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Public Perception of Mileage-Based User Fees (2016)

Chapter: APPENDIX A Summary Information About the Public Opinion Surveys Analyzed

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Suggested Citation:"APPENDIX A Summary Information About the Public Opinion Surveys Analyzed." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Public Perception of Mileage-Based User Fees. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23401.
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Suggested Citation:"APPENDIX A Summary Information About the Public Opinion Surveys Analyzed." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Public Perception of Mileage-Based User Fees. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23401.
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Suggested Citation:"APPENDIX A Summary Information About the Public Opinion Surveys Analyzed." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Public Perception of Mileage-Based User Fees. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23401.
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Suggested Citation:"APPENDIX A Summary Information About the Public Opinion Surveys Analyzed." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Public Perception of Mileage-Based User Fees. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23401.
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Suggested Citation:"APPENDIX A Summary Information About the Public Opinion Surveys Analyzed." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Public Perception of Mileage-Based User Fees. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23401.
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Suggested Citation:"APPENDIX A Summary Information About the Public Opinion Surveys Analyzed." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Public Perception of Mileage-Based User Fees. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23401.
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Suggested Citation:"APPENDIX A Summary Information About the Public Opinion Surveys Analyzed." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Public Perception of Mileage-Based User Fees. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23401.
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Suggested Citation:"APPENDIX A Summary Information About the Public Opinion Surveys Analyzed." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Public Perception of Mileage-Based User Fees. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23401.
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Suggested Citation:"APPENDIX A Summary Information About the Public Opinion Surveys Analyzed." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Public Perception of Mileage-Based User Fees. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23401.
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Suggested Citation:"APPENDIX A Summary Information About the Public Opinion Surveys Analyzed." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Public Perception of Mileage-Based User Fees. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23401.
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Suggested Citation:"APPENDIX A Summary Information About the Public Opinion Surveys Analyzed." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Public Perception of Mileage-Based User Fees. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23401.
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Suggested Citation:"APPENDIX A Summary Information About the Public Opinion Surveys Analyzed." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Public Perception of Mileage-Based User Fees. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23401.
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Suggested Citation:"APPENDIX A Summary Information About the Public Opinion Surveys Analyzed." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Public Perception of Mileage-Based User Fees. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23401.
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Suggested Citation:"APPENDIX A Summary Information About the Public Opinion Surveys Analyzed." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Public Perception of Mileage-Based User Fees. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23401.
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Suggested Citation:"APPENDIX A Summary Information About the Public Opinion Surveys Analyzed." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Public Perception of Mileage-Based User Fees. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23401.
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Suggested Citation:"APPENDIX A Summary Information About the Public Opinion Surveys Analyzed." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Public Perception of Mileage-Based User Fees. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23401.
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Suggested Citation:"APPENDIX A Summary Information About the Public Opinion Surveys Analyzed." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Public Perception of Mileage-Based User Fees. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23401.
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Suggested Citation:"APPENDIX A Summary Information About the Public Opinion Surveys Analyzed." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Public Perception of Mileage-Based User Fees. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23401.
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Suggested Citation:"APPENDIX A Summary Information About the Public Opinion Surveys Analyzed." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Public Perception of Mileage-Based User Fees. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23401.
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Suggested Citation:"APPENDIX A Summary Information About the Public Opinion Surveys Analyzed." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Public Perception of Mileage-Based User Fees. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23401.
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Suggested Citation:"APPENDIX A Summary Information About the Public Opinion Surveys Analyzed." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Public Perception of Mileage-Based User Fees. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23401.
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Suggested Citation:"APPENDIX A Summary Information About the Public Opinion Surveys Analyzed." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Public Perception of Mileage-Based User Fees. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23401.
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Suggested Citation:"APPENDIX A Summary Information About the Public Opinion Surveys Analyzed." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Public Perception of Mileage-Based User Fees. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23401.
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Suggested Citation:"APPENDIX A Summary Information About the Public Opinion Surveys Analyzed." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Public Perception of Mileage-Based User Fees. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23401.
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Suggested Citation:"APPENDIX A Summary Information About the Public Opinion Surveys Analyzed." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Public Perception of Mileage-Based User Fees. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23401.
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Suggested Citation:"APPENDIX A Summary Information About the Public Opinion Surveys Analyzed." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Public Perception of Mileage-Based User Fees. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23401.
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Suggested Citation:"APPENDIX A Summary Information About the Public Opinion Surveys Analyzed." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Public Perception of Mileage-Based User Fees. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23401.
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Suggested Citation:"APPENDIX A Summary Information About the Public Opinion Surveys Analyzed." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Public Perception of Mileage-Based User Fees. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23401.
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Suggested Citation:"APPENDIX A Summary Information About the Public Opinion Surveys Analyzed." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Public Perception of Mileage-Based User Fees. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23401.
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Suggested Citation:"APPENDIX A Summary Information About the Public Opinion Surveys Analyzed." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Public Perception of Mileage-Based User Fees. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23401.
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Suggested Citation:"APPENDIX A Summary Information About the Public Opinion Surveys Analyzed." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Public Perception of Mileage-Based User Fees. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23401.
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Suggested Citation:"APPENDIX A Summary Information About the Public Opinion Surveys Analyzed." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Public Perception of Mileage-Based User Fees. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23401.
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Suggested Citation:"APPENDIX A Summary Information About the Public Opinion Surveys Analyzed." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Public Perception of Mileage-Based User Fees. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23401.
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Suggested Citation:"APPENDIX A Summary Information About the Public Opinion Surveys Analyzed." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Public Perception of Mileage-Based User Fees. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23401.
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Suggested Citation:"APPENDIX A Summary Information About the Public Opinion Surveys Analyzed." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Public Perception of Mileage-Based User Fees. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23401.
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Suggested Citation:"APPENDIX A Summary Information About the Public Opinion Surveys Analyzed." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Public Perception of Mileage-Based User Fees. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23401.
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Suggested Citation:"APPENDIX A Summary Information About the Public Opinion Surveys Analyzed." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Public Perception of Mileage-Based User Fees. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23401.
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Suggested Citation:"APPENDIX A Summary Information About the Public Opinion Surveys Analyzed." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Public Perception of Mileage-Based User Fees. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23401.
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Suggested Citation:"APPENDIX A Summary Information About the Public Opinion Surveys Analyzed." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Public Perception of Mileage-Based User Fees. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23401.
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Suggested Citation:"APPENDIX A Summary Information About the Public Opinion Surveys Analyzed." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Public Perception of Mileage-Based User Fees. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23401.
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Suggested Citation:"APPENDIX A Summary Information About the Public Opinion Surveys Analyzed." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Public Perception of Mileage-Based User Fees. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23401.
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Suggested Citation:"APPENDIX A Summary Information About the Public Opinion Surveys Analyzed." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Public Perception of Mileage-Based User Fees. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23401.
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Suggested Citation:"APPENDIX A Summary Information About the Public Opinion Surveys Analyzed." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Public Perception of Mileage-Based User Fees. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23401.
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Suggested Citation:"APPENDIX A Summary Information About the Public Opinion Surveys Analyzed." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Public Perception of Mileage-Based User Fees. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23401.
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Suggested Citation:"APPENDIX A Summary Information About the Public Opinion Surveys Analyzed." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Public Perception of Mileage-Based User Fees. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23401.
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Suggested Citation:"APPENDIX A Summary Information About the Public Opinion Surveys Analyzed." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Public Perception of Mileage-Based User Fees. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23401.
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Suggested Citation:"APPENDIX A Summary Information About the Public Opinion Surveys Analyzed." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Public Perception of Mileage-Based User Fees. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23401.
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Suggested Citation:"APPENDIX A Summary Information About the Public Opinion Surveys Analyzed." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Public Perception of Mileage-Based User Fees. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23401.
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Suggested Citation:"APPENDIX A Summary Information About the Public Opinion Surveys Analyzed." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Public Perception of Mileage-Based User Fees. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23401.
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Suggested Citation:"APPENDIX A Summary Information About the Public Opinion Surveys Analyzed." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Public Perception of Mileage-Based User Fees. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23401.
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Suggested Citation:"APPENDIX A Summary Information About the Public Opinion Surveys Analyzed." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Public Perception of Mileage-Based User Fees. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23401.
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Suggested Citation:"APPENDIX A Summary Information About the Public Opinion Surveys Analyzed." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Public Perception of Mileage-Based User Fees. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23401.
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Suggested Citation:"APPENDIX A Summary Information About the Public Opinion Surveys Analyzed." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Public Perception of Mileage-Based User Fees. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23401.
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Suggested Citation:"APPENDIX A Summary Information About the Public Opinion Surveys Analyzed." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Public Perception of Mileage-Based User Fees. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23401.
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Suggested Citation:"APPENDIX A Summary Information About the Public Opinion Surveys Analyzed." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Public Perception of Mileage-Based User Fees. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23401.
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Suggested Citation:"APPENDIX A Summary Information About the Public Opinion Surveys Analyzed." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Public Perception of Mileage-Based User Fees. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23401.
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Suggested Citation:"APPENDIX A Summary Information About the Public Opinion Surveys Analyzed." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Public Perception of Mileage-Based User Fees. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23401.
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Suggested Citation:"APPENDIX A Summary Information About the Public Opinion Surveys Analyzed." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Public Perception of Mileage-Based User Fees. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23401.
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Suggested Citation:"APPENDIX A Summary Information About the Public Opinion Surveys Analyzed." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Public Perception of Mileage-Based User Fees. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23401.
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50 APPENDIX A Summary Information About the Public Opinion Surveys Analyzed This appendix presents summary information about the 38 surveys analyzed, in two formats. First, a table provides a very brief set of key facts about each survey. Next, the appendix presents detailed information about each survey’s methods and the MBUF questions it includes. TABLE A1 SUMMARY INFORMATION ABOUT THE SURVEYS ANALYZED Survey Sponsor or Author Sponsor Type Year Published Year Data Collected Survey Mode Geographic Level Census Region Sampling Base Sample Size Number of Survey Questions Minnesota Department of Transportation (Wilbur Smith Associates) Government agency 1995 1995 Phone State (MN) Midwest Adults 500 9 Mineta Transportation Institute (Weinstein et al.) Academic 2006 2006 Phone State (CA) West Adults 2,705 1 Minnesota Department of Transportation (Dieringer Research Group) Government agency 2009 2009 Phone State (MN) Midwest Adults 1,302 10 Rasmussen Reports Polling firm 2009 2009 Phone National U.S. Adults 1,000 1 Mineta Transportation Institute (Agrawal, Dill, and Nixon) Academic 2009 2008 Phone State (CA) West Adults 1,500 2 Civitas Institute Government agency 2009 2009 Phone State (NC) South Regis- tered voters 600 1 Mineta Transportation Institute (Agrawal and Nixon) Academic 2010 2010 Phone National U.S. Adults 1,545 2 HNTB Companies (Kelton Research) Industry 2010 2010 Online National U.S. Adults 1,064 1 Indian Nation Council of Governments (Collective Strength) Government agency 2011 2010 Phone Local (Tulsa, OK) South Adults 1,000 1 Federal Highway Admin- istration (Ramfos) Government agency 2011 2010 Phone Regional (Wash- ington, DC) South Adults 6,629 1 HNTB Companies (Kelton Research)a Private firm 2011 2011 Online National U.S. Adults 1,124 2 Mineta Transportation Insti- tute (Agrawal and Nixon) Academic 2011 2011 Phone National U.S. Adults 1,516 2 Rasmussen Reports Polling firm 2011 2011 Phone National U.S. Adults 1,000 1 Washington State Trans- portation Commission (EMC Market and Opin- ion Research) Government agency 2011 2011 Multiple State (WA) West Adults 5,518 1 University of Iowa Public Policy Center (Hanley and Kuhl)a Government agency 2011 Not specified Multiple National U.S. Program partici- pants 2,650 3 Hart Research Associates & Public Opinion Strategies Philanthropy 2011 2011 Phone National U.S. Regis- tered voters 1,001 1 Minnesota Department of Transportation (Munnich, Doan, and Schmitt) Government agency 2012 2011 Online State (MN) Midwest Adults 400 26 Fiscal Research Center (Ellen, Sjoquist, and Stoycheva) Government agency 2012 2011 Online State (GA) South Adults 2,000 3

51 Survey Sponsor or Author Sponsor Type Year Published Year Data Collected Survey Mode Geographic Level Census Region Sampling Base Sample Size Number of Survey Questions Mineta Transportation Institute (Agrawal, Nixon, and Murthy) Academic 2012 2012 Phone National U.S. Adults 1,519 2 Wall Street Journala News media 2012 2012 Online National U.S. Adults 1,726 1 HNTB Corporation (Kelton Research) Industry 2012 2012 Online National U.S. Adults 1,024 1 Rasmussen Reports Polling firm 2012 2012 Phone National U.S. Adults 1,000 1 Washington State Trans- portation Commission (EMC Market & Opinion Research)a Government agency 2012 2012 Online State (WA) West Adults 7,897 1 Mineta Transportation Institute (Agrawal and Nixon) Academic 2013 2013 Phone National U.S. Adults 1,501 2 Indiana University School of Public and Environ- mental Affairs (Duncan and Graham) Academic 2013 2013 Online National U.S. Adults 2,087 53 University of Nevada, Las Vegas (Nordland, Paz, and Khan)a Academic 2013 Not specified In-person Local (Las Vegas, NV) West Adults 173 10 Minnesota Department of Transportation (Rephlo)a Government agency 2013 Not specified Multiple Local (Twin Cit- ies Metro Area, MN) Midwest Program partici- pants 420 1 MassInc Polling Group Think-tank 2013 2013 Phone State (MA) Northeast Regis- tered voters 1,506 1 Oregon Department of Transportation (Whitty) Government agency 2013 2012 Phone State (OR) West Regis- tered voters 900 2 Oregon Department of Transportation (Whitty) Government agency 2013 2013 Phone State (OR) West Regis- tered voters 300 1 Colorado State University (Ozbek, Albeiruti, and Atadero) Academic 2014 Not specified Mail Regional (CO, ND, SD, UT, and WY) Midwest/ West Adults 1,163 10 GfK Public Affairs and Corporate Communications News media 2014 2014 Online National U.S. Adults 1,044 1 Reason Foundation Political 2014 2014 Phone National U.S. Adults 1,000 1 Mineta Transportation Institute (Agrawal and Nixon) Academic 2014 2014 Phone National U.S. Adults 1,502 2 Texas A&M Transporta- tion Institute (Simek and Geiselbrecht) Academic 2014 2014 Multiple State (TX) South Regis- tered voters 5,545 1 American Trucking Asso- ciation (Public Opinion Strategies)a Industry 2014 2014 Phone National U.S. Regis- tered voters 800 1 Washington State Trans- portation Commission (EMC Market and Opin- ion Research Services)a Government agency 2015 2014 Online State (WA) West Adults 5,190 6 Field Research Corpora- tion (DiCamillo and Field) Polling firm 2015 2015 Phone State (CA) West Regis- tered voters 1,241 1 a The sampling method for these polls was either nonrandom (e.g., a convenience sample) or unknown. All other surveys were conducted using random-digit dialing or other appropriate techniques for obtaining a randomized sample, such as an online panel recruited using random-digit dialing or recruiting households via a mailed postcard.

52 Minnesota Department of Transportation (Wilbur Smith Associates) Sponsor or Funder: Minnesota Department of Transportation Authors: Wilbur Smith Associates Pollster: N/A Title: Congestion/Road Pricing Study: Technical Memorandum No. 5: Results of Statewide Survey on Mileage-Based Tax Publisher and/or publication year: 1995 Data collection year: 1995 Survey mode: Phone Sampling base: Adults Sampling strategy: Random Sample size: 500 Geographic level: State (Minnesota) Census region: Midwest Description of the mileage-based user fee: “the idea of paying tax on the number of miles driven in Minnesota rather than on the amount of gas purchased” Questions: 1) “Based on the information I have given you, I would like your opinion of the idea of paying tax on the number of miles driven in Minnesota rather than on the amount of gas purchased. Using a scale of 1 to 10 in which 10 means very accept- able and 1 means totally unacceptable, how would you rate the idea of a mileage-based tax as a method of raising funds for our state-wide transportation system?” Favorable (7, 8, 9, or 10): 23% Unfavorable (1, 2, 3, or 4): 50% 2) “Why do you rate it a (ANSWER TO B)?” Positive responses: 26% “people who use the roads the most would pay more of their fair share”: 11% “good idea; we need to try something different”: 5% “provides more money”: 4% “fuel-efficient cars would pay more of their share”: 3% “less expensive than gas tax/less expensive than raising the gas tax”: 2% Negative responses: 66% “it would penalize those who drive a lot; those who drive for a living or have a long commute; those who live in a rural area”: 18% “it is too difficult to record mileage; too difficult to collect or enforce the tax”: 15% “Minnesota is already one of the highest taxed states; dislike adding any new tax”: 8%

53 “the State/the Department of Transportation is inefficient or irresponsible with money or the use of taxes; inefficient or irresponsible with its budget”: 6% “it is too costly to create and implement a new system”: 5% “it would raise taxes or cost me/us more”: 5% “it discourages incentive to drive fuel-efficient vehicles; it has an adverse impact on pollution; it will encourage wear and tear on roads”: 5% “the gas tax is simple to collect”: 4% “it hurts the lower and middle classes and working poor”: 4% 3) “Earlier you rated the idea of a mileage-based tax a (READ NUMBER) on a scale of 1 to 10. Now that we have dis- cussed it further, do you want to stay with that answer or would you like to change it? How would you now rate the idea of paying tax on the number of miles driven in Minnesota rather than on the amount of gas purchased? Please use a scale of 1 to 10 in which 10 means very acceptable and 1 means totally unacceptable. RESPONSES ONLY TO THOSE THAT WANT TO CHANGE THEIR ANSWER.” Respondents who chose to change their initial answer to express more acceptance: 39% 4) “Using a scale of 1 to 10 in which 10 means very acceptable and 1 means totally unacceptable, how would you rate a one-cent per mile mileage-based tax as an option to replace the income from license plates and tabs?” Favorable (7, 8, 9, or 10): 24% Unfavorable (1, 2, 3, or 4): 48% 5) “Using a scale of 1 to 10 in which 10 means very acceptable and 1 means totally unacceptable, how would you rate a one-cent per mile mileage-based tax as an option to replace a portion of the property tax?” Favorable (7, 8, 9, or 10): 30% Unfavorable (1, 2, 3, or 4): 46% 6) “Using a scale of 1 to 10 in which 10 means very acceptable and 1 means totally unacceptable, how would you rate the idea of a one-cent per mile mileage-based tax to pay for transportation needs that are not currently funded?” Favorable (7, 8, 9 ,or 10): 26% Unfavorable (1, 2, 3, or 4): 48% 7) “Using a scale of 1 to 10 in which 10 means very acceptable and 1 means totally unacceptable, how would you rate the idea of a two-cent per mile mileage-based tax to replace both the gas tax and the cost of license plates and tags?” Favorable (7, 8, 9, or 10): 22% Unfavorable (1, 2, 3, or 4): 50% 8) “Using a scale of 1 to 10 in which 10 means very acceptable and 1 means totally unacceptable, how would you rate the idea of a three-cent per mile mileage-based tax to replace both the gas tax, the cost of license plates and tabs, and a portion of the property tax?” Favorable (7, 8, 9, or 10): 14% Unfavorable (1, 2, 3, or 4): 61% 9) “Using a scale of 1 to 10 in which 10 means very acceptable and 1 means totally unacceptable, how would you rate the idea of a four-cent per mile mileage-based tax to replace the gas tax, the cost of license plates and tabs, a portion of the property tax, and to pay for transportation needs that are currently not funded?” Favorable (7, 8, 9, or 10): 12% Unfavorable (1, 2, 3, or 4): 69%

54 Mineta Transportation Institute (Weinstein et al.) Sponsor or Funder: California Department of Transportation; U.S. Department of Transportation Research and Innovative Technology Administration Authors: Asha Weinstein Agrawal, Jennifer Dill, Tod Goldman, John Hall, Franziska Holtzman, Joe Recker, and Eileen Goodwin Pollster: San José State University Survey and Policy Research Institute Title: Transportation Financing Opportunities for the State of California Publisher and/or publication year: Mineta Transportation Institute (2006) Data collection year: 2006 Survey mode: Phone Sampling base: Adults Sampling strategy: Random Sample size: 2,705 Geographic level: State (California) Census region: West Description of the mileage-based user fee: “a so-called “mileage fee” based on the number of miles a vehicle is driven” Questions: 1) “One idea (another idea) is to eliminate the 18-cents-a-gallon gas tax altogether and replace it with a so-called “mileage fee” based on the number of miles a vehicle is driven. Each driver would pay a fee of one cent per mile for every mile driven within the state. For example, every 100 miles driven would incur a mileage fee of $1. Each vehicle would be equipped with an electronic means to keep track of miles driven and the fee would be paid at the pump when drivers buy gas.” For: 23% Against: 72% Don’t know: 5% Minnesota Department of Transportation (Dieringer Research Group) Sponsor or Funder: Minnesota Department of Transportation Authors: Dieringer Research Group, Inc. Pollster: Dieringer Research Group, Inc. Title: Mileage-Based User Fee Public Opinion Study: Summary Report Phase III Publisher and/or publication year: Minnesota Department of Transportation (2009) Data collection year: 2009

55 Survey mode: Phone Sampling base: Adults Sampling strategy: Random Sample size: 1,302 Geographic level: State (Minnesota) Census region: Midwest Description of the mileage-based user fee: “a user fee based on mileage driven” Questions: 1) “I am going to read some other solutions that are being considered to help fund roads. If a decision were made to supple- ment or replace lost funding, how open would you be to each of the following? Please use a 1–10 scale with “1” meaning “Strongly oppose” and “10” meaning “Strongly support”: h. Mileage-based user fee” Strongly oppose: 35% Strongly support: 23% Neutral: 42% 2) “Had you ever heard of a user fee based on mileage driven before you received these materials?” Yes: 41% No: 59% 3) “How much thought or consideration had you given this idea of a user fee for miles driven, before you received these materials? Would you say…” I gave it no thought at all: 20% I gave it some thought or consideration: 64% I gave it a significant amount of thought or consideration to the idea of a mileage-based user fee: 16% 4) “To clarify, a mileage-based user fee is being considered in the U.S. and in other countries as a means to supplement or eliminate the gasoline tax or another type of vehicle fee. Drivers would be charged a fee based on the number of miles driven. Now we’d like to get your opinions specifically on Approach K [GPS device, rates vary by type of travel]. What was your initial reaction to Approach K? Please use a 10-point scale where “1” means “Extremely Negative” and “10” means “Extremely Positive.” *Approaches refer to the information sheets provided.” (Positive) Rated 8, 9, or 10: 8% (Negative) Rated 1, 2, or 3: 56% (Neutral) Rated 4, 5, 6, or 7: 36% 5) “To clarify, a mileage-based user fee is being considered in the U.S. and in other countries as a means to supplement or eliminate the gasoline tax or another type of vehicle fee. Drivers would be charged a fee based on the number of miles driven. Now we’d like to get your opinions specifically on Approach S [odometer readings, rates vary by type of vehicle]. What was your initial reaction to Approach S? Please use a 10-point scale where “1” means “Extremely Negative” and “10” means “Extremely Positive.” *Approaches refer to the information sheets provided.” (Positive) Rated 8, 9, or 10: 18% (Negative) Rated 1, 2, or 3: 32% (Neutral) Rated 4, 5, 6, or 7: 50%

56 6) “Describe what, if anything, you liked most about this approach? (ENTER ALL THAT APPLY.):” Approach K (GPS device) It is a base for fees (net): 23.5% It is based on the mileage driven: 16.4% It is based on the time of day: 4.6% It is based on the type of vehicle driven: 3.6% It is based on the weight/size of vehicle: 1.9% It is easy to use: (net): 15.9% It is simple/accurate: 12.8% It is most simple/less complicated: 0.8% It is easy to keep track of miles driven: 0.8% It is easy to report/only have to check in once or twice a year: 0.6% Other: 0.8% Others (net): 14.8% It will help reduce congestion: 12.2% Liked approach (non-specific): 0.2% Other single mentions: 2.5% Fairness (net): 13.6% Fair—road maintenance costs are paid by user: 10.5% Rewards drivers who are economical: 2.1% Forces responsible driving: 1.0% Collection methods (net): 8.8% Replaces fuel tax/registration fees: 4.4% Payment method/due date: 3.2% Can’t cheat on reporting/automatic: 1.3% Self-reporting: 0.4% Lower costs (net): 4.3% Low cost: 4.3% Privacy (net): 0.4% Less invasive/more private: 0.4% No positive aspects: 28.4% Don’t know: 1.7% Approach S (Odometer reading, rates vary by type of vehicle) It is a base for fees (net): 33.5% It is based on the mileage driven: 24.3% It is based on the type of vehicle driven: 10.2% It is based on the weight/size of vehicle: 2.6% It is easy to use: (net): 11.0% It is simple/accurate: 2.9% It is most simple/less complicated: 2.9%

57 It is easy to keep track of miles driven: 1.2% It is easy to report/only have to check in once or twice a year: 0.9% GPS does not have to be installed: 1.3% It is less invasive: 1.5% Other: 0.6% Others (net): 8.9% It will help reduce congestion: 2.1% Liked approach (non-specific): 2.2% Other single mentions: 4.5% Fairness (net): 16.2% Fair—road maintenance costs are paid by user: 13.0% Rewards drivers who are economical: 3.8% Forces responsible driving: 0.3% Collection methods (net): 8.8% Replaces fuel tax/registration fees: 4.4% Payment method/due date: 3.2% Can’t cheat on reporting/automatic: 1.3% Self-reporting: 0.4% Lower costs (net): 11.1% Low cost: 9.4% Low cost of administering the tax: 1.9% Privacy (net): 5.6% Less invasive/more private: 4.1% No GPS: 2.0% No positive aspects: 19.5% Don’t know: 0.5% 7) “Describe what, if anything, you liked least about this approach? (ENTER ALL THAT APPLY.):” Approach K (GPS device) Privacy (net): 41.9% It is an invasion of privacy: 39.8% Having the GPS: 3.2% Costs (net): 30.6% Too expensive: 25.4% Cost/installation of device: 3.1% I don’t want to pay all at once: 2.8% Don’t want to pay to use the road: 1.0% More taxation: 0.9% Base for fees (net): 15.8% It is based on the type of vehicle driven: 1.9% Have to pay more during peak hours: 4.2%

58 It is based on the mileage driven: 11.5% Uncertainty of outcomes (net): 8.3% There was not enough information: 4.7% Don’t want gas tax eliminated: 1.2% Confusing: 1.1% How does it affect my driving out of state: 0.4% Does it apply to others from out of state: 0.4% Doesn’t account for miles driven across states: 0.4% Convenience (net): 6.0% It will be inconvenient: 4.8% Have to go somewhere/call in mileage: 1.0% Hard to budget for: 0.3% Enforcement issues (net): 4.8% People will try to cheat the system: 3.2% Compliance/enforcement issues: 1.0% The implementation will be difficult: 0.6% Fairness (net): 1.0% Pay the same no matter what type of vehicle is driven: 0.7% Would impact the poor more: 0.1% No incentive to drive efficient vehicles: 0.1% No incentive to drive at different times: 0.0% No negative aspects: 4.8% Don’t know: 0.7% Approach S (Odometer reading, rates vary by type of vehicle) Privacy (net): 41.9% It is an invasion of privacy: 39.8% Having the GPS: 3.2% Costs (net): 22.4% Too expensive: 15.7% Cost/installation of device: 0.1% I don’t want to pay all at once: 5.5% Don’t want to pay to use the road: 0.3% More taxation: 1.6% Base for fees (net): 16.2% It is based on the type of vehicle driven: 2.8% Have to pay more during peak hours: 1.4% It is based on the mileage driven: 12.4% Uncertainty of outcomes (net): 11.3% There was not enough information: 6.7% Don’t want gas tax eliminated: 0.5% Confusing: 0.8%

59 How does it affect my driving out of state: 2.0% Does it apply to others from out of state: 1.6% Doesn’t account for miles driven across states: 0.1% Convenience (net): 24.5% It will be inconvenient: 12.3% Have to go somewhere/call in mileage: 12.4% Hard to budget for: 0.3% It is a burden for truckers: 0.6% Enforcement issues (net): 7.1% People will try to cheat the system: 6.2% Compliance/enforcement issues: 0.4% The implementation will be difficult: 0.5% Fairness (net): 5.6% Pay the same no matter what type of vehicle is driven: 0.4% Would impact the poor more: 0.6% No incentive to drive efficient vehicles: 0.7% No incentive to drive at different times: 3.9% No negative aspects: 13.1% 8) “I’m going to read several statements. For each, please tell me how much you agree or disagree that it describes the idea of a mileage-based user fee as a solution to fill a possible funding gap? Please use a 1 to 10 scale where “1” means “Completely Disagree” and “10” means “Completely Agree.” [ADD TO EACH INDIVIDUAL SCREEN]: How much to you agree or disagree that…” [a mileage-based fee] Is a “fair” method to fund transportation:” (Agree) Rated 8, 9, or 10: 33% (Disagree) Rated 1, 2, or 3: 28% (Neutral) Rated 4, 5, 6, or 7: 39% 9) “I’m going to read several statements. For each, please tell me how much you agree or disagree that it describes the idea of a mileage-based user fee as a solution to fill a possible funding gap? Please use a 1 to 10 scale where “1” means “Completely Disagree” and “10” means “Completely Agree.” [ADD TO EACH INDIVIDUAL SCREEN]: How much to you agree or disagree that… [a mileage-based fee] Is an acceptable method:” (Agree) Rated 8, 9, or 10: 29% (Disagree) Rated 1, 2, or 3: 28% (Neutral) Rated 4, 5, 6, or 7: 43% 10) “Of the solutions that you just rated, which one do you feel would be most acceptable? (READ LIST IF NECES- SARY. PROBE WITH “IF YOU HAD TO CHOOSE ONE, WHICH ONE WOULD YOU CHOOSE?” ENTER ONE RESPONSE.)” Raising fuel taxes: 19.9% Increasing general sales taxes: 4.9% Increasing income taxes: 3.0% Adding fees to higher emission vehicles: 13.2%

60 Increasing vehicle registration fees: 10.7% Increasing the motor vehicle sales tax: 6.5% Adding toll roads to the road system: 19% Mileage-based user fee: 19% None/Don’t know: 3.9% Rasmussen Reports Sponsor or Funder: Rasmussen Reports Authors: Rasmussen Reports Pollster: Rasmussen Reports Title: Toplines—Mileage Tax—February 21–22, 2009 Publisher and/or publication year: Rasmussen Reports (2009) Data collection year: 2009 Survey mode: Phone Sampling base: 1,000 Sampling strategy: Random Sample size: 1,000 Geographic level: National Census region: US Description of the mileage-based user fee: “a mileage tax that would tax drivers based on how many miles they drive” Questions: 1) “On another topic…to help fund the building and repair of roads and bridges, the Obama administration is considering a mileage tax that would tax drivers based on how many miles they drive Do you favor or oppose a mileage tax?” Favor: 18% Oppose: 73% Not sure: 10% Mineta Transportation Institute (Agrawal, Dill, and Nixon) Sponsor or Funder: California Department of Transportation; U.S. Department of Transportation Research and Innovative Technology Administration Authors: Asha Weinstein Agrawal, Jennifer Dill, and Hilary Nixon Pollster: Survey Policy and Research Institute at San José State University Title: “Green” Transportation Taxes and Fees: A Survey of Californians

61 Publisher and/or publication year: Mineta Transportation Institute (2009) Data collection year: 2008 Survey mode: Phone Sampling base: Adults Sampling strategy: Random Sample size: 1,500 Geographic level: State (California) Census region: West Description of the mileage-based user fee: “a fee based on the number of miles you drive” Questions: 1) “One idea (another idea) is to eliminate the eighteen-cents-per-gallon state gas tax altogether and replace it with a fee based on the number of miles you drive. Each driver would pay a fee of one cent per mile for every mile driven within the state. For example, every one hundred miles driven would pay a fee of one dollar. Vehicles would be equipped with an electronic means to keep track of miles driven and the fee would be paid when drivers buy gas. Would you strongly support, somewhat support, somewhat oppose, or strongly oppose that idea?” Strongly support: 12% Somewhat support: 16% Somewhat oppose: 12% Strongly oppose: 52% Don’t know: 7% 2) “A variation on the mileage fee just described is to have the fee vary depending upon how much the vehicle pollutes. On average, vehicles would pay one cent per mile, but vehicles that pollute the least would pay less and vehicles that pol- lute the most would pay more per mile. Would you strongly support, somewhat support, somewhat oppose, or strongly oppose that idea?” Strongly support: 25% Somewhat support: 25% Somewhat oppose: 11% Strongly oppose: 35% Don’t know: 5% Civitas Institute Sponsor or Funder: Civitas Institute, North Carolina Legislative Committee Authors: Civitas Institute Pollster: Civitas Institute Title: Civitas Poll Publisher and/or publication year: Civitas Institute (2009)

62 Data collection year: 2009 Survey mode: Phone Sampling base: Registered voters Sampling strategy: N/A Sample size: 600 Geographic level: State (North Carolina) Census region: South Description of the mileage-based user fee: “a plan that would charge all drivers based on the number of miles they drive in North Carolina each year” Questions: 1) “In order to fund transportation projects in North Carolina, a legislative commission has recommended changing the current system to a plan that would charge all drivers based on the number of miles they drive in North Carolina each year. Would you view such a system favorably or unfavorably?” Favorably: 21% Unfavorably: 70% Unsure: 9% Mineta Transportation Institute (Agrawal and Nixon) Sponsor or Funder: California Department of Transportation; U.S. Department of Transportation Research and Innovative Technology Administration Authors: Asha Weinstein Agrawal and Hilary Nixon Pollster: Survey Policy and Research Institute at San José State University Title: What Do Americans Think About Federal Transportation Tax Options? Results from a National Survey Publisher and/or publication year: Mineta Transportation Institute (2010) Data collection year: 2010 Survey mode: Phone Sampling base: Adults Sampling strategy: Random Sample size: 1,545 Geographic level: National Census region: US Description of the mileage-based user fee: “a new tax based on the number of miles a person drives”

63 Questions: 1) “One idea (a DIFFERENT idea) is to adopt a new tax based on the number of miles a person drives. Each driver would pay a tax of 1 cent for every mile driven. For example, someone driving 100 miles would pay a tax of 1 dollar. Vehicles would have an electronic meter to keep track of the miles driven, and the tax would be paid each time drivers buy gas. Would you strongly support, somewhat support, somewhat oppose, or strongly oppose this new mileage tax?” Strongly support: 9% Somewhat support: 12% Somewhat oppose: 15% Strongly oppose: 61% Don’t know: 3% 2) “A VARIATION on the mileage tax just described is to have the tax rate VARY depending upon how much the vehicle pollutes. On average, vehicles would be charged 1 cent per mile, but vehicles that pollute less would be charged less, and vehicles that pollute more would be charged more. Would you strongly support, somewhat support, somewhat oppose, or strongly oppose THIS new mileage tax?” Strongly support: 14% Somewhat support: 19% Somewhat oppose: 18% Strongly oppose: 46% Don’t know: 3% HNTB Companies (Kelton Research) Sponsor or Funder: HNTB Companies Authors: Kelton Research Pollster: Kelton Research Title: America THINKS 2010 Sustainability Survey Publisher and/or publication year: HNTB Companies (2010) Data collection year: 2010 Survey mode: Online Sampling base: Adults Sampling strategy: Random Sample size: 1,064 Geographic level: National Census region: US Description of the mileage-based user fee: “a mileage use tax”

64 Questions: 1) “How strongly do you agree or disagree with the following statement: The U.S. should try to reduce transportation greenhouse gas emissions by reducing the number of miles that vehicles travel through a mileage use tax.” Strongly Agree: 11% Somewhat Agree: 28% Somewhat Disagree: 22% Strongly Disagree: 39% Indian Nation Council of Governments (Collective Strength) Sponsor or Funder: Indian Nation Council of Governments (INCOG) Authors: Collective Strength Pollster: Collective Strength Title: 2010 Tulsa Regional Transportation Survey Publisher and/or publication year: Indian Nation Council of Governments (INCOG) (2011) Data collection year: 2011 Survey mode: Phone Sampling base: Adults Sampling strategy: N/A Sample size: 1,000 Geographic level: Local (Tulsa, OK) Census region: South Description of the mileage-based user fee: “a small user tax that would be based on the number of miles a vehicle is driven each year” Questions: 1) “Please indicate how willing you would be to use the following sources of revenue to help fund public transportation improvements?” Very Willing: 10% Somewhat Willing 23% Not Willing: 65% Don’t know: 2% Federal Highway Administration (Ramfos) Sponsor or Funder: Federal Highway Administration Authors: Nicholas Ramfos

65 Pollster: LDA Consulting and CIC Research, Inc. Title: 2010 State of the Commute Survey Publisher and/or publication year: National Capital Region Transportation Planning Board Metropolitan Washington Council of Governments (2011) Data collection year: 2010 Survey mode: Phone Sampling base: Adults Sampling strategy: Random Sample size: 6,629 Geographic level: Regional (Washington, D.C. area) Census region: South Description of the mileage-based user fee: “a per mile charge on vehicle miles driven” Questions: 1) “Finally, I’ll read several possible ways to increase transportation funding for the region. Please rate your support for each using a scale of 1 to 5, where 1 means you “strongly oppose” it and 5 means you “strongly support” it as a way to increase transportation funding. How much do you support… Replacing the gas tax with a per mile charge on vehicle miles driven” Favor: 15% Oppose: N/A Undecided N/A HNTB Companies (Kelton Research) Sponsor or Funder: HNTB Companies Authors: Kelton Research Pollster: Kelton Research Title: HNTB Q1 Survey Publisher and/or publication year: HNTB Companies (2011) Data collection year: 2011 Survey mode: Online Sampling base: Adults Sampling strategy: N/A Sample size: 1,124

66 Geographic level: National Census region: US Description of the mileage-based user fee: “annual fee for highway miles traveled, collected at the pump or through a regular inspection or registration process” Questions: 1) “Aside from a gas tax, where do you think the government should get additional funds for transportation-related infra- structure projects? Please choose all that apply....” Annual fee for highway miles traveled, collected at the pump or through a regular inspection or registration process: 12% 2) “A Vehicle Miles Traveled (VMT) system uses odometer readings or satellite-based technology to measure how much each vehicle is driven and charges each owner accordingly. What do you think would be the best way to introduce such a system in the United States?” Introduce it first only with electric vehicle users that do not pay any gas taxes: 29% Annual fee based on odometer reading through state inspection or registration process: 22% GPS-based system based on actual miles traveled: 21% Estimated mileage based on vehicle fuel efficiency or amount of fuel purchased at the pump: 15% Other: 13% Mineta Transportation Institute (Agrawal and Nixon) Sponsor or Funder: California Department of Transportation; U.S. Department of Transportation Research and Innovative Technology Administration Authors: Asha Weinstein Agrawal and Hilary Nixon Pollster: Survey Policy and Research Institute at San José State University Title: What do Americans Think About Federal Transportation Tax Options? Results from Year 2 of a National Survey Publisher and/or publication year: Mineta Transportation Institute (2011) Data collection year: 2011 Survey mode: Phone Sampling base: Adults Sampling strategy: Random Sample size: 1,516 Geographic level: National Census region: US Description of the mileage-based user fee: “a new tax based on the number of miles a person drives”

67 Questions: 1) “One idea (a DIFFERENT idea) is to adopt a new tax based on the number of miles a person drives. Each driver would pay a tax of 1 cent for every mile driven. For example, someone driving 100 miles would pay a tax of 1 dollar. Vehicles would have an electronic meter to keep track of the miles driven, and the tax would be paid each time drivers buy gas. Would you strongly support, somewhat support, somewhat oppose, or strongly oppose this new mileage tax?” Strongly support: 6% Somewhat support: 16% Somewhat oppose: 17% Strongly oppose: 58% Don’t know: 2% 2) “A VARIATION on the mileage tax just described is to have the tax rate VARY depending upon how much the vehicle pollutes. On average, vehicles would be charged 1 cent per mile, but vehicles that pollute less would be charged less, and vehicles that pollute more would be charged more. Would you strongly support, somewhat support, somewhat oppose, or strongly oppose THIS new mileage tax?” Strongly support: 14% Somewhat support: 22% Somewhat oppose: 18% Strongly oppose: 42% Don’t know: 4% Rasmussen Reports Sponsor or Funder: Rasmussen Reports Authors: Rasmussen Reports Pollster: Rasmussen Reports Title: National Survey of 1,000 Adults Publisher and/or publication year: Rasmussen Reports (2011) Data collection year: 2011 Survey mode: Phone Sampling base: Adults Sampling strategy: Random Sample size: 1,000 Geographic level: National Census region: US Description of the mileage-based user fee: “taxing people based on how many miles they drive”

68 Questions: 1) “The Congressional Budget Office (CBO) has just released a report saying that taxing people based on how many miles they drive is a good way to raise funds for highway maintenance. Do you favor or oppose a mileage tax?” Favor: 15% Oppose: 72% Undecided: 13% Washington State Transportation Commission (EMC Market and Opinion Research) Sponsor or Funder: Washington State Transportation Commission Authors: EMC Market and Opinion Research Services Pollster: EMC Market and Opinion Research Services Title: 2011 Statewide Transportation Survey Publisher and/or publication year: Washington State Transportation Commission (2011) Data collection year: 2011 Survey mode: Multiple Sampling base: Adults Sampling strategy: Random Sample size: 5,518 Geographic level: State (Washington) Census region: West Description of the mileage-based user fee: “a fee based on the number of miles driven—people who use the system more would pay a higher fee” Questions: 1) Below are some ways we could fund our unmet transportation needs. For each one, please tell me whether or not you think that method is a good way to fund increased investment in our transportation system. “Is this a good way to fund increased transportation investment?” a fee based the number of miles driven—people who use the system more would pay a higher fee: 44% University of Iowa Public Policy Center (Hanley and Kuhl) Sponsor or Funder: University of Iowa Public Policy Center Authors: Paul Hanley and Jon Kuhl Pollster: N/A Title: National Evaluation of a Mileage-Based Road User Charge Publisher and/or publication year: 2011

69 Data collection year: N/A Survey mode: Multiple Sampling base: Adults Sampling strategy: N/A Sample size: 2,650 Geographic level: National Census region: US Description of the mileage-based user fee: “the idea of replacing the gas tax with a mileage-based road user fee” Questions: 1) “How do you feel about the idea of replacing the gas tax with a mileage-based road user fee?” Baseline: Very/Somewhat Positive: 41.5% Very/Somewhat Negative: 19.7% Don’t know/Neutral: 38.8% 2) “How do you feel about the idea of replacing the gas tax with a mileage-based road user fee?” Interim: Very/Somewhat Positive: 53.3% Very/Somewhat Negative: 17.7% Don’t know/Neutral: 29% 3) “How do you feel about the idea of replacing the gas tax with a mileage-based road user fee?” Exiting: Very/Somewhat Positive: 70.5% Very/Somewhat Negative: 17.1% Don’t know/Neutral: 12.5% Hart Research Associates & Public Opinion Strategies Sponsor or Funder: Hart Research Associates & Public Opinion Strategies Authors: Hart Research Associates & Public Opinion Strategies Pollster: Hart Research Associates & Public Opinion Strategies Title: The Rockefeller Foundation Infrastructure Survey Publisher and/or publication year: Hart Research Associates & Public Opinion Strategies (2011) Data collection year: 2011 Survey mode: Phone

70 Sampling base: Registered Voters Sampling strategy: N/A Sample size: 1,001 Geographic level: National Census region: US Description of the mileage-based user fee: “works like a user fee instead by charging based on the number of miles driven on the roads it funds” Questions: 1) “As you may know, Congress is likely to update the law that deals with our transportation infrastructure. There are a number of things that could be included in this legislation that would change the ways in which transportation dollars are spent. Please tell me whether you would strongly favor, somewhat favor, somewhat oppose, or strongly oppose each of the following changes in transportation funding:” “Developing a pilot program to allow selected states or localities to test replacing the per-gallon gasoline tax with one that works like a user fee instead by charging based on the number of miles driven on the roads it funds.” Strongly favor: 16% Somewhat favor: 24% Somewhat oppose: 20% Strongly oppose: 30% Not sure: 10% Minnesota Department of Transportation (Munnich, Doan, and Schmitt) Sponsor or Funder: Minnesota Department of Transportation Authors: Lee Munich, John Doan, and Matt Schmitt Pollster: Accora Research Title: Mileage-Based User Fee Policy Study: Supporting Technical Information Publisher and/or publication year: Minnesota Department of Transportation (2012) Data collection year: 2011 Survey mode: Online Sampling base: Adults Sampling strategy: Random Sample size: 400 Geographic level: State (Minnesota) Census region: Midwest Description of the mileage-based user fee: “the concept of paying a road use fee based on the miles you drive”

71 Questions: 1) “Before participating in this survey, had you heard about the concept of paying a fee based on the miles you drive?” Yes: 48% No: 52% 2) “How familiar are you with the concept of paying a fee based on the miles driven?” Very familiar: 21% Not very familiar: 56% Not at all familiar: 12% Only heard the name: 11% 3) “A vehicle miles traveled fee is one solution that is flexible enough to work with all vehicles so that they pay their fair share for use of the roadway system—even high mileage vehicles, gas–electric hybrids, ethanol-and biofuel-powered vehicles, plug-ins…” (Agree with statement) Rated 8, 9, or 10 on a 10-point scale: 46.3% (Disagree with statement) Rated 1, 2, or 3 on a 10-point scale: 19.3% (Neutral) Rated 4, 5, or 6: 35.4% 4) “Heavy polluting vehicles should be charged at a higher fee based on miles traveled than light polluting vehicles.” (Agree with statement) Rated 8, 9, or 10 on a 10-point scale: 38.5% (Disagree with statement) Rated 1, 2, or 3 on a 10-point scale: 33.0% (Neutral) Rated 4, 5, or 6: 28.5% 5) “Large, heavy trucks should be charged a higher use fee rate than regular vehicles; because trucks cause more road and bridge wear than cars.” (Agree with statement) Rated 8, 9, or 10 on a 10-point scale: 0.4% (Disagree with statement) Rated 1, 2, or 3 on a 10-point scale: 25.8% (Neutral) Rated 4, 5, or 6: 73.8% 6) “The system should have the same rate that does not vary, no matter how big the vehicle is, how much it pollutes, or the time or place where it is driven.” (Agree with statement) Rated 8, 9, or 10 on a 10-point scale: 28.0% (Disagree with statement) Rated 1, 2, or 3 on a 10-point scale: 31.8% (Neutral) Rated 4, 5, or 6: 40.2% 7) “Environmentally friendly vehicles should be charged a lower fee based on miles traveled.” (Agree with statement) Rated 8, 9, or 10 on a 10-point scale: 27.5% (Disagree with statement) Rated 1, 2, or 3 on a 10-point scale: 38.0% (Neutral) Rated 4, 5, or 6: 34.5% 8) “Different fees based on miles traveled should be charged based on the size or weight of the vehicle.” (Agree with statement) Rated 8, 9, or 10 on a 10-point scale: 25.3% (Disagree with statement) Rated 1, 2, or 3 on a 10-point scale: 36.0% (Neutral) Rated 4, 5, or 6: 38.7%

72 9) “Each vehicle should be assigned to one of several categories based on fuel efficiency and/or level of criterion emissions as defined by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the state then assigns a different per-mile use rate to each of the vehicle categories.” (Agree with statement) Rated 8, 9, or 10 on a 10-point scale: 20.8% (Disagree with statement) Rated 1, 2, or 3 on a 10-point scale: 38.3% (Neutral) Rated 4, 5, or 6: 40.9% 10) “There should be a different fee based on miles traveled for driving on rural roads than driving on roads in urban areas.” (Agree with statement) Rated 8, 9, or 10 on a 10-point scale: 17.5% (Disagree with statement) Rated 1, 2, or 3 on a 10-point scale: 41.3% (Neutral) Rated 4, 5, or 6: 41.2% 11) “Vehicles should be charged more for driving in areas with high traffic volume than areas with low traffic volume.” (Agree with statement) Rated 8, 9, or 10 on a 10-point scale: 14.0% (Disagree with statement) Rated 1, 2, or 3 on a 10-point scale: 47.8% (Neutral) Rated 4, 5, or 6: 38.2% 12) “All vehicles should be charged more for driving on roadways during rush hour periods (5:30 a.m.–9:00 and 3:00 p.m.–6:00 p.m.) to help reduce traffic congestion.” (Agree with statement) Rated 8, 9, or 10 on a 10-point scale: 14.8% (Disagree with statement) Rated 1, 2, or 3 on a 10-point scale: 52.0% (Neutral) Rated 4, 5, or 6: 33.2% 13) “Vehicles should be charged the regular rate for driving on city streets and more for driving on state highways and freeways.” (Agree with statement) Rated 8, 9, or 10 on a 10-point scale: 10.0% (Disagree with statement) Rated 1, 2, or 3 on a 10-point scale: 49.5% (Neutral) Rated 4, 5, or 6: 40.5% 14) “If a vehicle miles use fee program is ever implemented, the driver of a vehicle should always know the cost per mile and the total amount being charged to-date.” (Agree with statement) Rated 8, 9, or 10 on a 10-point scale: 64.8% (Disagree with statement) Rated 1, 2, or 3 on a 10-point scale: 13.8% (Neutral) Rated 4, 5, or 6: 21.4% 15) “The cost and maintenance of basic devices to collect information about vehicle miles traveled should be the responsi- bility of the state and federal governments, not the drivers.” (Agree with statement) Rated 8, 9, or 10 on a 10-point scale: 58.3% (Disagree with statement) Rated 1, 2, or 3 on a 10-point scale: 25.4% (Neutral) Rated 4, 5, or 6: 16.3% 16) “There should be a policy that helps to safeguard against evading fees based on miles traveled.” (Agree with statement) Rated 8, 9, or 10 on a 10-point scale: 28.7% (Disagree with statement) Rated 1, 2, or 3 on a 10-point scale: 30.5% (Neutral) Rated 4, 5, or 6: 40.8%

73 17) “If private companies are certified by the state to collect use fee information for vehicle miles traveled, they should be able to offer devices with additional features such as traffic information, global positioning system and other features that improve my safety and driving information.” (Agree with statement) Rated 8, 9, or 10 on a 10-point scale: 28.0% (Disagree with statement) Rated 1, 2, or 3 on a 10-point scale: 42.0% (Neutral) Rated 4, 5, or 6: 30.0% 18) “Miles traveled on Minnesota roadways should be read from my vehicle’s odometer monthly or when license tabs are paid.” (Agree with statement) Rated 8, 9, or 10 on a 10-point scale: 23.0% (Disagree with statement) Rated 1, 2, or 3 on a 10-point scale: 37.5% (Neutral) Rated 4, 5, or 6: 39.5% 19) “When I buy motor fuel, a device in my car should tell the pump how many miles have been driven since my last read- ing and should charge accordingly.” (Agree with statement) Rated 8, 9, or 10 on a 10-point scale: 14.8% (Disagree with statement) Rated 1, 2, or 3 on a 10-point scale: 53.3% (Neutral) Rated 4, 5, or 6: 32.2% 20) “Miles traveled on Minnesota roadways should be collected on a device in my vehicle that uses Global Positioning Systems (GPS) technology and then transmitted securely to a central location for billing purposes.” (Agree with statement) Rated 8, 9, or 10 on a 10-point scale: 14.5% (Disagree with statement) Rated 1, 2, or 3 on a 10-point scale: 53.3% (Neutral) Rated 4, 5, or 6: 33.7% 21) “Miles traveled on Minnesota roadways should be collected on a device in my vehicle that uses cellular phone-based technology and then transmitted securely to a central location for billing purposes.” (Agree with statement) Rated 8, 9, or 10 on a 10-point scale: 10.8% (Disagree with statement) Rated 1, 2, or 3 on a 10-point scale: 55.5% (Neutral) Rated 4, 5, or 6: 33.7% 22) “A non-governmental audit firm should regularly audit the system to ensure private data gathered by the system was being well protected.” (Agree with statement) Rated 8, 9, or 10 on a 10-point scale: 46.5% (Disagree with statement) Rated 1, 2, or 3 on a 10-point scale: 21.8% (Neutral) Rated 4, 5, or 6: 31.7% 23) “Overall, vehicle miles traveled use fees are fair, because drivers pay according to how much they actually use the road.” (Agree with statement) Rated 8, 9, or 10 on a 10-point scale: 33.0% (Disagree with statement) Rated 1, 2, or 3 on a 10-point scale: 30.5% (Neutral) Rated 4, 5, or 6: 36.5% 24) “Fees based on miles traveled are fair because they require drivers of vehicles that use little or no gasoline to also pay their fair share for using roads and bridges.” (Agree with statement) Rated 8, 9, or 10 on a 10-point scale: 31.3% (Disagree with statement) Rated 1, 2, or 3 on a 10-point scale: 30.8% (Neutral) Rated 4, 5, or 6: 37.9%

74 25) “I would like a high-tech system to collect fees based on miles traveled that also provides driver benefits such as direc- tions, traffic information, location and fuel consumption.” (Agree with statement) Rated 8, 9, or 10 on a 10-point scale: 23.0% (Disagree with statement) Rated 1, 2, or 3 on a 10-point scale: 34.3% (Neutral) Rated 4, 5, or 6: 42.7% 26) “I would be willing to accept a high tech collection system if it guarantees privacy protection while ensuring that the user charges collected are being properly sent to the central billing office even though I can’t verify the accuracy of the billing due to the privacy.” (Agree with statement) Rated 8, 9, or 10 on a 10-point scale: 15.3% (Disagree with statement) Rated 1, 2, or 3 on a 10-point scale: 46.5% (Neutral) Rated 4, 5, or 6: 38.2% Fiscal Research Center (Ellen, Sjoquist, and Stoycheva) Sponsor or Funder: Georgia Department of Transportation and the University Transportation Center at the Georgia Insti- tute of Technology Authors: Pam Scholder Ellen, David L. Sjoquist, and Rayna Stoycheva Pollster: Booth Research Services, Inc. Title: Measuring Preferences for and Responses to Alternative Revenue Sources for Transportation Publisher and/or publication year: Fiscal Research Center of the Andrew Young School of Policy Studies (2012) Data collection year: 2011 Survey mode: Online Sampling base: Adults Sampling strategy: Random Sample size: 2,000 Geographic level: State (Georgia) Census region: South Description of the mileage-based user fee: “a tax based only on the number of miles you drive. In other words, this matches taxes to actual road usage”; “a tax that was based only on the number of miles the car was driven in Georgia” Questions: 1) “Imagine that the current state gas tax was eliminated and replaced by a tax that was based only on the number of miles the car was driven in Georgia. Imagine that it was possible to pay this tax at the gas pump just like the current gas tax. So when a driver refueled their car, the total cost would include the cost of the gas plus tax based on how many miles the car had been driven in Georgia since the last gas purchase. In this proposal, everyone who drives 10,000 miles a year in Georgia would pay the same tax, regardless of the fuel efficiency of the vehicle they drove. To create the same revenue for transportation, the new miles-based tax would be 1.35 cents per mile. This means a person who drives a car 10,000 miles per year will pay $135 in taxes. Would you ...” Strongly/Somewhat support this change in how the gas tax is determined: 33% Strongly/Somewhat oppose: this change in how the gas tax is determined: 60% No opinion: 7%

75 2) “Imagine that the current state gas tax was eliminated and replaced by a tax that was based only on the number of miles the car was driven in Georgia. Imagine that it was possible to pay this tax at the gas pump just like the current gas tax. So when a driver refueled their car, the total cost would include the cost of the gas plus tax based on how many miles the car had been driven in Georgia since the last gas purchase. In this proposal, everyone who drives 10,000 miles a year in Georgia would pay the same tax, regardless of the fuel efficiency of the vehicle they drove. To create the same revenue for transportation, the new miles-based tax would be 1.6 cents per mile. This means a person who drives a car 10,000 miles per year will pay $160 in taxes. Would you ...” Strongly/Somewhat support this change in how the gas tax is determined: 39% Strongly/Somewhat oppose: this change in how the gas tax is determined: 55% No opinion: 6% 3) “Imagine that the current state gas tax was eliminated and replaced by a tax that was based only on the number of miles the car was driven in Georgia. Imagine that it was possible to pay this tax at the gas pump just like the current gas tax. So when a driver refueled their car, the total cost would include the cost of the gas plus tax based on how many miles the car had been driven in Georgia since the last gas purchase. In this proposal, everyone who drives 10,000 miles a year in Georgia would pay the same tax, regardless of the fuel efficiency of the vehicle they drove. To create the same revenue for transportation, the new miles-based tax would be 2.1 cents per mile. This means a person who drives a car 10,000 miles per year will pay $210 in taxes. Would you ...” Strongly/Somewhat support this change in how the gas tax is determined: 36% Strongly/Somewhat oppose: this change in how the gas tax is determined: 57% No opinion: 7% Mineta Transportation Institute (Agrawal, Nixon, and Murthy) Sponsor or Funder: California Department of Transportation; U.S. Department of Transportation Research and Innovative Technology Administration Authors: Asha Weinstein Agrawal, Hilary Nixon, and Vinay Murthy Pollster: Survey Policy and Research Institute at San José State University Title: What do Americans Think About Federal Tax Options to Support Public Transit, Highways, and Local Streets and Roads? Results from Year 3 of a National Survey Publisher and/or publication year: Mineta Transportation Institute (2012) Data collection year: 2012 Survey mode: Phone Sampling base: Adults Sampling strategy: Random Sample size: 1,519 Geographic level: National Census region: US Description of the mileage-based user fee: “a new tax based on the number of miles a person drives”

76 Questions: 1) “One idea (a DIFFERENT idea) is to adopt a new tax based on the number of miles a person drives. Each driver would pay a tax of 1 cent for every mile driven. For example, someone driving 100 miles would pay a tax of 1 dollar. Vehicles would have an electronic meter to keep track of the miles driven, and the tax would be paid each time drivers buy gas. Would you strongly support, somewhat support, somewhat oppose, or strongly oppose this new mileage tax?” Strongly support: 6% Somewhat support: 15% Somewhat oppose: 17% Strongly oppose: 60% Don’t know: 3% 2) “A VARIATION on the mileage tax just described is to have the tax rate VARY depending upon how much the vehicle pollutes. On average, vehicles would be charged 1 cent per mile, but vehicles that pollute less would be charged less, and vehicles that pollute more would be charged more. Would you strongly support, somewhat support, somewhat oppose, or strongly oppose THIS new mileage tax?” Strongly support: 17% Somewhat support: 24% Somewhat oppose: 17% Strongly oppose: 40% Don’t know: 2% Wall Street Journal Sponsor or Funder: Wall Street Journal Authors: Wall Street Journal Pollster: Wall Street Journal Title: Vote: What Should Happen to the Gas Tax? Publisher and/or publication year: Wall Street Journal (2012) Data collection year: 2012 Survey mode: Online Sampling base: Adults Sampling strategy: N/A Sample size: 1,726 Geographic level: National Census region: US Description of the mileage-based user fee: “tax instead by miles driven”

77 Questions: 1) “What should be done with the gas tax?” Increase it: 29.8% Tax instead by miles driven: 20.4% Index it to inflation: 16.3% Levy more tolls: 7.9% Add federal registration fee on vehicles: 5.3% Leave as is: 20.3% HNTB Corporation (Kelton Research) Sponsor or Funder: HNTB Corporation Authors: Kelton Research Pollster: Kelton Research Title: America THINKS 2012 Highway Survey Publisher and/or publication year: HNTB Corporation (2012) Data collection year: 2012 Survey mode: Online Sampling base: Adults Sampling strategy: Random Sample size: 1,024 Geographic level: National Census region: US Description of the mileage-based user fee: “a vehicle miles driven user fee” Questions: 1) “If you had to choose one, where would you most prefer the United States get funding for the nation’s interstate projects?” Tolls: 61% A vehicle miles driven user fee: 23% Increased federal gas tax: 16% Rasmussen Reports Sponsor or Funder: Rasmussen Reports Authors: Rasmussen Reports Pollster: Rasmussen Reports

78 Title: National Survey of 1,000 Adults Publisher and/or publication year: Rasmussen Reports (2012) Data collection year: 2012 Survey mode: Phone Sampling base: Adults Sampling strategy: Random Sample size: 1,000 Geographic level: National Census region: US Description of the mileage-based user fee: “taxing people based on how many miles they drive” Questions: 1) “Some have suggested that taxing people based on how many miles they drive is a good way to raise funds for highway maintenance. Do you favor or oppose a mileage tax?” Favor: 12% Oppose: 77% Not sure: 10% Washington State Transportation Commission (EMC Market & Opinion Research) Sponsor or Funder: Washington State Transportation Commission Authors: EMC Research Pollster: EMC Research Title: 2012 Statewide VOWS Transportation Survey Publisher and/or publication year: Washington State Transportation Commission (2012) Data collection year: 2012 Survey mode: Online Sampling base: Adults Sampling strategy: Convenience Sample size: 7,897 Geographic level: State (Washington) Census region: West Description of the mileage-based user fee: “a fee based on the number of miles driven—people pay for what they use by the mile instead of by the gallon”

79 Questions: 1) “There are a number of long term funding options being considered to address the state’s long-term transportation financial challenges. For each revenue source, please indicate whether or not you think that method is a good way to help provide future funding for our transportation system:” “An annual fee on vehicles that get over 50 miles per gallon—people with high MPG vehicles who pay lower gas taxes would be charged an additional fee” Definitely: 17% Probably: 21% Probably not: 19% Definitely not: 38% Not sure: 5% Mineta Transportation Institute (Agrawal and Nixon) Sponsor or Funder: California Department of Transportation; U.S. Department of Transportation Research and Innovative Technology Administration Authors: Asha Weinstein Agrawal and Hilary Nixon Pollster: Social Science Survey Center at CSU, Fullerton Title: What do Americans Think About Federal Tax Options to Support Public Transit, Highways, and Local Streets and Roads? Results from Year Four of a National Survey Publisher and/or publication year: Mineta Transportation Institute (2013) Data collection year: 2013 Survey mode: Phone Sampling base: Adults Sampling strategy: Random Sample size: 1,501 Geographic level: National Census region: US Description of the mileage-based user fee: “a new tax based on the number of miles a person drives” Questions: 1) “One idea (a DIFFERENT idea) is to adopt a new tax based on the number of miles a person drives. Each driver would pay a tax of 1 cent for every mile driven. For example, someone driving 100 miles would pay a tax of 1 dollar. Vehicles would have an electronic meter to keep track of the miles driven, and the tax would be paid each time drivers buy gas. Would you strongly support, somewhat support, somewhat oppose, or strongly oppose this new mileage tax?” Strongly support: 5% Somewhat support: 13% Somewhat oppose: 16% Strongly oppose: 64% Don’t know: 2%

80 2) “A VARIATION on the mileage tax just described is to have the tax rate VARY depending upon how much the vehicle pollutes. On average, vehicles would be charged 1 cent per mile, but vehicles that pollute less would be charged less, and vehicles that pollute more would be charged more. Would you strongly support, somewhat support, somewhat oppose, or strongly oppose THIS new mileage tax?” Strongly support: 16% Somewhat support: 23% Somewhat oppose: 18% Strongly oppose: 42% Don’t know: 2% Indiana University School of Public and Environmental Affairs (Duncan and Graham) Sponsor or Funder: School of Public and Environmental Affairs (SPEA), Indiana University Authors: Denvil Duncan and John Graham Pollster: GfK Custom Research, LLC Title: 2013 IU-SPEA Mileage User Fee Survey Publisher and/or publication year: School of Public and Environmental Affairs (SPEA) (2013) Data collection year: 2013 Survey mode: Online Sampling base: Adults Sampling strategy: Semi-random Sample size: 2,087 Geographic level: National Census region: US Description of the mileage-based user fee: “a road user-fee based on miles driven” Questions: 1) “The government is considering whether to replace the gasoline tax with a road user-fee based on miles driven. In other words, instead of a gasoline tax, each driver will pay a user-fee based on the number of miles he or she drives. The more miles a driver drives, the more he or she will pay. This is sometimes called a mileage user-fee. Before this survey, had you heard or seen information about a mileage user-fee?” Yes: 17.8% No: 81.3% Refused: 0.9% 2) “Which of the following best describes the information you have heard or seen about the mileage user-fee?” Refused: 1.1% The information was mostly favorable: 7.3% The information was mostly unfavorable: 37.5% The information was equally favorable and unfavorable: 54.2%

81 3) “Would you support an effort to replace the gasoline tax with a mileage user-fee?” Refused: 0.4% Yes: 22.1% No: 77.5% 4) “Please indicate your degree of support for or opposition to the following options: Your state replaces its gasoline tax with a state mileage user-fee”; Refused: 0.9% Strongly Agree: 3.4% Agree: 21.2% Disagree: 39.5% Strongly Disagree: 35.1% 5) “Please indicate your degree of support for or opposition to the following options: The federal government replaces its gasoline tax with a federal mileage user-fee”; Refused: 0.9% Strongly Agree: 3.1% Agree: 19.8% Disagree: 40.6% Strongly Disagree: 35.6% 6) “Please indicate your degree of support for or opposition to the following options: The states and the federal government replace their gasoline taxes with mileage user- fees.” Refused: 0.9% Strongly Agree: 3.4% Agree: 21.2% Disagree: 39.5% Strongly Disagree: 35.1% 7) “Please tell me whether you strongly agree, agree, disagree or strongly disagree with the following statements about a mileage user-fee: A mileage user-fee makes it easy for road users to calculate how much they pay the government for using the roads”; Refused: 0.7% Strongly Agree: 5.8% Agree: 46.4% Disagree: 35.5% Strongly Disagree: 11.5% 8) “Please tell me whether you strongly agree, agree, disagree or strongly disagree with the following statements about a mileage user-fee: A mileage user-fee is an accurate way to charge road users for the wear and tear they cause on the roads”; Refused: 0.6% Strongly Agree: 4.7%

82 Agree: 35.3% Disagree: 39.9% Strongly Disagree: 19.5% 9) “Please tell me whether you strongly agree, agree, disagree or strongly disagree with the following statements about a mileage user-fee: A mileage user-fee is unfair to people living in rural areas because they have to drive more miles to get to places they need to go”; Refused: 0.7% Strongly Agree: 32.5% Agree: 46.3% Disagree: 18.7% Strongly Disagree: 1.8% 10) “Please tell me whether you strongly agree, agree, disagree or strongly disagree with the following statements about a mileage user-fee: A mileage user-fee is unfair to people who drive a lot on the job (for example, truckers, sales people, and taxi drivers)” Refused: 0.7% Strongly Agree: 32.6% Agree: 40.2% Disagree: 23.0% Strongly Disagree: 3.5% 11) “Please tell me whether you strongly agree, agree, disagree or strongly disagree with the following statements about a mileage user-fee: Collecting information about a person’s mileage is an invasion of privacy, unless the collection is voluntary”; Refused: 0.6% Strongly Agree: 32.4% Agree: 41.6% Disagree: 21.4% Strongly Disagree: 3.9% 12) “Please tell me whether you strongly agree, agree, disagree or strongly disagree with the following statements about a mileage user-fee: A mileage user-fee is unfair to people who drive fuel efficient vehicles.” Refused: 0.6% Strongly Agree: 17.6% Agree: 38.3% Disagree: 36.0% Strongly Disagree: 7.4% 13) Below is a list of statements in favor of and against a mileage user-fee administered through odometer readings. Please tell me whether you strongly agree, agree, disagree or strongly disagree with the following statements: Reporting odometer mileage to the government is an invasion of privacy”; Refused: 0.7%

83 Strongly Agree: 34.0% Agree: 3.9% Disagree: 27.0% Strongly Disagree: 4.4% 14) “Below is a list of statements in favor of and against a mileage user-fee administered through odometer readings. Please tell me whether you strongly agree, agree, disagree or strongly disagree with the following statements: Reporting my odometer mileage to the DMV each year will be inconvenient”; Refused: 0.7% Strongly Agree: 30.9% Agree: 38.3% Disagree: 26.3% Strongly Disagree: 3.8% 15) “Below is a list of statements in favor of and against a mileage user-fee administered through odometer readings. Please tell me whether you strongly agree, agree, disagree or strongly disagree with the following statements: Most people will honestly report the mileage on the odometer in their cars”; Refused: 0.8% Strongly Agree: 3.3% Agree: 38.0% Disagree: 43.0% Strongly Disagree: 14.9% 16) “Below is a list of statements in favor of and against a mileage user-fee administered through odometer readings. Please tell me whether you strongly agree, agree, disagree or strongly disagree with the following statements.: A significant number of motorists will tamper with the odometer in their car”; Refused: 0.8% Strongly Agree: 16.2% Agree: 46.1% Disagree: 33.3% Strongly Disagree: 3.6% 17) “Below is a list of statements in favor of and against a mileage user-fee administered through odometer readings. Please tell me whether you strongly agree, agree, disagree or strongly disagree with the following statements: The audit process will keep most people from tampering with the odometer in their cars”; Refused: 0.9% Strongly Agree: 4.4% Agree: 37.1% Disagree: 44.4% Strongly Disagree: 13.3% 18) “Below is a list of statements in favor of and against a mileage user-fee administered through odometer readings. Please tell me whether you strongly agree, agree, disagree or strongly disagree with the following statements: The odometer mileage user-fee would be easy to implement since every vehicle already has an odometer” Refused: 0.8%

84 Strongly Agree: 6.4% Agree: 47.2% Disagree: 30.7% Strongly Disagree: 15.0% 19) “Would you be in support of or opposed to replacing the gasoline tax in your state with a mileage user-fee based on odometer readings?” Refused: 0.5% Strongly Support: 2.5% Support: 19.5% Oppose: 37.4% Strongly oppose: 40.1% 20) “Would you be willing to take any of the following actions to support an odometer-based mileage user-fee in your state?” I would sign a petition supporting an odometer-based mileage user-fee as a replacement for the gasoline tax. Refused: 3.0% Yes: 60.8% No: 36.2% 21) “Would you be willing to take any of the following actions to support an odometer-based mileage user-fee in your state?” I would write or email my legislator to express support for an odometer-based mileage user-fee as a replacement for the gasoline tax. Refused: 4.1% Yes: 31.9% No: 64.0% 22) “Would you contribute ($1, $5, $10, $20, $30, $40, $50, >$50) to a political campaign in support of the odometer-based mileage user-fee described above in your state?” Note: Only those respondents who answer “yes” to the initial amount are asked if they would contribute more. Thus, the number of respondents continues to decrease as the dollar amount increases. $10 Refused: 1.7% Yes: 14.7% No: 83.6% $20 Yes: 32.4% No: 67.6% $30 Refused: 4.5% Yes: 27.3% No: 68.2%

85 $40 Yes: 66.7% No: 33.3% $50 Yes: 75.0% No: 25.0% More than $50 Yes: 66.7% No: 33.3% 23) “Would you be willing to take any of the following actions to oppose an odometer-based mileage user-fee in your state?” I would sign a petition opposing an odometer-based mileage user-fee as a replacement for the gasoline tax. Refused: 1.4% Yes: 78.9% No: 19.8% 24) “Would you be willing to take any of the following actions to oppose an odometer-based mileage user-fee in your state?” I would write or email my legislator to express opposition to an odometer-based mileage user-fee as a replacement for the gasoline tax. Refused: 1.5% Yes: 57.1% No: 41.3% 25) “Would you contribute ($1, $5, $10, $20, $30, $40, $50, >$50) to a political campaign against the odometer-based mile- age user-fee described above in your state?” Note: Only those respondents who answer “yes” to the initial amount are asked if they would contribute more. Thus, the number of respondents continues to decrease as the dollar amount increases. $10 Refused: 1.0% Yes: 25.8% No: 73.2% $20 Refused: 1.4% Yes: 53.0% No: 45.6% $30 Refused: 0.9% Yes: 59.5% No: 39.6%

86 $40 Refused: 0.8% Yes: 82.6% No: 16.7% $50 Refused: 0.9% Yes: 89.9% No: 9.2% More than $50 Refused: 0.9% Yes: 9.9% No: 89.1% 26) “For this question, please think about a federal level mileage user-fee. Would you be in support of or opposed to replac- ing the federal gasoline tax with a federal mileage user-fee based on odometer readings?” Refused: 0.7% Strongly Support: 1.5% Support: 17.9% Oppose: 40.9% Strongly oppose: 39.0% 27) “Below is a list of statements in favor of and against the basic GPS-based mileage user-fee just described. Please tell me whether you strongly agree, agree, disagree, or strongly disagree with the following statements: GPS systems are accurate in measuring miles of travel.” Refused: 1.4% Strongly Agree: 5.0% Agree: 36.9% Disagree: 46.2% Strongly Disagree: 10.4% 28) “Below is a list of statements in favor of and against the basic GPS-based mileage user-fee just described. Please tell me whether you strongly agree, agree, disagree, or strongly disagree with the following statements: It is difficult to tamper with a GPS system.” Refused: 1.4% Strongly Agree: 5.0% Agree: 36.9% Disagree: 46.2% Strongly Disagree: 10.4% 29) “Below is a list of statements in favor of and against the basic GPS-based mileage user-fee just described. Please tell me whether you strongly agree, agree, disagree, or strongly disagree with the following statements: Many drivers would tamper with their GPS systems if the government relies on GPS to collect mileage data for the mileage user-fee.” Refused: 1.2%

87 Strongly Agree: 16.0% Agree: 49.8% Disagree: 30.4% Strongly Disagree: 2.5% 30) “Below is a list of statements in favor of and against the basic GPS-based mileage user-fee just described. Please tell me whether you strongly agree, agree, disagree, or strongly disagree with the following statements: It would be inconvenient to have to get the GPS device installed in my car.” Refused: 1.2% Strongly Agree: 31.8% Agree: 44.2% Disagree: 20.2% Strongly Disagree: 2.8% 31) “Below is a list of statements in favor of and against the basic GPS-based mileage user-fee just described. Please tell me whether you strongly agree, agree, disagree, or strongly disagree with the following statements: It would be easy for someone outside of the government to get access to my GPS mileage data.” Refused: 1.3% Strongly Agree: 27.4% Agree: 52.6% Disagree: 16.8% Strongly Disagree: 2.0% 32) “Below is a list of statements in favor of and against the basic GPS-based mileage user-fee just described. Please tell me whether you strongly agree, agree, disagree, or strongly disagree with the following statements: I like that this basic GPS system only tracks the total number of miles driven, so the government cannot monitor when and where I drive.” Refused: 1.2% Strongly Agree: 14.4% Agree: 47.6% Disagree: 23.1% Strongly Disagree: 13.6% 33) “Below is a list of statements in favor of and against the basic GPS-based mileage user-fee just described. Please tell me whether you strongly agree, agree, disagree or strongly disagree with the following statements: It is a waste of money to buy those GPS devices since all cars already have an odometer”; Refused: 1.3% Strongly Agree: 29.1% Agree: 47.6% Disagree: 19.6% Strongly Disagree: 2.4% 34) “Below is a list of statements in favor of and against the basic GPS-based mileage user-fee just described. Please tell me whether you strongly agree, agree, disagree or strongly disagree with the following statements: I dislike this basic GPS-based mileage user-fee because I have to pay for the GPS device.”

88 Refused: 1.1% Strongly Agree: 43.5% Agree: 40.5% Disagree: 12.7% Strongly Disagree: 2.1% 35) “Below is a list of statements in favor of and against the basic GPS-based mileage user-fee just described. Please tell me whether you strongly agree, agree, disagree, or strongly disagree with the following statements: $250 is too much to pay for the GPS device.” Refused: 1.2% Strongly Agree: 45.4% Agree: 42.0% Disagree: 9.8% Strongly Disagree: 1.5% 36) “Below is a list of statements in favor of and against the basic GPS-based mileage user-fee just described. Please tell me whether you strongly agree, agree, disagree, or strongly disagree with the following statements: The audit process will keep most people from tampering with the GPS system or the odometer in their cars.” Refused: 1.3% Strongly Agree: 3.7% Agree: 40.8% Disagree: 42.2% Strongly Disagree: 11.9% 37) “Would you be in support of or opposed to replacing the gasoline tax in your state with a mileage user-fee based on this basic/advanced GPS?” Basic GPS Refused: 0.5% Strongly Support: 1.1% Support: 13.7% Oppose: 40.7% Strongly Oppose: 43.9% Advanced GPS Refused: 0.5% Strongly Support: 1.2% Support: 12.0% Oppose: 37.9% Strongly Oppose: 48.4% 38) “Would you be willing to take any of the following actions to support this basic/advanced GPS-based mileage user-fee in your state?” I would sign a petition supporting this basic GPS-based mileage user-fee as a replacement for the gasoline tax. Refused: 2.8% Yes: 61.2%

89 No: 36.0% I would sign a petition supporting this advanced GPS-based mileage user-fee as a replacement for the gasoline tax. Refused: 2.8% Yes: 63.3% No: 33.8% 39) “Would you be willing to take any of the following actions to support this basic/advanced GPS-based mileage user-fee in your state?” I would write or email my legislator to express support for this basic GPS-based mileage user-fee as a replacement for the gasoline tax. Refused: 4.4% Yes: 30.0% No: 65.6% I would write or email my legislator to express support for this advanced GPS-based mileage user-fee as a replacement for the gasoline tax. Refused: 3.6% Yes: 31.7% No: 64.8% 40) “Would you contribute ($1, $5, $10, $20, $30, $40, $50, >$50) to a political campaign in support of this basic/advanced GPS-based mileage user fee described above in your state?” Note: Only those respondents who answer “yes” to the initial amount are asked if they would contribute more. Thus, the number of respondents continues to decrease as the dollar amount increases. Basic GPS $1 Refused: 1.4% Yes: 17.3% No: 81.4% $5 Refused: 1.6% Yes: 11.5% No: 87.0% $10 Refused: 3.2% Yes: 17.0% No: 79.8% $20 Refused: 1.9% Yes: 29.6% No: 68.5%

90 $30 Yes: 43.8% No: 56.3% $40 Yes: 71.4% No: 28.6% $50 Yes: 80.0% No: 20.0% More than $50 Yes: 75.0% No: 25.0% Advanced GPS $1 Refused: 2.6% Yes: 21.9% No: 75.5% $5 Refused: 1.4% Yes: 9.3% No: 89.3% $10 Refused: 3.2% Yes: 20.3% No: 76.5% $20 Yes: 33.3% No: 66.7% $30 Yes: 42.1% No: 57.9% $40 Yes: 62.5% No: 37.5%

91 $50 Yes: 80.0% No: 20.0% More than $50 Refused: 25% Yes: 50.0% No: 25.0% 41) “Would you be willing to take any of the following actions to oppose this basic/advanced GPS-based mileage user-fee in your state?” I would sign a petition opposing this basic GPS-based mileage user-fee as a replacement for the gasoline tax. Refused: 1.5% Yes: 73.5% No: 25.0% I would sign a petition opposing this advanced GPS-based mileage user-fee as a replacement for the gasoline tax. Refused: 1.7% Yes: 73.4% No: 24.9% 42) “Would you be willing to take any of the following actions to oppose this basic/advanced GPS-based mileage user-fee in your state?” I would write or email my legislator to express opposition to this basic GPS-based mileage user-fee as a replacement for the gasoline tax. Refused: 2.0% Yes: 73.5% No: 25.0% I would write or email my legislator to express opposition to this advanced GPS-based mileage user-fee as a replacement for the gasoline tax. Refused: 2.0% Yes: 54.4% No: 43.6% 43) “Would you contribute ($1, $5, $10, $20, $30, $40, $50, >$50) to a political campaign against this basic/advanced GPS- based mileage user-fee described above in your state?” Note: Only those respondents who answer “yes” to the initial amount are asked if they would contribute more. Thus, the number of respondents continues to decrease as the dollar amount increases. Basic GPS $1 Refused: 1.0% Yes: 11.4% No: 87.6%

92 $5 Refused: 1.3% Yes: 8.1% No: 90.6% $10 Refused: 1.2% Yes: 24.3% No: 74.5% $20 Refused: 0.5% Yes: 57.7% No: 41.9% $30 Refused: 1.2% Yes: 63.7% No: 35.1% $40 Refused: 1.9% Yes: 79.1% No: 19.0% $50 Refused: 0.8% Yes: 94.4% No: 4.8% More than $50 Refused: 0.8% Yes: 78.8% No: 20.3% Advanced GPS $1 Refused: 0.7% Yes: 10.5% No: 88.9% $5 Refused: 1.1% Yes: 7.4%

93 No: 91.5% $10 Refused: 1.6% Yes: 25.7% No: 72.8% $20 Refused: 0.4% Yes: 58.2% No: 41.4% $30 Refused: 1.9% Yes: 68.9% No: 29.3% $40 Yes: 82.3% No: 17.7% $50 Refused: 0.7% Yes: 89.5% No: 9.8% More than $50 Yes: 81.0% No: 19.0% 44) “For this question, please think about a federal level mileage user-fee. Would you be in support of or opposed to replac- ing the federal gasoline tax with a federal mileage user-fee based on a basic/advanced GPS?” Basic GPS Refused: 0.6% Strongly Support: 1.1% Support: 12.6% Oppose: 42.3% Strongly Oppose: 43.4% Advanced GPS Refused: 0.8% Strongly Support: 1.0% Support: 11.5% Oppose: 38.2% Strongly Oppose: 48.4%

94 45) Below is a list of statements in favor of and against the advanced GPS-based mileage user-fee described above. Please tell me whether you strongly agree, agree, disagree, or strongly disagree with the following statements: I like this advanced GPS system because a higher rate could be charged for driving on congested roads.” Refused: 1.1% Strongly Agree: 4.6% Agree: 18.4% Disagree: 45.3% Strongly Disagree: 30.6% 46) “Below is a list of statements in favor of and against the advanced GPS-based mileage user-fee described above. Please tell me whether you strongly agree, agree, disagree, or strongly disagree with the following statements: I like this advanced GPS system because the government in each state could charge and collect taxes from every driver who drives in that state (including drivers from other states).” Refused: 1.1% Strongly Agree: 4.6% Agree: 21.4% Disagree: 41.2% Strongly Disagree: 31.8% 47) “Below is a list of statements in favor of and against the advanced GPS-based mileage user-fee described above. Please tell me whether you strongly agree, agree, disagree, or strongly disagree with the following statements: I dislike this advanced GPS system because the government will be able to monitor when and where I drive.” Refused: 1.0% Strongly Agree: 47.2% Agree: 33.3% Disagree: 14.3% Strongly Disagree: 4.1% 48) “Below is a list of statements in favor of and against the advanced GPS-based mileage user-fee described above. Please tell me whether you strongly agree, agree, disagree, or strongly disagree with the following statements: It would be easy for someone outside of the government to get access to my GPS mileage data.” Refused: 1.1% Strongly Agree: 30.1% Agree: 51.1% Disagree: 15.6% Strongly Disagree: 2.2% 49) “Below is a list of statements in favor of and against the advanced GPS-based mileage user-fee described above. Please tell me whether you strongly agree, agree, disagree, or strongly disagree with the following statements: There are likely to be a lot of errors in trying to use location data to charge different fees.” Refused: 1.2% Strongly Agree: 33.9% Agree: 50.6%

95 Disagree: 12.1% Strongly Disagree: 2.2% 50) “Below is a list of statements in favor of and against the advanced GPS-based mileage user-fee described above. Please tell me whether you strongly agree, agree, disagree, or strongly disagree with the following statements: The audit process will keep most people from tampering with the GPS system or the odometer in their cars.” Refused: 1.2% Strongly Agree: 4.6% Agree: 37.9% Disagree: 41.8% Strongly Disagree: 14.4% 51) “Below is a list of statements in favor of and against the advanced GPS-based mileage user-fee described above. Please tell me whether you strongly agree, agree, disagree, or strongly disagree with the following statements: I dislike this advanced GPS-based mileage user-fee because I have to pay for the GPS device.” Refused: 1.1% Strongly Agree: 47.2% Agree: 36.4% Disagree: 13.0% Strongly Disagree: 2.2% 52) “Below is a list of statements in favor of and against the advanced GPS-based mileage user-fee described above. Please tell me whether you strongly agree, agree, disagree, or strongly disagree with the following statements: $250 is too much to pay for the GPS device.” Refused: 1.0% Strongly Agree: 46.9% Agree: 39.4% Disagree: 10.2% Strongly Disagree: 2.5% 53) “Below is a list of statements in favor of and against the advanced GPS-based mileage user-fee described above. Please tell me whether you strongly agree, agree, disagree, or strongly disagree with the following statements: I like the advanced GPS-based mileage user-fee because it would allow me to monitor people who drive my cars.” Refused: 1.0% Strongly Agree: 2.9% Agree: 15.3% Disagree: 47.5% Strongly Disagree: 33.3% University of Nevada, Las Vegas (Nordland, Paz, and Khan) Sponsor or Funder: University of Nevada, Las Vegas Authors: Andrew Nordland, Alexander Paz, Alauddin Khan Pollster: Andrew Nordland, Alexander Paz, Alauddin Khan

96 Title: Vehicle Miles Traveled Fee System in Nevada: Public Perceptions & Preferences Publisher and/or publication year: Transportation Research Record (2013) Data collection year: N/A Survey mode: In-person Sampling base: Adults Sampling strategy: Convenience Sample size: 173 Geographic level: Local (Las Vegas, Nevada) Census region: West Description of the mileage-based user fee: “A field test is to be conducted with a simple pay at-the-pump system. The system will read the mileage data at the pump and assess the mileage fee from an on-board-unit, which will only keep track of total miles traveled. In order to reduce collection and administration costs and privacy concerns, the study will explore the option of billing drivers for their VMT fee on an annual, bi-annual, or monthly basis, which could be very good for electric vehicles not going to the pump.” Questions: 1) “Prior to reading the introduction, what was your familiarity with a Vehicle Miles Travel (VMT) fee system?” Not Familiar: 74% Somewhat familiar: 17% Very Familiar: 9% 2) “Rank the following VMT components based on personal importance from 1-5 (Five (5) being most important, one (1) being least important)”: Ease of Use 1: 8% 2: 6% 3: 16% 4: 24% 5: 46% 3) Rank the following VMT components based on personal importance from 1 to 5 [Five (5) being most important, one (1) being least important]: Reliability 1: 5% 2: 7% 3: 20% 4: 24% 5: 43%

97 4) Rank the following VMT components based on personal importance from 1 to 5 [Five (5) being most important, one (1) being least important]: Transparency 1: 12.7% 2: 13.1% 3: 19.1% 4: 20.2% 5: 34.1 5) Rank the following VMT components based on personal importance from 1 to 5 [Five (5) being most important, one (1) being least important]: Convenience 1: 6% 2: 10% 3: 13% 4: 24% 5: 46% 6) Rank the following VMT components based on personal importance from 1 to 5 [Five (5) being most important, one (1) being least important]: Privacy 1: 17% 2: 13% 3: 13% 4: 16% 5: 41% 7) “The emphasis of the field test will be on a simple pay-at-the pump system. The system will read the change in odometer miles at each pump visit, and apply an established rate, without tracking vehicle location. What is your level of comfort with this system?” Very comfortable: 11% Somewhat comfortable: 23% Neutral: 33% Somewhat uncomfortable: 25% Very uncomfortable: 8% 8) “What is your level of concern over the cost of implementing a replacement system of the fuel tax system?” Very concerned: 5% Somewhat concerned: 16% Neutral: 34% Somewhat unconcerned: 28% Very unconcerned: 18% 9) “To minimize privacy concerns, cost of collection, cost of administration, and fraud and evasion of revenues, instead of paying at the pump would you be willing to pay the VMT fee (fuel tax) on any the following bases?” Annually: 27%

98 Bi-annually: 9% Quarterly: 17% Monthly: 46% 10) “How would a VMT fee affect your use of a transit system (bus, rail, etc.)?” Significantly more use: 6% Somewhat more use: 8% Neutral: 69% Somewhat less use: 4% Significantly less use: 14% Minnesota Department of Transportation (Rephlo) Sponsor or Funder: Minnesota Department of Transportation Authors: Jennifer Rephlo Pollster: SAIC (Science Applications International Corporation) Title: Connected Vehicles for Safety, Mobility, and User Fees: Evaluation of the Minnesota Road Fee Test Publisher and/or publication year: Minnesota Department of Transportation (2013) Data collection year: N/A Survey mode: Multiple Sampling base: Program participants Sampling strategy: Random Sample size: 420 Geographic level: Local (Twin Cities Metro Area, Minnesota) Census region: Midwest Description of the mileage-based user fee: “mileage-based fees” Questions: 1) “Interviews allowed researchers to ask if, given the participant’s experience in the test, they would prefer to pay mileage-based fees as a replacement for the fuel tax.” Note: The actual survey is not included in this report, and the actual question and response options are not available. Prefer to pay a MBUF as a replacement to current fuel tax: 37% Prefer to continue to pay fuel tax instead of a MBUF: 48% No opinion: 15%

99 MassInc Polling Group Sponsor or Funder: Barr Foundation Authors: MassInc Polling Group Pollster: MassInc Polling Group Title: Massachusetts Statewide Poll of 1,506 Registered Voters Publisher and/or publication year: MassInc Polling Group (2013) Data collection year: 2013 Survey mode: Phone Sampling base: Registered voters Sampling strategy: N/A Sample size: 1,506 Geographic level: State (Massachusetts) Census region: Northeast Description of the mileage-based user fee: “a new tax based on the number of miles a person drives” Questions: 1) “Assuming the Massachusetts state government decided to raise funds for maintaining and improving our transporta- tion system, one option is to adopt a new tax based on the number of miles a person drives. Each driver would pay a tax for every mile driven. The car’s mileage would be read during annual vehicle inspections, and the tax would be paid at that time. Would you support or oppose this idea? And do you strongly (support/oppose) this idea, or somewhat (support/oppose)?” Strongly support: 7% Somewhat support: 10% Somewhat oppose: 11% Strongly oppose: 69% Don’t know: 3% Oregon Department of Transportation (Whitty) Sponsor or Funder: Oregon Department of Transportation Authors: DHM Research Pollster: DHM Research Title: Report on Impacts of Road Usage Charges in Rural, Urban and Mixed Counties Publisher and/or publication year: Oregon Department of Transportation (2013) Data collection year: 2012

100 Survey mode: Phone Sampling base: Registered voters Sampling strategy: Random Sample size: 900 Geographic level: State (Oregon) Census region: West Description of the mileage-based user fee: “a tax on miles driven”; “a road use tax”; “a road use tax based on the total miles driven” Questions: 1) “One idea is to eliminate the tax on gasoline and replace it with a tax on miles driven. Do you believe paying a road usage tax based on the total miles you drive would be more fair, less fair, or about the same as paying a tax on gasoline?” Less fair: 57% More fair: 6% About the same: 32% 2) What about for residents in rural areas or small towns who often drive long distances? Do you believe paying a road usage tax based on the total miles driven would be more fair, less fair, or about the same as paying a tax on gasoline? Less fair: 46% More fair: 18% About the same: 31% Oregon Department of Transportation (Whitty) Sponsor or Funder: Oregon Department of Transportation Authors: DHM Research Pollster: DHM Research Title: Report on Impacts of Road Usage Charges in Rural, Urban and Mixed Counties Publisher and/or publication year: Oregon Department of Transportation (2013) Data collection year: 2013 Survey mode: Phone Sampling base: Registered voters Sampling strategy: Random Sample size: 300 Geographic level: State (Oregon) Census region: West

101 Description of the mileage-based user fee: “a tax on miles driven”; “a road use tax”; “a road use tax based on the total miles driven” Questions: 1) “One idea is to eliminate the tax on gasoline and replace it with a tax on miles driven. Do you believe paying a road usage tax based on the total miles you drive would be more fair, less fair, or about the same as paying a tax on gasoline?” Less fair: 46% More fair: 18% About the same: 31% Colorado State University (Ozbek, Albeiruti, and Atadero) Sponsor or Funder: Colorado State University Authors: Mehmet Ozbek, Nassar Albeiruti, Rebecca Atadero Pollster: Mehmet Ozbek, Nassar Albeiruti, Rebecca Atadero Title: Understanding Public Perceptions of Different Revenue Generation Systems for Highway Construction and Maintenance Publisher and/or publication year: 2014 Data collection year: N/A Survey mode: Mail Sampling base: Adults Sampling strategy: Random Sample size: 1,163 Geographic level: Regional (Colorado, North Dakota, South Dakota, Utah, and Wyoming) Census region: Midwest/West Description of the mileage-based user fee: “Drivers are charged a fee for every mile they drive” Questions: 1) “I support the use of Mileage-Based User Fees to fund the highway system.” Reponses from Colorado Participants: Agree/Strongly agree: 18% 2) “I support the use of Mileage-Based User Fees to fund the highway system.” Reponses from North Dakota Participants: Agree/Strongly agree: 18% 3) “I support the use of Mileage-Based User Fees to fund the highway system.” Reponses from South Dakota Participants: Agree/Strongly agree: 23%

102 4) “I support the use of Mileage-Based User Fees to fund the highway system.” Reponses from Utah Participants: Agree/Strongly agree: 18% 5) “I support the use of Mileage-Based User Fees to fund the highway system.” Reponses from Wyoming Participants: Agree/Strongly agree: 19% 6) “I feel comfortable with having a device in my vehicle that can track when and where I am driving for the purpose of determining the fees I owe.” Reponses from Colorado Participants: Agree/Strongly agree: 11% 7) “I feel comfortable with having a device in my vehicle that can track when and where I am driving for the purpose of determining the fees I owe.” Reponses from North Dakota Participants: Agree/Strongly agree: 11% 8) “I feel comfortable with having a device in my vehicle that can track when and where I am driving for the purpose of determining the fees I owe. “ Reponses from South Dakota Participants: Agree/Strongly agree: 14% 9) “I feel comfortable with having a device in my vehicle that can track when and where I am driving for the purpose of determining the fees I owe.” Reponses from Utah Participants: Agree/Strongly agree: 11% 10) “I feel comfortable with having a device in my vehicle that can track when and where I am driving for the purpose of determining the fees I owe.” Reponses from Wyoming Participants: Agree/Strongly agree: 19% GfK Public Affairs and Corporate Communications Sponsor or Funder: GfK Public Affairs and Corporate Communications Authors: GfK Public Affairs and Corporate Communications Pollster: GfK Public Affairs and Corporate Communications Title: The AP-GfK Poll: July 2014 Publisher and/or publication year: 2014 Data collection year: 2014 Survey mode: Internet Sampling base: Adults Sampling strategy: Random

103 Sample size: 1,044 Geographic level: National Census region: US Description of the mileage-based user fee: “replace federal gas and diesel taxes with taxes based on how many miles a vehicle is driven” Questions: 1) “Here are some ways to pay for transportation projects, such as highway construction, improvements to roads and bridges, and maintenance of public roads. For each, please indicate if you support, oppose or neither support nor oppose it as a way to fund such projects.” “replace federal gas and diesel taxes with taxes based on how many miles a vehicle is Driven” Support: 20% Oppose: 40% Neither Support nor Oppose: 37% Refused/No Answer: 3% Reason Foundation Sponsor or Funder: Reason Foundation Authors: Reason Foundation Pollster: Princeton Survey Research Associates International (PSRAI Title: Reason-Rupe Public Opinion Survey: August 2014 Topline Results Publisher and/or publication year: Reason Foundation (2014) Data collection year: 2014 Survey mode: Phone Sampling base: Adults Sampling strategy: Random Sample size: 1,000 Geographic level: National Census region: US Description of the mileage-based user fee: “a fee based on the number of miles they drive”

104 Questions: 1) “Would you favor or oppose a plan to eliminate the gas tax and instead charge drivers a fee based on the number of miles they drive?” Favor: 23% Oppose: 72% Don’t Know/Refused: 4% Mineta Transportation Institute (Agrawal and Nixon) Sponsor or Funder: California Department of Transportation; U.S. Department of Transportation Research and Innovative Technology Administration Authors: Asha Weinstein Agrawal and Hilary Nixon Pollster: Social Science Research Center at California State University, Fullerton Title: What Do Americans Think About Federal Tax Options to Support Public Transit, Highways, and Local Streets and Roads? Results from Year Four of a National Survey Publisher and/or publication year: Mineta Transportation Institute (2013) Data collection year: 2013 Survey mode: Phone Sampling base: Adults Sampling strategy: Random Sample size: 1,501 Geographic level: National Census region: US Description of the mileage-based user fee: “a new tax based on the number of miles a person drives” Questions: 1) “One idea (a DIFFERENT idea) is to adopt a new tax based on the number of miles a person drives. Each driver would pay a tax of one cent for every mile driven. For example, someone driving one hundred miles would pay a tax of one dol- lar. Vehicles would have an electronic meter to keep track of the miles driven, and the tax would be paid each time drivers buy gas. Would you strongly support, somewhat support, somewhat oppose, or strongly oppose this new mileage tax?” Strongly support: 5% Somewhat support: 12% Somewhat oppose: 15% Strongly oppose: 66% Don’t know: 2%

105 2) “A “VARIATION on the mileage tax just described is to have the tax rate VARY depending upon how much the vehicle pollutes. On average, vehicles would be charged one cent per mile, but vehicles that pollute less would be charged less, and vehicles that pollute more would be charged more. Would you strongly support, somewhat support, somewhat oppose, or strongly oppose THIS new mileage tax?” Strongly support: 15% Somewhat support: 22% Somewhat oppose: 19% Strongly oppose: 43% Don’t know: 2% Texas A&M Transportation Institute (Simek and Geiselbrecht) Sponsor or Funder: Texas A&M Transportation Institute Authors: Chris Simek and Tina Geiselbrecht Pollster: Texas A&M Transportation Institute Title: Texas Transportation Poll Publisher and/or publication year: Texas A&M Transportation Institute (2014) Data collection year: 2014 Survey mode: Multiple Sampling base: Registered voters Sampling strategy: Random Sample size: 5,545 Geographic level: State (Texas) Census region: South Description of the mileage-based user fee: “a user fee of 1-cent per mile” Questions: 1) “Rate 0–10, 10 being Strongly Support: Replace the state fuel tax with a user fee of 1-cent per mile. “ Average: 2.62 American Trucking Association (Public Opinion Strategies) Sponsor or Funder: American Trucking Association Authors: Public Opinion Strategies Pollster: Public Opinion Strategies Title: ATA National Survey Publisher and/or publication year: 2014

106 Data collection year: 2014 Survey mode: Phone Sampling base: Registered voters Sampling strategy: N/A Sample size: 800 Geographic level: National Census region: US Description of the mileage-based user fee: “using technology to charge drivers a fee for each mile a vehicle is driven” Questions: 1) “Some have proposed raising money for transportation by using technology to charge drivers a fee for each mile a vehicle is driven. Would you support or oppose this proposal?” Definitely support: 4% Somewhat support: 6% Somewhat oppose: 10% Definitely oppose: 79% Don’t know: 1% Washington State Transportation Commission (EMC Market and Opinion Research Services) Sponsor or Funder: Washington State Transportation Commission Authors: EMC Market and Opinion Research Services Pollster: EMC Market and Opinion Research Services Title: 2014 Statewide VOWS Transportation Survey Publisher and/or publication year: Washington State Transportation Commission (2015) Data collection year: 2014 Survey mode: Online Sampling base: Adults Sampling strategy: Convenience Sample size: 5,190 Geographic level: State (Washington) Census region: West Description of the mileage-based user fee: “A road usage charge is a different way to fund transportation. It would replace the gas tax and charge drivers by the mile instead of by the gallon.”

107 Questions: 1) “A road usage charge is a different way to fund transportation. It would replace the gas tax and charge drivers by the mile instead of by the gallon. Knowing this, do you think a road usage charge is a good way to fund transportation?” Definitely: 17% Probably: 21% Probably not: 19% Definitely not: 38% Not sure: 5% 2) “Do you think a per mile road usage charge is a fair way to fund transportation?” Very fair: 16% Somewhat fair: 29% Not that fair: 18% Not at all fair 31% Not sure: 7% 3) “Which option do you think is more fair, a per gallon gas tax or a per mile road usage charge?” Gas tax is much more fair: 17% Gas tax is somewhat more fair: 22% Road usage charge is much more fair: 20% Road usage charge is somewhat more fair 10% Both options are the same: 23% Not sure: 7% 4) “If a road usage charge replaced the gas tax, the cost would be set so that the total amount the average driver would pay would be the same as under the gas tax. Knowing this, in general, do you support or oppose replacing the gas tax with a per mile road usage charge?” Strongly support: 10% Somewhat support: 23% Somewhat oppose: 18% Strongly oppose: 35% Not sure: 14% 5) “With both the gas tax and the road usage charge, the more you drive the more you pay. The difference is that with a road usage charge everyone pays the same amount no matter what type of vehicle they drive or how fuel efficient it is. Knowing this, in general, do you support or oppose replacing the gas tax with a per mile road usage charge?” Strongly support: 10% Somewhat support: 32% Somewhat oppose: 18% Strongly oppose: 32% Not sure: 7%

108 6) Given the information provided in this survey, which option do you think is more fair, a per gallon gas tax or a per mile road usage charge? Gas tax is much more fair: 14% Gas tax is somewhat more fair: 19% Road usage charge is much more fair: 26% Road usage charge is somewhat more fair 12% Both options are the same: 21% Not sure: 8% Field Research Corporation (DiCamillo and Field) Sponsor or Funder: Field Research Corporation Authors: Field Research Corporation Pollster: Field Research Corporation Title: The Field Poll No. 2502 Publisher and/or publication year: Field Research Corporation (2015) Data collection year: 2015 Survey mode: Phone Sampling base: Registered voters Sampling strategy: Random Sample size: 1,241 Geographic level: State (California) Census region: West Description of the mileage-based user fee: “a fee based on the number of miles driven” Questions: 1) Would you support or oppose the installation of an electronic device on your motor vehicle to measure the exact amount of miles that you drive to enable the state to assess an accurate fee for road funding based upon the number of miles driven to replace or eliminate the current gasoline taxes that you pay?” Note: This question was asked of car owners only. Support: 30% Oppose: 66% No opinion: 4%

Next: APPENDIX B Tables Presenting Survey Question Findings, by Theme »
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TRB’s National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP) Synthesis 487: Public Perception of Mileage-Based User Fees explores proposals to replace the current motor fuel tax with a road usage charge assessed on vehicle-miles traveled, often called a mileage-base user fee (MBUF). The report identifies and assesses various measures of public opinion on the MBUF concept.

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