be paid each time drivers buy gas. Would you strongly support, somewhat support, somewhat oppose, or strongly oppose this new mileage tax? 22% of respondents said they would “strongly support” or “somewhat support” the adop- tion of “a new tax” in which “each driver would pay a tax of 1 cent for every mile driven” and “vehicles would have an electronic meter to keep track of the miles driven, and the tax would be paid each time drivers buy gas.” Rasmussen Reports 2011 Adults National The Congressional Budget Office (CBO) has just released a report saying that taxing people based on how many miles they drive is a good way to raise funds for highway maintenance. Do you favor or oppose a mileage tax? 15% of respondents said they favor “taxing people based on how many miles they drive” to “raise funds for highway maintenance.” Washington State Transportation Com- mission (EMC Market and Opinion Research Services) 2011 Adults State Is this a good way to fund increased transporta- tion investment?: a fee based the number of miles driven--people who use the system more would pay a higher fee. 44% of respondents said they thought “a fee based on the number of miles driven” was “a good way to help provide future funding for our trans- portation system.” Mineta Transportation Institute (Agrawal and Nixon) 2012 Adults National A VARIATION on the mileage tax just described is to have the tax rate VARY depending upon how much the vehicle pollutes. On average, vehicles would be charged 1 cent per mile, but vehicles that pollute less would be charged less, and vehi- cles that pollute more would be charged more. Would you strongly support, somewhat support, somewhat oppose, or strongly oppose THIS new mileage tax? 41% of respondents said they would “strongly support” or “somewhat support” a mileage tax in which “on average, vehi- cles would be charged 1 cent per mile, but vehicles that pol- lute less would be charged less, and vehicles that pollute more would be charged more.” Table B1 Continued on p.112

112 Poll Sponsor (and author, if different) Publication Year Sampling Frame Geography MBUF Question Findings Mineta Transportation Institute (Agrawal and Nixon) 2012 Adults National One idea (a DIFFERENT idea) is to adopt a new tax based on the number of miles a person drives. Each driver would pay a tax of 1 cent for every mile driven. For example, someone driving 100 miles would pay a tax of 1 dollar. Vehicles would have an electronic meter to keep track of the miles driven, and the tax would be paid each time driv- ers buy gas. Would you strongly support, some- what support, somewhat oppose, or strongly oppose this new mileage tax? 21% of respondents said they would “strongly support” or “somewhat support” the adoption of “a new tax” in which “each driver would pay a tax of 1 cent for every mile driven” and “vehi- cles would have an electronic meter to keep track of the miles driven, and the tax would be paid each time drivers buy gas.” Rasmussen Reports 2012 Adults National Some have suggested that taxing people based on how many miles they drive is a good way funds for highway maintenance. Do you favor or oppose a mileage tax? 12% of respondents said they favor “taxing people based on how many miles they drive” to “raise funds for highway maintenance.” Washington State Transportation Commission (EMC Market and Opinion Research Services) 2012 Adults State For each revenue source, please indicate whether or not you think that method is a good way to help provide future funding for our transporta- tion system.: "A fee based on the number of miles driven - people pay for what they use by the mile instead of by the gallon" 39% of respondents said they thought “a fee based on the number of miles driven” was “a good way to help provide future funding for our transportation system.” MassInc Polling Group 2013 Regis- tered voters State Assuming the Massachusetts state government decided to raise funds for maintaining and improving our transportation system, one option is to adopt a new tax based on the number of miles a person drives. Each driver would pay a tax for every mile driven. The car’s mileage would be read during annual vehicle inspections, and the tax would be paid at that time. Would you support or oppose this idea? And do you strongly (support/oppose) this idea, or somewhat (support/oppose)? 17% of respondents said they would “support” the Massachu- setts state government adopting “a new tax based on the number of miles a person drives,” in which “the car’s mileage would be read during annual vehicle inspections, and the tax would be paid at that time.” Mineta Transportation Institute (Agrawal and Nixon) 2013 Adults National A VARIATION on the mileage tax just described is to have the tax rate VARY depend- ing upon how much the vehicle pollutes. On average, vehicles would be charged one cent per mile, but vehicles that pollute less would be charged less, and vehicles that pollute more would be charged more. Would you strongly support, somewhat support, somewhat oppose, or strongly oppose THIS new mileage tax? 39% of respondents said they would “strongly support” or “somewhat support” a mileage tax in which “on average, vehi- cles would be charged 1 cent per mile, but vehicles that pol- lute less would be charged less, and vehicles that pollute more would be charged more.” Mineta Transportation Institute (Agrawal and Nixon) 2013 Adults National One idea (a DIFFERENT idea) is to adopt a new tax based on the number of miles a person drives. Each driver would pay a tax of one cent for every mile driven. For example, someone driving one hundred miles would pay a tax of one dollar. Vehicles would have an electronic meter to keep track of the miles driven, and the tax would be paid each time drivers buy gas. Would you strongly support, somewhat support, somewhat oppose, or strongly oppose this new mileage tax? 18% of respondents said they would “strongly support” or “somewhat support” the adoption of “a new tax” in which “each driver would pay a tax of 1 cent for every mile driven” and “vehi- cles would have an electronic meter to keep track of the miles driven, and the tax would be paid each time drivers buy gas.” American Trucking Association (Public Opinion Strategies) 2014 Regis- tered voters National Some have proposed raising money for transpor- tation by using technology to charge drivers a fee for each mile a vehicle is driven. Would you sup- port or oppose this proposal? 10% of respondents said they would “definitely support” or “somewhat support” a proposal to raise “money for transporta- tion by using technology to charge drivers a fee for each mile a vehicle is driven.” Mineta Transportation Institute (Weinstein et al.) 2006 Adults National A variation on the mileage fee just described is to have the fee vary depending upon how much the vehicle pollutes. On average, vehicles would pay one cent per mile, but vehicles that pollute the least would pay less and vehicles that pollute the most would pay more per mile. Would you strongly support, somewhat support, somewhat oppose, or strongly oppose that idea? 43% of respondents said they would “strongly support” or “somewhat support” a mileage tax in which “on average, vehi- cles would be charged 1 cent per mile, but vehicles that pol- lute less would be charged less, and vehicles that pollute more would be charged more.” Table B1 Continued from p.111

113 Poll Sponsor (and author, if different) Publication Year Sampling Frame Geography MBUF Question Findings Mineta Transportation Institute (Weinstein et al.) 2006 Adults National One idea (another idea) is to eliminate the eigh- teen-cents-per-gallon state gas tax altogether and replace it with a fee based on the number of miles you drive. Each driver would pay a fee of one cent per mile for every mile driven within the state. For example, every one hundred miles driven would pay a fee of one dollar. Vehicles would be equipped with an electronic means to keep track of miles driven and the fee would be paid when drivers buy gas. Would you strongly support, somewhat support, somewhat oppose, or strongly oppose that idea? 18% of respondents said they would “strongly support” or “somewhat support” the adoption of “a new tax” in which “each driver would pay a tax of 1 cent for every mile driven” and “vehi- cles would have an electronic meter to keep track of the miles driven, and the tax would be paid each time drivers buy gas.” Colorado State University (Ozbek, Albeiruti, and Atadero) 2014 Adults Regional I support the use of Mileage-Based User Fees to fund the highway system. COLORADO 18% of respondents from Colo- rado said they “agree” or “strongly agree” with the state- ment, “I support the use of Mileage-Based User Fees to fund the highway system.” Colorado State University (Ozbek, Albeiruti, and Atadero) 2014 Adults Regional I support the use of Mileage-Based User Fees to fund the highway system. NORTH DAKOTA 18% of respondents from North Dakota said they "agree" or “strongly agree” with the state- ment, “I support the use of Mileage-Based User Fees to fund the highway system.” Colorado State University (Ozbek, Albeiruti, and Atadero) 2014 Adults Regional I support the use of Mileage-Based User Fees to fund the highway system. SOUTH DAKOTA 23% of respondents from South Dakota said they “agree” or “strongly agree” with the state- ment, “I support the use of Mileage-Based User Fees to fund the highway system.” Colorado State University (Ozbek, Albeiruti, and Atadero) 2014 Adults Regional I support the use of Mileage-Based User Fees to fund the highway system. UTAH 21% of respondents from Utah said they “agree” or “strongly agree” with the statement, “I support the use of Mileage- Based User Fees to fund the highway system.” Colorado State Univer- sity (Ozbek, Albeiruti, and Atadero) 2014 Adults Regional I support the use of Mileage-Based User Fees to fund the highway system. WYOMING 19% of respondents from Wyo- ming said they “agree” or “strongly agree” with the state- ment, “I support the use of Mile- age-Based User Fees to fund the highway system.”

114 TABLE B2 SURVEY QUESTIONS ASKING ABOUT REPLACING THE GAS TAX WITH AN MBUF Poll Sponsor (and author, if different) Publication Year Sampling Frame Geography MBUF Question Findings Minnesota DOT (Wilbur Smith Associates) 1995 Adults State Based on the information I have given you, I would like your opinion of the idea of paying tax on the number of miles driven in Minnesota rather than on the amount of gas purchased. Using a scale of 1 to 10 in which 10 means very acceptable and 1 means totally unaccept- able, how would you rate the idea of a mileage- based tax as a method of raising funds for our state-wide transportation system? 15% of respondents expressed acceptance for the idea of a replacing the gas tax with a mile- age-based tax to raise funds for the transportation system in Min- nesota by rating the statement 8 or higher on a 10 point scale. Minnesota DOT (Wilbur Smith Associates) 1995 Adults State Earlier you rated the idea of a mileage-based tax a (READ NUMBER) on a scale of 1 to 10. Now that we have discussed it further, do you want to stay with that answer or would you like to change it? How would you now rate the idea of paying tax on the number of miles driven in Minnesota rather than on the amount of gas purchased? Please use a scale of 1 to 10 in which 10 means very acceptable and 1 means totally unacceptable. 39% of those respondents who changed their answer after learning more about a mileage- based tax expressed acceptance for replacing the gas tax with a mileage-based fee to raise funds for the transportation system in Minnesota, a 19% increase in acceptance. Minnesota DOT (Wilbur Smith Associates) 1995 Adults State Using a scale of 1 to 10 in which 10 means very acceptable and 1 means totally unaccept- able, how would you rate the idea of a two-cent per mile mileage-based tax to replace both the gas tax and the cost of license plates and tags? 15% of respondents in Minne- sota expressed acceptance for the idea of using a 2-cents-per- mile tax as an option to replace both the gas tax and the cost of license plates and tags by rating the statement 8 or higher on a 10 point scale. Minnesota DOT (Wilbur Smith Associates) 1995 Adults State Using a scale of 1 to 10 in which 10 means very acceptable and 1 means totally unaccept- able, how would you rate the idea of a three- cent per mile mileage-based tax to replace the gas tax, the cost of license plates and tabs, and a portion of the property tax? 10% of respondents in Minnesota expressed acceptance for the idea of using a 3-cents-per-mile tax as an option to replace the gas tax, the cost of license plates and tags, and a portion of the property tax by rating the statement 8 or higher on a 10 point scale. Minnesota DOT (Wilbur Smith Associates) 1995 Adults State Using a scale of 1 to 10 in which 10 means very acceptable and 1 means totally unaccept- able, how would you rate the idea of a four- cent per mile mileage-based tax to replace the gas tax, the cost of license plates and tabs, a portion of the property tax, and to pay for trans- portation needs that are currently not funded? 8% of respondents in Minnesota expressed acceptance for the idea of using a 4-cents-per-mile tax as an option to replace the gas tax, the cost of license plates and tags, a portion of the prop- erty, and to pay for transporta- tion needs that are currently not funded by rating the statement 8 or higher on a 10 point scale. FHWA (Ramfos) 2011 Adults Regional Finally, I’ll read several possible ways to increase transportation funding for the region. Please rate your support for each using a scale of 1 to 5, where 1 means you “strongly oppose” it and 5 means you “strongly support” it as a way to increase transportation funding. Replacing the gas tax with a per-mile charge on vehicle miles driven; Increasing income taxes; Increasing property taxes; Increasing sales taxes; Replacing the gas tax with a per- mile charge on vehicle miles driven. 15% of respondents supported replacing the gas tax with a per-mile charge on vehicle miles driven.

115 Poll Sponsor (and author, if different) Publication Year Sampling Frame Geography MBUF Question Findings Fiscal Research Center, Andrew Young School of Policy Studies at Georgia State University (Ellen, Sjoquist, and Stoycheva) 2012 Adults State Imagine that the current state gas tax was elimi- nated and replaced by a tax that was based only on the number of miles the car was driven in Georgia. Imagine that it was possible to pay this tax at the gas pump just like the current gas tax. So when a driver refueled their car, the total cost would include the cost of the gas plus tax based on how many miles the car had been driven in Georgia since the last gas purchase. In this proposal, everyone who drives 10,000 miles a year in Georgia would pay the same tax, regardless of the fuel efficiency of the vehi- cle they drove. To create the same revenue for transportation, the new miles-based tax would be 1.35 cents per mile. This means a person who drives a car 10,000 miles per year will pay $135 in taxes. Would you ... 33% of a randomly assigned sub- set of respondents said they would “strongly support” or “somewhat support” eliminating the Georgia state gas tax and replacing it with a “new miles- based tax” of 1.35 cents per mile driven on Georgia roads that could be paid “at the gas pump.” Fiscal Research Center, Andrew Young School of Policy Studies at Georgia State University (Ellen, Sjoquist, and Stoycheva) 2012 Adults State Imagine that the current state gas tax was elimi- nated and replaced by a tax that was based only on the number of miles the car was driven in Georgia. Imagine that it was possible to pay this tax at the gas pump just like the current gas tax. So when a driver refueled their car, the total cost would include the cost of the gas plus tax based on how many miles the car had been driven in Georgia since the last gas purchase. In this proposal, everyone who drives 10,000 miles a year in Georgia would pay the same tax, regardless of the fuel efficiency of the vehi- cle they drove. To create the same revenue for transportation, the new miles-based tax would be 1.6 cents per mile. This means a person who drives a car 10,000 miles per year will pay $160 in taxes. Would you ... 39% of a randomly assigned subset of respondents said they would “strongly support” or “somewhat support” eliminat- ing the Georgia state gas tax and replacing it with a “new miles-based tax” of 1.6 cents per mile driven on Georgia roads that could be paid “at the gas pump.” Fiscal Research Center, Andrew Young School of Policy Studies at Georgia State University (Ellen, Sjoquist, and Stoycheva) 2012 Adults State Imagine that the current state gas tax was elimi- nated and replaced by a tax that was based only on the number of miles the car was driven in Georgia. Imagine that it was possible to pay this tax at the gas pump just like the current gas tax. So when a driver refueled their car, the total cost would include the cost of the gas plus tax based on how many miles the car had been driven in Georgia since the last gas purchase. In this proposal, everyone who drives 10,000 miles a year in Georgia would pay the same tax, regardless of the fuel efficiency of the vehi- cle they drove. To create the same revenue for transportation, the new miles-based tax would be 2.1 cents per mile. This means a person who drives a car 10,000 miles per year will pay $210 in taxes. Would you ... 36% of a randomly assigned subset of respondents said they would “strongly support” or “somewhat support” eliminat- ing the Georgia state gas tax and replacing it with a “new miles-based tax” of 2.1 cents per mile driven on Georgia roads that could be paid “at the gas pump.” SPEA Indiana University (Duncan and Graham) 2013 Adults National Would you support an effort to replace the gasoline tax with a mileage user-fee? 22% of respondents said they would “support an effort to replace the gasoline tax with a mileage user-fee.” SPEA Indiana University (Duncan and Graham) 2013 Adults National Please indicate your degree of support for or opposition to the following options: Your state replaces its gasoline tax with a state mileage user-fee; 24% of respondents said they would “strongly support” or “support” their state replacing “its gasoline tax with a state mileage user-fee.” SPEA Indiana University (Duncan and Graham) 2013 Adults National Please indicate your degree of support for or opposition to the following options: The federal government replaces its gasoline tax with a federal mileage user-fee; 22% of respondents said they would “strongly support” or “support” the federal govern- ment replacing “its gasoline tax with a federal mileage user-fee.” Table B2 Continued on p.116

116 Poll Sponsor (and author, if different) Publication Year Sampling Frame Geography MBUF Question Findings SPEA Indiana University (Duncan and Graham) 2013 Adults National Please indicate your degree of support for or opposition to the following options: The states and the federal government replace their gasoline taxes with mileage user-fees. 23% of respondents said they would “strongly support” or “support” the states and federal government replacing “their gasoline taxes with mileage user-fees.” SPEA Indiana University (Duncan and Graham) 2013 Adults National Would you be in support of or opposed to replacing the gasoline tax in your state with a mileage user-fee based on odometer readings? 23% of respondents said they would “support” or “strongly sup- port” replacing the gasoline tax in their state “with a mileage user- fee based on odometer readings.” SPEA Indiana University (Duncan and Graham) 2013 Adults National For this question, please think about a federal level mileage user-fee. Would you be in sup- port of or opposed to replacing the federal gasoline tax with a federal mileage user-fee based on odometer readings? 20% of respondents said they would “support” or “strongly support” replacing the federal gasoline tax “with a federal mileage user-fee based on odometer readings.” SPEA Indiana University (Duncan and Graham) 2013 Adults National Would you be in support of or opposed to replacing the gasoline tax in your state with a mileage user-fee based on this basic/ advanced GPS? 15% of respondents said they would “support” or “strongly support” replacing the gasoline tax in their state with a basic GPS-based mileage user-fee system, in which a GPS device would record and report the number of miles driven each year but would not record loca- tion data. 13% said they would “support” or “strongly support” an advanced GPS-based sys- tem, in which the device did record location data so that dif- ferent fees could be “charged for different roads, locations and time of travel.” SPEA Indiana University (Duncan and Graham) 2013 Adults National For this question, please think about a federal- level mileage user-fee. Would you be in sup- port of or opposed to replacing the federal gas- oline tax with a federal mileage user-fee based on a basic/advanced GPS? 14% of respondents said they would “support” or “strongly support” replacing the federal gasoline tax with a basic GPS- based mileage user-fee system, in which a GPS device would record and report the number of miles driven each year but would not record location data. 13% said they would “support” or “strongly support” an advanced GPS-based system, in which the device did record location data so that different fees could be “charged for different roads, locations, and time of travel.” GfK Public Affairs and Corporate Communications 2014 Adults National Here are some ways to pay for transportation projects, such as highway construction, improvements to roads and bridges, and main- tenance of public roads. For each, please indi- cate if you support, oppose, or neither support nor oppose it as a way to fund such projects. Relevant option: replace federal gas and diesel taxes with taxes based on how many miles a vehicle is driven. 20% of respondents said they would “support” replacing “fed- eral gas and diesel taxes with taxes based on how many miles a vehicle is driven” as a way to “pay for transportation projects, such as highway construction, improvements to roads and bridges, and maintenance of public roads.” Reason Foundation 2014 Adults National Would you favor or oppose a plan to eliminate the gas tax and instead charge drivers a fee based on the number of miles they drive? 23% of respondents said they would favor “a plan to eliminate the gas tax and instead charge drivers a fee based on the num- ber of miles they drive.” Table B2 Continued from p.115

117 Poll Sponsor (and author, if different) Publication Year Sampling Frame Geography MBUF Question Findings Texas A&M Transporta- tion Institute (Simek and Geiselbrecht) 2014 Regis- tered voters State Rate 0-10, 10 being Strongly Support: Replace the state fuel tax with a user fee of 1 cent per mile. 13% of respondents expressed support for replacing the state fuel tax with “a user fee of 1¢ per mile driven” by rating the statement 7 or higher on a 0-to- 10 scale. Washington State Trans- portation Commission (EMC Market and Opin- ion Research Services) 2015 Adults State If a road usage charge replaced the gas tax, the cost would be set so that the total amount the average driver would pay would be the same as under the gas tax. Knowing this, in general, do you support or oppose replacing the gas tax with a per-mile road usage charge? 33% of respondents said they would support “replacing the gas tax with a per mile road usage charge” if “the cost would be set so that the total amount the aver- age driver would pay would be the same as under the gas tax.” Washington State Trans- portation Commission (EMC Market and Opin- ion Research Services) 2015 Adults State With both the gas tax and the road usage charge, the more you drive the more you pay. The difference is that with a road usage charge everyone pays the same amount no matter what type of vehicle they drive or how fuel efficient it is. Knowing this, in general, do you support or oppose replacing the gas tax with a per mile road usage charge? 42% of respondents said they support “replacing the gas tax with a per mile road usage charge” after being told that the difference is that “with a road usage charge everyone pays the same amount no matter what type of vehicle they drive or how fuel efficient it is.” Field Research Corpora- tion (DiCamillo and Field) 2015 Regis- tered voters State Would you support or oppose the installation of an electronic device on your motor vehicle to measure the exact amount of miles that you drive to enable the state to assess an accurate fee for road funding based upon the number of miles driven to replace or elimi- nate the current gasoline taxes that you pay? (asked of car owners only) 29% of respondents who own a car said they would support “the installation of an electronic device on your motor vehicle to measure the exact amount of miles that you drive to enable the state to assess an accurate fee for road funding based upon the number of miles driven to replace or eliminate the current gasoline taxes that you pay.” Minnesota DOT (Rephlo) 2013 Program partici- pants Local Interviews allowed researchers to ask if, given the participant’s experience in the test, they would prefer to pay mileage-based fees as a replacement for the fuel tax. *Note: The actual survey is not included in this report. The actual question is not available. 37% of participants in a pro- gram to test the implementation of a mileage-based fee said they would prefer to replace the cur- rent fuel tax with such a fee. 48% said they would prefer to continue paying the fuel tax, and 15% had no opinion or were unsure. SAFETEA-LU (Hanley and Kuhl) 2011 Program partici- pants National How do you feel about the idea of replacing the gas tax with a mileage-based road user fee? THREE-STAGE SURVEY 70% of participants in a field study to evaluate mileage-based charging said they felt “very positive” or “somewhat posi- tive” about “the idea of replac- ing the gas tax with a mileage- based road user fee” by the end of the study, compared to 41% at the beginning of the study. The percentage of participants with a “very negative” or “somewhat negative” feeling about the idea decreased over the course of the study from 20% to 17%.

118 TABLE B3 SURVEY QUESTIONS ON PRIVACY ISSUES Poll Sponsor (and author, if different) Publication Year Sampling Frame Geography MBUF Question Findings Minnesota DOT (Dier- inger Research Group) 2009 Adults State Describe what, if anything, you liked least about this approach? (ENTER ALL THAT APPLY.) 40% of respondents, who were asked to consider a mileage- based user fee that would use a GPS device to collect data and vary rates by time and place of travel, said what they “liked least” about the approach was that it would be an invasion of privacy. 25% said it would be too expensive, and 12% said they did not like that it was based on the mileage driven. Asked to consider a different approach that would use odom- eter readings reported annually and vary rates by type of vehi- cle, 15% said what they “liked least” was that it was too expensive. 12% said they did not like that they would have to go somewhere or call in to report their mileage, 12% said it would be generally inconve- nient, and 12% said they did not like that it was based on the mileage driven. University of Nevada, Las Vegas (Nordland, Paz, and Khan) 2013 Adults Local Rank the following VMT components based on personal importance from 1-5 (Five (5) being most important, one (1) being least important): Privacy 56% of respondents indicated “privacy” was an important com- ponent of a VMT system by rat- ing it 4 or 5 on a five-point scale. University of Nevada, Las Vegas (Nordland, Paz, and Khan) 2013 Adults Local To minimize privacy concerns, cost of collec- tion, cost of administration, and fraud and eva- sion of revenues, instead of paying at the pump would you be willing to pay the VMT fee (fuel tax) on any the following bases (annually, bi- annually, quarterly, monthly)? Minnesota DOT (Munnich) 2012 Adults State A nongovernmental audit firm should regu- larly audit the system to ensure private data gathered by the system was being well protected. 46.5% of respondents indicated they agreed with the statement, “A nongovernmental audit firm should regularly audit the sys- tem to ensure private data gath- ered by the system was being well protected,” by rating it 8, 9, or 10 on a 10-point scale. 22% indicated disagreement by rating the statement 1, 2, or 3. Minnesota DOT (Munnich) 2012 Adults State I would be willing to accept a high tech collec- tion system if it guarantees privacy protection while ensuring that the user charges collected are being properly sent to the central billing office even though I can’t verify the accuracy of the billing due to the privacy. 46.5% of respondents indicated they disagreed with the state- ment, “I would be willing to accept a high tech collection system if it guarantees privacy protection while ensuring that the user charges collected are being properly sent to the central billing office even though I can’t verify the accuracy of the billing due to the privacy,” by rating it 1, 2, or 3 on a 10-point scale. 15% indicated disagreement by rating the statement 8, 9, or 10. SPEA Indiana University (Duncan and Graham) 2013 Adults National Please tell me whether you strongly agree, agree, disagree or strongly disagree with the following statements about a mileage user-fee: Collecting information about a person’s mile- age is an invasion of privacy, unless the col- lection is voluntary; 74% of respondents said they “agree” or “strongly agree” with the statement, “Collecting infor- mation about a person’s mileage is an invasion of privacy, unless the collection is voluntary.”

119 Poll Sponsor (and author, if different) Publication Year Sampling Frame Geography MBUF Question Findings SPEA Indiana University (Duncan and Graham) 2013 Adults National Below is a list of statements in favor of and against a mileage user-fee administered through odometer readings. Please tell me whether you strongly agree, agree, disagree or strongly disagree with the following statements.: Reporting odometer mileage to the govern- ment is an invasion of privacy; 68% of respondents said they “agree” or “strongly agree” with the statement, “Reporting odom- eter mileage to the government is an invasion of privacy.” SPEA Indiana University (Duncan and Graham) 2013 Adults National Below is a list of statements in favor of and against the basic GPS-based mileage user-fee just described. Please tell me whether you strongly agree, agree, disagree or strongly dis- agree with the following statements: It would be easy for someone outside of the gov- ernment to get access to my GPS mileage data. 80% of respondents said they “agree” or “strongly agree” with the statement, “It would be easy for someone outside of the gov- ernment to get access to my GPS mileage data.” SPEA Indiana University (Duncan and Graham) 2013 Adults National Below is a list of statements in favor of and against the basic GPS-based mileage user-fee just described. Please tell me whether you strongly agree, agree, disagree or strongly dis- agree with the following statements: I like that this basic GPS system only tracks the total number of miles driven, so the govern- ment cannot monitor when and where I drive. 62% of respondents said they “agree” or “strongly agree” with the statement, “I like that this basic GPS system only tracks the total number of miles driven, so the government cannot moni- tor when and where I drive.” SPEA Indiana University (Duncan and Graham) 2013 Adults National Below is a list of statements in favor of and against the advanced GPS-based mileage user- fee described above. Please tell me whether you strongly agree, agree, disagree or strongly disagree with the following statements: I dislike this advanced GPS system because the government will be able to monitor when and where I drive. 81% of respondents, after hear- ing a description of an advanced GPS-based mileage user-fee system that would collect loca- tion data, said they “agree” or “strongly agree” with the state- ment, “I dislike this advanced GPS system because the govern- ment will be able to monitor when and where I drive.” SPEA Indiana University (Duncan and Graham) 2013 Adults National Below is a list of statements in favor of and against the advanced GPS-based mileage user- fee described above. Please tell me whether you strongly agree, agree, disagree or strongly disagree with the following statements: It would be easy for someone outside of the gov- ernment to get access to my GPS mileage data. 81% of respondents, after hear- ing a description of an advanced GPS-based mileage user-fee system that would col- lect location data, said they “agree” or “strongly agree” with the statement, “It would be easy for someone outside of the government to get access to my GPS mileage data.”

120 TABLE B4 SURVEY QUESTIONS ON FAIRNESS Poll Sponsor (and author, if different) Publication Year Sampling Frame Geography MBUF Question Findings Minnesota DOT (Dier- inger Research Group) 2009 Adults State I’m going to read several statements. For each, please tell me how much you agree or disagree that it describes the idea of a mile- age-based user fee as a solution to fill a possi- ble funding gap? Please use a 1 to 10 scale where “1” means “Completely Disagree” and “10” means “Completely Agree.” [ADD TO EACH INDIVIDUAL SCREEN]: How much to you agree or disagree that… Is a “fair” method to fund transportation 33% of respondents indicated agreement with the statement that a mileage-based user fee “is a ‘fair’ method to fund transportation” by rating it 8, 9, or 10 on a 10-point scale. 28% indicated disagreement with the statement by rating it 1, 2, or 3. Minnesota DOT (Munnich) 2012 Adults State Please tell me how much you agree or dis- agree with each of the following statements. Use a 10-point scale where 1 means you Dis- agree strongly and 10 means you Agree strongly. You can use any number in between. A vehicle miles traveled use fee program is one solution that is flexible enough to work with all vehicles so that they pay their fair share for use of the roadway system – high mileage vehicles, gas-electric hybrids, etha- nol- and biofuel-powered vehicles, plug-in vehicles and other technologies. 46% of respondents indicated they agreed (rating the statement 8, 9, or 10 on a 10-point scale); 19% indicated disagreement (rat- ing the statement 1, 2, or 3). Minnesota DOT (Munnich) 2012 Adults State Large, heavy trucks should be charged a higher use fee rate than regular vehicles, because trucks cause more road and bridge wear than cars. 26% of respondents indicated they disagreed with the statement, “Large, heavy trucks should be charged a higher use fee rate than regular vehicles, because trucks cause more road and bridge wear than cars,” by rating it 1, 2, or 3 on a 10-point scale. Less than 1% indicated agreement by rating the statement 8, 9, or 10. Minnesota DOT (Munnich) 2012 Adults State Please tell me how much you agree or disagree with each of the following statements. Use a 10-point scale where 1 means you Disagree strongly and 10 means you Agree strongly. You can use any number in between. Overall, vehicle miles traveled use fees are fair, because drivers pay according to how much they actually use the road. 33% of respondents indicated they agreed (rating of 8, 9, or 10 on a 10-point scale.); 30.5% dis- agreed (by rating the statement 1, 2, or 3). Minnesota DOT (Munnich) 2012 Adults State Please tell me how much you agree or dis- agree with each of the following statements. Use a 10-point scale where 1 means you Dis- agree strongly and 10 means you Agree strongly. You can use any number in between. Fees based on miles travelled are fair because they require drivers of vehicles that use little or no gasoline to also pay their fair share for using roads and bridges. 31% of respondents agreed (rat- ing of 8, 9, or 10 on a 10-point scale); 31% disagreed (rating the statement 1, 2, or 3). Oregon Department of Transportation (Whitty) 2013 Regis- tered voters State One idea is to eliminate the tax on gasoline and replace it with a tax on miles driven. Do you believe paying a road usage tax based on the total miles you drive would be more fair, less fair, or about the same as paying a tax on gasoline? 40% of respondents said they “believe paying a road usage tax based on the total miles [they] drive” would be “less fair” than “paying a tax on gas- oline.” 15% said it would be “more fair” and 36% said it would be “about the same.” Oregon Department of Transportation (Whitty) 2013 Regis- tered voters State What about for residents in rural areas or small towns who often drive long distances? Do you believe paying a road usage tax based on the total miles driven would be more fair, less fair, or about the same as paying a tax on gasoline? 57% of respondents said they “believe paying a road usage tax based on the total miles [they] drive” would be “less fair” than “paying a tax on gasoline” for “residents in rural areas or small towns who often drive long dis- tances.” 6% said it would be “more fair” and 32% said it would be “about the same.”

121 Poll Sponsor (and author, if different) Publication Year Sampling Frame Geography MBUF Question Findings SPEA Indiana University (Duncan and Graham) 2013 Adults National Please tell me whether you strongly agree, agree, disagree or strongly disagree with the following statements about a mileage user-fee: A mileage user-fee is unfair to people living in rural areas because they have to drive more miles to get to places they need to go; 79% of respondents said they “agree” or “strongly agree” with the statement, “A mileage user-fee is unfair to people liv- ing in rural areas because they have to drive more miles to get to places they need to go.” SPEA Indiana University (Duncan and Graham) 2013 Adults National Please tell me whether you strongly agree, agree, disagree or strongly disagree with the following statements about a mileage user-fee: A mileage user-fee is unfair to people who drive a lot on the job (for example, truckers, sales people, and taxi drivers) 73% of respondents said they “agree” or “strongly agree” with the statement, “A mileage user-fee is unfair to people who drive a lot on the job (for exam- ple, truckers, salespeople, and taxi drivers).” SPEA Indiana University (Duncan and Graham) 2013 Adults National Please tell me whether you strongly agree, agree, disagree or strongly disagree with the following statements about a mileage user-fee: A mileage user-fee is unfair to people who drive fuel efficient vehicles. 56% of respondents said they “agree” or “strongly agree” with the statement, “A mileage user-fee is unfair to people who drive fuel efficient vehicles.” Oregon Department of Transportation (Whitty) 2013 Regis- tered voters State One idea is to eliminate the tax on gasoline and replace it with a tax on miles driven. Do you believe paying a road usage tax based on the total miles you drive would be more fair, less fair, or about the same as paying a tax on gasoline? 46% of respondents said they “believe paying a road usage tax based on the total miles [they] drive” would be “less fair” than “paying a tax on gas- oline.” 18% said it would be “more fair” and 31% said it would be “about the same.” Washington State Trans- portation Commission (EMC Market and Opin- ion Research Services) 2015 Adults State Do you think a per mile road usage charge is a fair way to fund transportation? 45% of respondents said a “road usage charge is a fair way to fund transportation.” Washington State Trans- portation Commission (EMC Market and Opin- ion Research Services) 2015 Adults State Which option do you think is more fair, a per gallon gas tax or a per mile road usage charge? 31% of respondents said a “per- mile road usage charge” is “much more fair” or “somewhat more fair” than a “per-gallon gas tax.” 39% said the gas tax was more fair. 23% said “both options are the same.” Washington State Trans- portation Commission (EMC Market and Opin- ion Research Services) 2015 Adults State Given the information provided in this survey, which option do you think is more fair, a per gallon gas tax or a per mile road usage charge? 38% of respondents, after hear- ing more information about “a per mile road usage charge,” said it was “much more fair” or “somewhat more fair” than a “per gallon gas tax,” an increase of 7 points; 34% said it was less fair, a decrease of 5 points; 21% said both options were the same, a decrease of 2 points.

122 TABLE B5 SUMMARY OF MBUF POLL QUESTIONS CATEGORIZED AS “OTHER” THAN GENERAL SUPPORT OR FOCUSED ON REPLACING THE GAS TAX, EXCLUDING QUESTIONS FOCUSED ON PRIVACY OR FAIRNESS Poll Sponsor (and author, if different) Publication Year Sampling Frame Geography MBUF Question Findings University of Nevada, Las Vegas (Nordland, Paz, and Khan) 2013 Adults Local Prior to reading the introduction, what was your familiarity with a Vehicle Miles Travel (VMT) fee system? 22% of respondents said they were “somewhat familiar” or “very familiar” with a VMT system prior to reading the sur- vey introduction. University of Nevada, Las Vegas (Nordland, Paz, and Khan) 2013 Adults Local Rank the following VMT components based on personal importance from 1-5 (Five (5) being most important, one (1) being least important): Ease of Use 71% of respondents indicated “ease of use” was an important component of a VMT system by rating it 4 or 5 on a five- point scale. University of Nevada, Las Vegas (Nordland, Paz, and Khan) 2013 Adults Local Rank the following VMT components based on personal importance from 1-5 (Five (5) being most important, one (1) being least important): b. Reliability 67% of respondents indicated “reliability” was an important component of a VMT system by rating it 4 or 5 on a five- point scale. University of Nevada, Las Vegas (Nordland, Paz, and Khan) 2013 Adults Local Rank the following VMT components based on personal importance from 1-5 (Five (5) being most important, one (1) being least important): Transparency 43% of respondents indicated “transparency” was an impor- tant component of a VMT sys- tem by rating it 4 or 5 on a five- point scale. University of Nevada, Las Vegas (Nordland, Paz, and Khan) 2013 Adults Local Rank the following VMT components based on personal importance from 1-5 (Five (5) being most important, one (1) being least important): Convenience 70% of respondents indicated “convenience” was an impor- tant component of a VMT sys- tem by rating it 4 or 5 on a five- point scale. University of Nevada, Las Vegas (Nordland, Paz, and Khan) 2013 Adults Local The emphasis of the field test will be on a simple pay-at-the pump system. The system will read the change in odometer miles at each pump visit, and apply an established rate, without tracking vehicle location. What is your level of comfort with this system? 33% of respondents said they would be “very comfortable” or “somewhat comfortable” with “a simple pay-at-the- pump system [that] will read the change in odometer miles at each pump visit, and apply an established rate, without tracking vehicle location.” University of Nevada, Las Vegas (Nordland, Paz, and Khan) 2013 Adults Local What is your level of concern over the cost of implementing a replacement system of the fuel tax system? 46% of respondents said they were “very unconcerned” or “somewhat unconcerned” with “the cost of implementing a replacement system of the fuel tax system.” University of Nevada, Las Vegas (Nordland, Paz, and Khan) 2013 Adults Local How would a VMT fee affect your use of a transit system (bus, rail, etc.)?" (significantly more use, somewhat more use, neutral, some- what less use, significantly less use) 69% of respondents said a VMT fee would not affect their “use of a transit system (bus, rail, etc.).” 18% said it would cause them to use transit “significantly less” or “somewhat less,” while 13% said it would cause them to use transit “significantly more” or “somewhat more.” Colorado State University (Ozbek, Albeiruti, and Atadero) 2014 Adults Regional I feel comfortable with having a device in my vehicle that can track when and where I am driving for the purpose of determining the fees I owe. COLORADO 11% of respondents from Colo- rado said they “agree” or “strongly agree” with the state- ment, “I feel comfortable with having a device in my vehicle that can track when and where I am driving for the purpose of determining the fees I owe.” Colorado State University (Ozbek, Albeiruti, and Atadero) 2014 Adults Regional I feel comfortable with having a device in my vehicle that can track when and where I am driving for the purpose of determining the fees I owe. NORTH DAKOTA 11% of respondents from North Dakota said they “agree” or “strongly agree” with the state- ment, “I feel comfortable with having a device in my vehicle that can track when and where I am driving for the purpose of determining the fees I owe.”

123 Poll Sponsor (and author, if different) Publication Year Sampling Frame Geography MBUF Question Findings Colorado State University (Ozbek, Albeiruti, and Atadero) 2014 Adults Regional I feel comfortable with having a device in my vehicle that can track when and where I am driving for the purpose of determining the fees I owe. SOUTH DAKOTA 14% of respondents from South Dakota said they “agree” or “strongly agree” with the state- ment, “I feel comfortable with having a device in my vehicle that can track when and where I am driving for the purpose of determining the fees I owe.” Colorado State University (Ozbek, Albeiruti, and Atadero) 2014 Adults Regional I feel comfortable with having a device in my vehicle that can track when and where I am driving for the purpose of determining the fees I owe. UTAH 11% of respondents from Utah said they “agree” or “strongly agree” with the statement, “I feel comfortable with having a device in my vehicle that can track when and where I am driving for the purpose of deter- mining the fees I owe.” Colorado State University (Ozbek, Albeiruti, and Atadero) 2014 Adults Regional I feel comfortable with having a device in my vehicle that can track when and where I am driving for the purpose of determining the fees I owe. WYOMING 9% of respondents from Wyo- ming said they “agree” or “strongly agree” with the state- ment, “I feel comfortable with having a device in my vehicle that can track when and where I am driving for the purpose of determining the fees I owe.” Hart Research Associates and Public Opinion Strate- gies (Hart Research Asso- ciates and Public Opinion Strategies) 2011 Regis- tered voters National As you may know, Congress is likely to update the law that deals with our transporta- tion infrastructure. There are a number of things that could be included in this legislation that would change the ways in which transpor- tation dollars are spent. Please tell me whether you would strongly favor, somewhat favor, somewhat oppose, or strongly oppose each of the following changes in transportation fund- ing: Developing a pilot program to allow selected states or localities to test replacing the per-gallon gasoline tax with one that works like a user fee instead by charging based on the number of miles driven on the roads it funds. 40% of respondents said they would “strongly favor” or “somewhat favor” Congress approving the development of “a pilot program to allow selected states or localities to test replacing the per-gallon gasoline tax with one that works like a user fee instead by charging based on the number of miles driven on the roads it funds.” HNTB Companies (Kel- ton Research) 2010 Adults National How strongly do you agree or disagree with the following statement: The U.S. should try to reduce transportation greenhouse gas emis- sions by reducing the number of miles that vehicles travel through a mileage use tax. 39% of respondents said they “strongly agree” or “somewhat agree” with the statement, “The U.S. should try to reduce trans- portation greenhouse gas emis- sions by reducing the number of miles that vehicles travel through a mileage use tax.” HNTB Companies (Kel- ton Research) 2011 Adults National A Vehicle Miles Traveled (VMT) system uses odometer readings or satellite-based technology to measure how much each vehi- cle is driven and charges each owner accord- ingly. What do you think would be the best way to introduce such a system in the United States? 29% of respondents, choosing from among five options, said the best way to introduce a “Vehicle Miles Traveled (VMT) system” in the United States would be to “introduce it first only with electric vehi- cle users that do not pay any gas taxes.” 22% chose an “annual fee based on odometer reading through state inspec- tion or registration process,” 21% chose a “GPS-based sys- tem based on actual miles trav- eled,” 15% chose “estimated mileage based on vehicle fuel efficiency or amount of fuel purchase at the pump,” and 13% chose “other.” Table B5 Continued on p.124

124 Poll Sponsor (and author, if different) Publication Year Sampling Frame Geography MBUF Question Findings HNTB Corporation (Kelton Research) 2012 Adults National If you had to choose one, where would you most prefer the United States get funding for the nation’s interstate projects? 23% of respondents chose “a vehicle miles driven user fee” as their preferred method for “funding the nation’s interstate projects” from among three options. 61% chose “tolls” and 16% chose “increased federal gas tax.” Minnesota DOT (Dier- inger Research Group) 2009 Adults State Had you ever heard of a user fee based on mileage driven before you received these materials? 41% of respondents said they had “heard of a user fee based on mileage driven” prior to the survey. Minnesota DOT (Dier- inger Research Group) 2009 Adults State How much thought or consideration had you given this idea of a user fee for miles driven, before you received these materials? Would you say… 64% of respondents said they had given the idea of a mileage- based user fee “some thought or consideration” prior to the sur- vey. 16% said they had given it “a significant amount of thought or consideration,” and 20% said they had given it “no thought at all.” Minnesota DOT (Dier- inger Research Group) 2009 Adults State Describe what, if anything, you liked most about this approach? (ENTER ALL THAT APPLY.): 24% of respondents, who were asked to consider a mileage- based user fee that would use a GPS device to collect data and vary rates by time and place of travel, said what they “liked most” about the approach was that it would be a base for fees. 16% said it would be easy to use, and 14% said they liked that it was fair. Asked to con- sider a different approach that would use odometer readings reported annually and vary rates by type of vehicle, 34% said what they “liked most” was that it would be a base for fees. 16% said they liked the fairness of the approach, 11% said it would be lower cost, and an additional 11% said they liked that it would be easy to use. Minnesota DOT (Dier- inger Research Group) 2009 Adults State I’m going to read several statements. For each, please tell me how much you agree or disagree that it describes the idea of a mile- age-based user fee as a solution to fill a possi- ble funding gap? Please use a 1 to 10 scale where “1” means “Completely Disagree” and “10” means “Completely Agree.” [ADD TO EACH INDIVIDUAL SCREEN]: How much to you agree or disagree that… Is an acceptable method 29% of respondents indicated agreement with the statement that a mileage-based user fee “is an acceptable method to fund transportation” by rating it 8, 9, or 10 on a 10-point scale. 28% indicated disagreement with the statement by rating it 1, 2, or 3. Minnesota DOT (Wilbur Smith Associates) 1995 Adults State Why do you rate it a (ANSWER TO B)? [This questions refers to an earlier one in the survey that asked: Based on the information I have given you, I would like your opinion of the idea of paying tax on the number of miles driven in Minnesota rather than on the amount of gas purchased. Using a scale of 1 to 10 in which 10 means very acceptable and 1 means totally unacceptable, how would you rate the idea of a mileage-based tax as a method of raising funds for our state-wide transportation system? You may use any number from 1 to 10 to give your answer.] 26% of respondents provided positive comments to explain their previous rating of accep- tance for replacing the gas tax with a mileage-based tax in Minnesota, including 11% who stated that “people who use the roads the most would pay more of their share.” Table B5 Continued from p.123

125 Poll Sponsor (and author, if different) Publication Year Sampling Frame Geography MBUF Question Findings Minnesota DOT (Wilbur Smith Associates) 1995 Adults State Using a scale of 1 to 10 in which 10 means very acceptable and 1 means totally unaccept- able, how would you rate a one-cent per mile mileage-based tax as an option to replace the income from license plates and tabs? 19% of respondents expressed acceptance for the idea of using a one-cent per mile tax as an option to replace the income from license plates and tabs by rating the statement 8 or higher on a 10-point scale. Minnesota DOT (Wilbur Smith Associates) 1995 Adults State Using a scale of 1 to 10 in which 10 means very acceptable and 1 means totally unaccept- able, how would you rate a one-cent per mile mileage-based tax as an option to replace a portion of the property tax? 21% of respondents expressed acceptance for the idea of using a one-cent per mile tax as an option to replace a portion of the property tax by rating the statement 8 or higher on a 10-point scale. Minnesota DOT (Munnich) 2012 Adults State Heavy polluting vehicles should be charged at a higher fee based on miles traveled than light polluting vehicles. 39% of respondents indicated they agreed with the statement, “Heavy polluting vehicles should be charged at a higher fee based on miles traveled than light pol- luting vehicles,” by rating it 8, 9, or 10 on a 10-point scale. 29% indicated disagreement by rating the statement 1, 2, or 3. Minnesota DOT (Munnich) 2012 Adults State Before participating in this survey, had you heard about the concept of paying a fee based on the miles you drive? 48% of respondents said they had “heard about the concept of paying a road use fee based on the miles you drive.” Minnesota DOT (Munnich) 2012 Adults State How familiar are you with the concept of pay- ing a fee based on the miles driven? 56% of respondents said they were “not very familiar” with “the concept of paying a road use fee based on the miles driven.” 21% said they were “very familiar” with the concept, 12% said they were “not at all familiar,” and 11% said they had “only heard the name.” Minnesota DOT (Munnich) 2012 Adults State The system should have the same rate that does not vary, no matter how big the vehicle is, how much it pollutes, or the time or place where it is driven. 32% of respondents indicated they disagreed with the state- ment, “The system should have rates that vary according to how big the vehicles is, how much it pollutes, or the time or place where it is driven,” by rating it 1, 2, or 3 on a 10-point scale. 28% indicated agreement by rating the statement 8, 9, or 10. Minnesota DOT (Munnich) 2012 Adults State Environmentally friendly vehicles should be charged a lower fee based on miles traveled. 38% of respondents indicated they disagreed with the state- ment, “Environmentally friendly vehicles should be charged a lower fee based on miles traveled,” by rating it 1, 2, or 3 on a 10-point scale. 27.5% indicated agreement by rating the statement 8, 9, or 10. Minnesota DOT (Munnich) 2012 Adults State Different fees based on miles traveled should be charged based on the size or weight of the vehicle. 36% of respondents indicated they disagreed with the state- ment, “Different fees based on miles traveled should be charged based on the size or weight of the vehicle,” by rating it 1, 2, or 3 on a 10-point scale. 25% indi- cated agreement by rating the statement 8, 9, or 10. Table B5 Continued on p.126

126 Poll Sponsor (and author, if different) Publication Year Sampling Frame Geography MBUF Question Findings Minnesota DOT (Munnich) 2012 Adults State Each vehicle should be assigned to one of sev- eral categories based on fuel efficiency and/or level of criterion emissions as defined by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the State then assigns a different per-mile use rate to each of the vehicle categories. *Note: This question is pulled from the draft survey and may have been phrased differently in the final survey questionnaire, which was not available. 38% of respondents indicated they disagreed with the state- ment, “Each vehicle should be assigned to one of several cate- gories based on fuel efficiency and/or level of criterion emis- sions as defined by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the State then assigns a different per-mile use rate to each of the vehicle cate- gories,” by rating it 1, 2, or 3 on a 10-point scale. 21% indicated agreement by rating the state- ment 8, 9, or 10. Minnesota DOT (Munnich) 2012 Adults State There should be a different fee based on miles traveled for driving on rural roads than driving on roads in urban areas. 41% of respondents indicated they disagreed with the state- ment, “There should be a differ- ent fee based on miles traveled for driving on rural roads than driving on roads in urban areas,” by rating it 1, 2, or 3 on a 10-point scale. 18% indicated agreement by rating the state- ment 8, 9, or 10. Minnesota DOT (Munnich) 2012 Adults State Vehicles should be charged more for driving in areas with high traffic volume than areas with low traffic volume. 48% of respondents indicated they disagreed with the state- ment, “Vehicles should be charged more for driving in areas with high traffic volume than areas with low traffic volume,” by rating it 1, 2, or 3 on a 10-point scale. 14% indicated agreement by rating the state- ment 8, 9, or 10. Minnesota DOT (Munnich) 2012 Adults State All vehicles should be charged more for driv- ing on roadways during rush hour periods (5:30 am-9:00 am and 3:00 pm -6:00 pm) to help reduce traffic congestion. 52% of respondents indicated they disagreed with the state- ment, “All vehicles should be charged more for driving on roadways during rush hour peri- ods (5:30 am-9:00 am and 3:00 pm -6:00 pm) to help reduce traffic congestion,” by rating it 1, 2, or 3 on a 10-point scale. 15% indicated agreement by rat- ing the statement 8, 9, or 10. Minnesota DOT (Munnich) 2012 Adults State Vehicles should be charged the regular rate for driving on city streets and more for driving on state highways and freeways. 50% of respondents indicated they disagreed with the state- ment, “Vehicles should be charged the regular rate for driv- ing on city streets and more for driving on state highways and freeways,” by rating it 1, 2, or 3 on a 10-point scale. 10% indi- cated dis/agreement by rating the statement 8, 9, or 10. Minnesota DOT (Munnich) 2012 Adults State If a vehicle miles use fee program is ever implemented, the driver of a vehicle should always know the cost per mile and the total amount being charged to-date. *Note: This question is pulled from the draft survey and may have been phrased differently in the final survey questionnaire, which was not available. — 65% of respondents indicated they agreed with the statement, “If a vehicle miles use fee pro- gram is ever implemented, the driver of a vehicle should always know the cost per mile and the total amount being charged to-date,” by rating it 8, 9, or 10 on a 10-point scale. 14% indicated disagreement by rating the statement 1, 2, or 3. Table B5 Continued from p.125

127 Poll Sponsor (and author, if different) Publication Year Sampling Frame Geography MBUF Question Findings Minnesota DOT (Munnich) 2012 Adults State The cost and maintenance of basic devices to collect information about vehicle miles trav- eled should be the responsibility of the state and federal governments, not the drivers. *Note: This question is pulled from the draft survey and may have been phrased differently in the final survey questionnaire, which was not available. 58% of respondents indicated they agreed with the statement, “The cost and maintenance of basic devices to collect infor- mation about vehicle miles traveled should be the responsi- bility of the state and federal governments, not the drivers,” by rating it 8, 9, or 10 on a 10-point scale. 16% indicated disagreement by rating the statement 1, 2, or 3. Minnesota DOT (Munnich) 2012 Adults State There should be a policy that helps to safe- guard against evading fees based on miles traveled. 30.5% of respondents indicated they disagreed with the state- ment, “There should be a policy that helps to safeguard against evading fees based on miles traveled,” by rating it 1, 2, or 3 on a 10-point scale. 29% indi- cated agreement by rating the statement 8, 9, or 10. Minnesota DOT (Munnich) 2012 Adults State If private companies are certified by the state to collect use fee information for vehicle miles trav- eled, they should be able to offer devices with additional features such as traffic information, global positioning system and other features that improve my safety and driving information. *Note: This question is pulled from the draft survey and may have been phrased differently in the final survey questionnaire, which was not available. 30% of respondents indicated they disagreed with the state- ment, “If private companies are certified by the state to collect use fee information for vehicle miles traveled, they should be able to offer devices with addi- tional features such as traffic information, global positioning system and other features that improve my safety and driving information,” by rating it 1, 2, or 3 on a 10-point scale. 28% indicated agreement by rating the statement 8, 9, or 10. Minnesota DOT (Munnich) 2012 Adults State Miles traveled on Minnesota roadways should be read from my vehicle’s odometer monthly or when license tabs are paid. 37.5% of respondents indicated they disagreed with the state- ment, “Miles traveled on Minne- sota roadways should be read from my vehicle’s odometer monthly or when license tabs are paid,” by rating it 1, 2, or 3 on a 10-point scale. 23% indicated agreement by rating the state- ment 8, 9, or 10. Minnesota DOT (Munnich) 2012 Adults State When I buy motor fuel, a device in my car should tell the pump how many miles have been driven since my last reading and should charge accordingly. 48% of respondents indicated they disagreed with the state- ment, “When I buy motor fuel, a device in my car should tell the pump how many miles have been driven since my last read- ing and should charge accord- ingly,” by rating it 1, 2, or 3 on a 10-point scale. 15% indicated agreement by rating the state- ment 8, 9, or 10. Minnesota DOT (Munnich) 2012 Adults State Miles traveled on Minnesota roadways should be collected on a device in my vehicle that uses Global Positioning System (GPS) tech- nology and then transmitted securely to a cen- tral location for billing purposes. *Note: This question is pulled from the draft survey and may have been phrased differently in the final survey questionnaire, which was not available. 53% of respondents indicated they disagreed with the state- ment, “Miles traveled on Min- nesota roadways should be col- lected on a device in my vehicle that uses Global Positioning Systems (GPS) technology and then transmitted securely to a central location for billing pur- poses,” by rating it 1, 2, or 3 on a 10-point scale. 14.5% indi- cated agreement by rating the statement 8, 9, or 10. Table B5 Continued on p.128

128 Poll Sponsor (and author, if different) Publication Year Sampling Frame Geography MBUF Question Findings Minnesota DOT (Munnich) 2012 Adults State Miles traveled on Minnesota roadways should be collected on a device in my vehicle that uses cellular phone-based technology and then transmitted securely to a central location for billing purposes *Note: This question is pulled from the draft survey and may have been phrased differently in the final survey questionnaire, which was not available. 55.5% of respondents indicated they disagreed with the state- ment, “Miles traveled on Min- nesota roadways should be col- lected on a device in my vehicle that uses cellular phone-based technology and then transmitted securely to a central location for billing purposes,” by rating it 1, 2, or 3 on a 10-point scale. 11% indicated agreement by rating the statement 8, 9, or 10. Minnesota DOT (Munnich) 2012 Adults State I would like a high-tech system to collect fees based on miles traveled that also provides driver benefits such as directions, traffic infor- mation, location, and fuel consumption 34% of respondents indicated they disagreed with the state- ment, “I would like a high-tech system to collect fees based on miles traveled that also pro- vides driver benefits such as directions, traffic information, location ,and fuel consump- tion,” by rating it 1, 2, or 3 on a 10-point scale. 23% indicated agreement by rating the state- ment 8, 9, or 10. SPEA Indiana University (Duncan and Graham) 2013 Adults National The government is considering whether to replace the gasoline tax with a road user-fee based on miles driven. In other words, instead of a gasoline tax, each driver will pay a user- fee based on the number of miles he or she drives. The more miles a driver drives, the more he or she will pay. This is sometimes called a mileage user-fee. Before this survey, had you heard or seen information about a mileage user-fee? 18% of respondents said they had “heard or seen information about a mileage user-fee” before taking the survey. SPEA Indiana University (Duncan and Graham) 2013 Adults National Which of the following best describes the information you have heard or seen about the mileage user-fee? 54% of those respondents who had heard or seen information on mileage user fees prior to taking the survey said “the information was equally favor- able and unfavorable.” 37% said it was “mostly unfavor- able” and 7% said it was “mostly favorable.” SPEA Indiana University (Duncan and Graham) 2013 Adults National Please tell me whether you strongly agree, agree, disagree or strongly disagree with the following statements about a mileage user-fee: A mileage user-fee makes it easy for road users to calculate how much they pay the gov- ernment for using the roads; 52% of respondents said they “agree” or “strongly agree” with the statement, “A mileage user-fee makes it easy for road users to calculate how much they pay the government for using the roads.” SPEA Indiana University (Duncan and Graham) 2013 Adults National Please tell me whether you strongly agree, agree, disagree or strongly disagree with the following statements about a mileage user-fee: A mileage user-fee is an accurate way to charge road users for the wear and tear they cause on the roads; 59% of respondents said they “disagree” or “strongly dis- agree” with the statement, “A mileage user-fee is an accurate way to charge road users for the wear and tear they cause on the roads.” SPEA Indiana University (Duncan and Graham) 2013 Adults National Below is a list of statements in favor of and against a mileage user-fee administered through odometer readings. Please tell me whether you strongly agree, agree, disagree or strongly disagree with the following statements.: Reporting my odometer mileage to the DMV each year will be inconvenient; 69% of respondents said they “agree” or “strongly agree” with the statement, “Reporting my odometer mileage to the DMV each year will be inconvenient.” Table B5 Continued from p.127

129 Poll Sponsor (and author, if different) Publication Year Sampling Frame Geography MBUF Question Findings SPEA Indiana University (Duncan and Graham) 2013 Adults National Below is a list of statements in favor of and against a mileage user-fee administered through odometer readings. Please tell me whether you strongly agree, agree, disagree or strongly disagree with the following statements.: Most people will honestly report the mileage on the odometer in their cars; 58% of respondents said they “disagree” or “strongly dis- agree” with the statement, “Most people will honestly report the mileage on the odom- eter in their cars.” SPEA Indiana University (Duncan and Graham) 2013 Adults National Below is a list of statements in favor of and against a mileage user-fee administered through odometer readings. Please tell me whether you strongly agree, agree, disagree or strongly disagree with the following statements: A significant number of motorists will tamper with the odometer in their car; 62% of respondents said they “agree” or “strongly agree” with the statement, “A signifi- cant number of motorists will tamper with the odometer in their car.” SPEA Indiana University (Duncan and Graham) 2013 Adults National Below is a list of statements in favor of and against a mileage user-fee administered through odometer readings. Please tell me whether you strongly agree, agree, disagree or strongly disagree with the following statements: The audit process will keep most people from tampering with the odometer in their cars; 58% of respondents said they “disagree” or “strongly dis- agree” with the statement, “The audit process will keep most people from tampering with the odometer in their cars.” SPEA Indiana University (Duncan and Graham) 2013 Adults National Below is a list of statements in favor of and against a mileage user-fee administered through odometer readings. Please tell me whether you strongly agree, agree, disagree or strongly dis- agree with the following statements: The odometer mileage user-fee would be easy to implement since every vehicle already has an odometer” 54% of respondents said they “agree” or “strongly agree” with the statement, “The odom- eter mileage user-fee would be easy to implement since every vehicle already has an odometer.” SPEA Indiana University (Duncan and Graham) 2013 Adults National "Would you be willing to take any of the fol- lowing actions to support an odometer-based mileage user-fee in your state?" 61% of respondents who sup- ported a mileage user-fee as a replacement for their state’s gasoline tax said they would be “willing” to “sign a petition” expressing their support. SPEA Indiana University (Duncan and Graham) 2013 Adults National Would you be willing to take any of the fol- lowing actions to support an odometer-based mileage user-fee in your state? 32% of respondents who sup- ported a mileage user-fee as a replacement for their state’s gasoline tax said they would be “willing” to “write or email [their] legislator” to express their support. SPEA Indiana University (Duncan and Graham) 2013 Adults National Would you contribute ($1, $5, $10, $20, $30, $40, $50, >$50) to a political campaign in support of the odometer-based mileage user- fee described above in your state? 61% of respondents who sup- ported a mileage user-fee as a replacement for their state’s gas- oline tax said they were not will- ing to contribute any amount “to a political campaign in support” of the fee. Among the 36% who were willing to make a contribu- tion, 60% would contribute $1–$5, 37% would contribute $10–$20, 2% would contribute $30–$50, and 1% would con- tribute more than $50. SPEA Indiana University (Duncan and Graham) 2013 Adults National Would you be willing to take any of the fol- lowing actions to oppose an odometer-based mileage user-fee in your state? 79% of respondents who opposed a mileage user-fee as a replacement for their state’s gasoline tax said they would be “willing” to “sign a petition” expressing their opposition. Table B5 Continued on p.130

130 Poll Sponsor (and author, if different) Publication Year Sampling Frame Geography MBUF Question Findings SPEA Indiana University (Duncan and Graham) 2013 Adults National Would you be willing to take any of the fol- lowing actions to oppose an odometer-based mileage user-fee in your state? 57% of respondents who opposed a mileage user-fee as a replacement for their state’s gasoline tax said they would be “willing” to “write or email [their] legislator” to express their opposition. SPEA Indiana University (Duncan and Graham) 2013 Adults National Would you contribute ($1, $5, $10, $20, $30, $40, $50, >$50) to a political campaign against the odometer-based mileage user-fee described above in your state? 55% of respondents who opposed a mileage user-fee as a replacement for their state’s gas- oline tax said they were not will- ing to contribute any amount “to a political campaign against” the fee. Among the 43% who were willing to make a contribution, 40% would contribute $1–$5, 41% would contribute $10–$20, 10% would contribute $30–$50, and 9% would contribute more than $50. SPEA Indiana University (Duncan and Graham) 2013 Adults National Below is a list of statements in favor of and against the basic GPS-based mileage user-fee just described. Please tell me whether you strongly agree, agree, disagree or strongly dis- agree with the following statements: GPS systems are accurate in measuring miles of travel. 63% of respondents said they “agree” or “strongly agree” with the statement, “GPS sys- tems are accurate in measuring miles of travel.” SPEA Indiana University (Duncan and Graham) 2013 Adults National Below is a list of statements in favor of and against the basic GPS-based mileage user-fee just described. Please tell me whether you strongly agree, agree, disagree or strongly dis- agree with the following statements: It is difficult to tamper with a GPS system. 57% of respondents said they “disagree” or “strongly dis- agree” with the statement, “It is difficult to tamper with a GPS system.” SPEA Indiana University (Duncan and Graham) 2013 Adults National Below is a list of statements in favor of and against the basic GPS-based mileage user-fee just described. Please tell me whether you strongly agree, agree, disagree or strongly dis- agree with the following statements: Many drivers would tamper with their GPS systems if the government relies on GPS to collect mileage data for the mileage user-fee. 66% of respondents said they “agree” or “strongly agree” with the statement, “Many driv- ers would tamper with their GPS systems if the government relies on GPS to collect mileage data for the mileage user-fee.” SPEA Indiana University (Duncan and Graham) 2013 Adults National Below is a list of statements in favor of and against the basic GPS-based mileage user-fee just described. Please tell me whether you strongly agree, agree, disagree or strongly dis- agree with the following statements: It would be inconvenient to have to get the GPS device installed in my car. 76% of respondents said they “agree” or “strongly agree” with the statement, “It would be inconvenient to have to get the GPS device installed in my car.” SPEA Indiana University (Duncan and Graham) 2013 Adults National Below is a list of statements in favor of and against the basic GPS-based mileage user-fee just described. Please tell me whether you strongly agree, agree, disagree or strongly dis- agree with the following statements: It is a waste of money to buy those GPS devices since all cars already have an odometer; 77% of respondents said they “agree” or “strongly agree” with the statement, “It is a waste of money to buy those GPS devices since all cars already have an odometer.” SPEA Indiana University (Duncan and Graham) 2013 Adults National Below is a list of statements in favor of and against the basic GPS-based mileage user-fee just described. Please tell me whether you strongly agree, agree, disagree or strongly dis- agree with the following statements: I dislike this basic GPS-based mileage user- fee because I have to pay for the GPS device. 84% of a subset of respondents, who were told drivers would be required to pay $250 for a GPS device to record the number of miles driven, said they “agree” or “strongly agree” with the statement, “I dislike this basic GPS-based mileage user-fee because I have to pay for the GPS device.” Table B5 Continued from p.129

131 Poll Sponsor (and author, if different) Publication Year Sampling Frame Geography MBUF Question Findings SPEA Indiana University (Duncan and Graham) 2013 Adults National Below is a list of statements in favor of and against the basic GPS-based mileage user-fee just described. Please tell me whether you strongly agree, agree, disagree or strongly dis- agree with the following statements: $250 is too much to pay for the GPS device. 87% of respondents said they “agree” or “strongly agree” with the statement, “$250 is too much to pay for the GPS device.” SPEA Indiana University (Duncan and Graham) 2013 Adults National Below is a list of statements in favor of and against the basic GPS-based mileage user-fee just described. Please tell me whether you strongly agree, agree, disagree or strongly dis- agree with the following statements: The audit process will keep most peo- ple from tampering with the GPS sys- tem or the odometer in their cars. 54% of respondents said they “disagree” or “strongly disagree” with the state- ment, “The audit process will keep most people from tampering with the GPS system or the odometer in their cars.” SPEA Indiana University (Duncan and Graham) 2013 Adults National Would you be willing to take any of the following actions to support this basic/advanced GPS-based mileage user-fee in your state? 61% of respondents who supported a basic GPS-based mileage user-fee (no location data collected) as a replace- ment for their state’s gasoline tax said they would be “willing” to “sign a petition” expressing their support. 63% of respondents who similarly sup- ported an advanced GPS-based mile- age user-fee (location data collected) would be willing to sign a petition. SPEA Indiana University (Duncan and Graham) 2013 Adults National Would you be willing to take any of the following actions to support this basic/advanced GPS-based mileage user-fee in your state? 30% of respondents who supported a basic GPS-based mileage user-fee (no location data collected) as a replacement for their state’s gasoline tax said they would be “willing” to “write or email [their] legislator” to express their sup- port. 32% of respondents who similarly supported an advanced GPS-based mile- age user-fee (location data collected) would be willing to write their legislator. SPEA Indiana University (Duncan and Graham) 2013 Adults National Would you contribute ($1, $5, $10, $20, $30, $40, $50, >$50) to a politi- cal campaign in support of this basic/ advanced GPS-based mileage user fee described above in your state? 56% of respondents who supported a basic GPS-based mileage user-fee (no location data collected) as a replacement for their state’s gasoline tax said they were not willing to contribute any amount “to a political campaign in sup- port” of the fee. Among the 38% who were willing to make a contribution, 55% would contribute $1–$5, 39% would contribute $10-$20, 3% would contribute $30–$50, and 2% would con- tribute more than $50. 52% of respon- dents who similarly supported an advanced GPS-based mileage user-fee (location data collected) were unwilling to contribute. Among the 42% willing to make a contribution, 52% would contrib- ute $1–$5, 41% would contribute $10– $20, 5% would contribute $30–$50, and 2% would contribute more than $50. SPEA Indiana University (Duncan and Graham) 2013 Adults National Would you be willing to take any of the following actions to oppose this basic/advanced GPS-based mileage user-fee in your state? 74% of respondents who opposed a basic GPS-based mileage user-fee (no location data collected) as a replacement for their state’s gasoline tax said they would be “willing” to “sign a petition” expressing their opposition. 73% of respondents who similarly opposed an advanced GPS- based mileage user-fee (location data col- lected) would be willing to sign a petition. Table B5 Continued on p.132

132 Poll Sponsor (and author, if different) Publication Year Sampling Frame Geography MBUF Question Findings SPEA Indiana University (Duncan and Graham) 2013 Adults National Would you be willing to take any of the following actions to oppose this basic/advanced GPS-based mileage user-fee in your state? 53% of respondents who opposed a basic GPS-based mileage user-fee (no location data collected) as a replace- ment for their state’s gasoline tax said they would be “willing” to “write or email [their] legislator” to express their opposition. 54% of respondents who similarly opposed an advanced GPS- based mileage user-fee (location data collected) would be willing to write their legislator. SPEA Indiana University (Duncan and Graham) 2013 Adults National Would you contribute ($1, $5, $10, $20, $30, $40, $50, >$50) to a politi- cal campaign against this basic/ advanced GPS-based mileage user-fee described above in your state? 59% of respondents who opposed a basic GPS-based mileage user-fee (no location data collected) as a replacement for their state’s gasoline tax said they were not willing to contribute any amount “to a political campaign against” the fee. Among the 38% who were willing to make a contribution, 36% would contrib- ute $1–$5, 40% would contribute $10– $20, 10% would contribute $30–$50, and 14% would contribute more than $50. 59% of respondents who similarly opposed an advanced GPS-based mile- age user-fee (location data collected) were unwilling to contribute. Among the 38% willing to make a contribution, 32% would contribute $1–$5, 40% would contribute $10–$20, 11% would contrib- ute $30–$50, and 16% would contribute more than $50. SPEA Indiana University (Duncan and Graham) 2013 Adults National Below is a list of statements in favor of and against the advanced GPS-based mileage user-fee described above. Please tell me whether you strongly agree, agree, disagree or strongly dis- agree with the following statements: I like this advanced GPS system because a higher rate could be charged for driving on congested roads. *Note: Follow-up question asked about GPS tracking terrorists and criminals. 76% of respondents, after hearing a description of an advanced GPS-based mileage user-fee system that would col- lect location data, said they “disagree” or “strongly disagree” with the state- ment, “I like this advanced GPS system because a higher rate could be charged for driving on congested roads.” SPEA Indiana University (Duncan and Graham) 2013 Adults National Below is a list of statements in favor of and against the advanced GPS-based mileage user-fee described above. Please tell me whether you strongly agree, agree, disagree or strongly dis- agree with the following statements: I like this advanced GPS system because the government in each state could charge and collect taxes from every driver who drives in that state (including drivers from other states). 73% of respondents, after hearing a description of an advanced GPS-based mileage user-fee system that would col- lect location data, said they “disagree” or “strongly disagree” with the statement, “I like this advanced GPS system because the government in each state could charge and collect taxes from every driver who drives in that state (including drivers from other states).” SPEA Indiana University (Duncan and Graham) 2013 Adults National Below is a list of statements in favor of and against the advanced GPS- based mileage user-fee described above. Please tell me whether you strongly agree, agree, disagree or strongly disagree with the following statements: There are likely to be a lot of errors in trying to use location data to charge different fees. 84% of respondents, after hearing a description of an advanced GPS-based mileage user-fee system that would col- lect location data, said they “agree” or “strongly agree” with the statement, “There are likely to be a lot of errors in trying to use location data to charge dif- ferent fees.” Table B5 Continued from p.131

133 Poll Sponsor (and author, if different) Publication Year Sampling Frame Geography MBUF Question Findings SPEA Indiana University (Duncan and Graham) 2013 Adults National Below is a list of statements in favor of and against the advanced GPS- based mileage user-fee described above. Please tell me whether you strongly agree, agree, disagree or strongly disagree with the following statements: The audit process will keep most peo- ple from tampering with the GPS sys- tem or the odometer in their cars. 56% of respondents, after hearing a description of an advanced GPS-based mileage user-fee system that would col- lect location data, said they “disagree” or “strongly disagree” with the state- ment, “The audit process will keep most people from tampering with the GPS system or the odometer in their cars.” SPEA Indiana University (Duncan and Graham) 2013 Adults National Below is a list of statements in favor of and against the advanced GPS- based mileage user-fee described above. Please tell me whether you strongly agree, agree, disagree or strongly disagree with the following statements: I dislike this advanced GPS-based mileage user-fee because I have to pay for the GPS device. 84% of a subset of respondents, who heard a description of an advanced GPS- based mileage user-fee system that would collect location data and require drivers to pay $250 for the device, said they “agree” or “strongly agree” with the statement, “I dislike this advanced GPS- based mileage user-fee because I have to pay for the GPS device.” SPEA Indiana University (Duncan and Graham) 2013 Adults National Below is a list of statements in favor of and against the advanced GPS-based mileage user-fee described above. Please tell me whether you strongly agree, agree, disagree or strongly dis- agree with the following statements: $250 is too much to pay for the GPS device. 86% of respondents, after hearing a description of an advanced GPS-based mileage user-fee system that would col- lect location data, said they “agree” or “strongly agree” with the statement, “$250 is too much to pay for the GPS device.” SPEA Indiana University (Duncan and Graham) 2013 Adults National Below is a list of statements in favor of and against the advanced GPS-based mileage user-fee described above. Please tell me whether you strongly agree, agree, disagree or strongly dis- agree with the following statements: I like the advanced GPS-based mileage user-fee because it would allow me to monitor people who drive my cars. 81% of respondents, after hearing a description of an advanced GPS-based mileage user-fee system that would col- lect location data, said they “disagree” or “strongly disagree” with the statement, “I like the advanced GPS-based mileage user-fee because it would allow me to monitor people who drive my cars.” Wall Street Journal 2012 Adults National What should be done with the gas tax? tax by miles driven 20% of readers who responded to an online poll chose “tax instead by miles driven” from among six options for how to “overhaul” the gas tax. It was the sec- ond most popular option after increasing the gas tax. Washington State Trans- portation Commission (EMC Market and Opin- ion Research Services) 2015 Adults State A road usage charge is a different way to fund transportation. It would replace the gas tax and charge drivers by the mile instead of by the gallon. Knowing this, do you think a road usage charge is a good way to fund transportation? 36% of respondents said a “road usage charge” that would “replace the gas tax and charge drivers by the mile instead of by the gallon” was “definitely” or “probably” a “good way to fund transportation.”

Next: APPENDIX C Resources for Identifying Public Opinion Research and Media Stories »
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TRB’s National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP) Synthesis 487: Public Perception of Mileage-Based User Fees explores proposals to replace the current motor fuel tax with a road usage charge assessed on vehicle-miles traveled, often called a mileage-base user fee (MBUF). The report identifies and assesses various measures of public opinion on the MBUF concept.

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