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Page 37
Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2004. Traveler Response to Transportation System Changes Handbook, Third Edition: Chapter 9, Transit Scheduling and Frequency. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23433.
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Page 38
Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2004. Traveler Response to Transportation System Changes Handbook, Third Edition: Chapter 9, Transit Scheduling and Frequency. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23433.
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Page 39
Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2004. Traveler Response to Transportation System Changes Handbook, Third Edition: Chapter 9, Transit Scheduling and Frequency. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23433.
×
Page 39
Page 40
Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2004. Traveler Response to Transportation System Changes Handbook, Third Edition: Chapter 9, Transit Scheduling and Frequency. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23433.
×
Page 40
Page 41
Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2004. Traveler Response to Transportation System Changes Handbook, Third Edition: Chapter 9, Transit Scheduling and Frequency. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23433.
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Page 41

Below is the uncorrected machine-read text of this chapter, intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text of each book. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

9-37 ridership resulting from the fare and service changes and external factors, and elasticities calculated for the full 1985-1987 two year period (except for TCT II as noted). Table 9-16 Results of DART Fare Increases and Service Changes Avg. Weekday Boardings Weekday Boardings Loss 1985-1987 Arc Elasticities DART Operation Mid-1986 Mid-1987 Number Percent Fare Service Urban (DTS) 167,000 134,000 33,000 -20% -0.35 +0.32 Suburban Express (TCT I) 10,200 9,550 650 -6% -0.26 +0.38 Suburban Local (TCT II) (see note) 11,000 (October) 7,900 3,100 -28% -0.25 +0.36 Note: The elasticities given for the suburban local bus (TCT II) service are only for the August 1986 through July 1987 12-month period. More... DTS, the provider of local, express, and crosstown bus service mainly in the city of Dallas, had already been experiencing declining ridership earlier in 1986, presumably in response to the local economy. DTS serves the majority of low income and transit dependent areas in the city. The suburban operations serve more affluent areas and seemed to be little affected by gas prices and economic conditions. They suffered less from the fare increase, but were more sensitive to service levels. The elasticities given in Table 9-16 for the suburban local bus (TCT II) service are only for the August 1986 through July 1987 12-month period. Analysis of the months from September 1985 through 1986 suggested that the response to service changes may initially have exhibited an elasticity on the order of +1.04. This period involved expansion of service coverage more than frequency changes. Source: Allen, J. B., “Revenue and Ridership Impacts of DART Service and Fare Adjustments.” Unpublished, APTA Western Education and Training Conference ’91, Austin, TX (1991). REFERENCES Abkowitz, M., et al., Transit Service Reliability. Transportation Systems [Volpe] Center and Multisystems, Inc., Cambridge, MA (December 1978). Allen, J. B., Revenue and Ridership Impacts of DART Service and Fare Adjustments. Unpublished, APTA Western Education and Training Conference ’91, Austin, TX (1991). Barton-Aschman Associates, Inc., “Estimation, Calibration, and Validation of the Houston Mode Choice Model. Technical Report.” Prepared for Metropolitan Transit Authority of Harris County, Houston, TX (September, 1993). Cambridge Systematics, Inc., “Transportation Control Measure Information Documents.” U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (March, 1992). Catoe, J. B., Jr., Telephone interviews, Santa Monica Municipal Bus Lines. (September 28 and October 13, 1998).

9-38 Charles River Associates Inc., “Building Transit Ridership: An Exploration of Transit’s Market Share and the Public Policies That Influence It.” TCRP Report 27, Transportation Research Board, Washington, DC (1997). City of Santa Clarita Transit Division, Fact Sheet. Santa Clarita, CA [1997]. Dueker, K. J. and Stoner, J., “Examination of Improved Transit Service.” Highway Research Record 419 (1972). Dueker, K. J. and Stoner, J., Mass Transit Technical Study: Iowa City Final Report. Urban Mass Transit Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation, Washington, DC (1971). Ferguson, E., “Temporal Effects of Incidents on Transit Ridership in Orange County, California.” Transportation Research Record 1297 (1991). Finn, P., “VRE, Facing ‘99 Shortfall, Is Urged to Think Smaller.” The Washington Post, Washington, DC (Dec. 6, 1997). Furniss, R. E., Evolution and Operations of the Reston Virginia Commuter Bus Service. CACI, Inc., Los Angeles, CA (1977). Golob, T. F., et al., An Analysis of Consumer Preferences for a Public Transportation System. General Motors Research Laboratory Report No. GMR-1037, Warren, MI (1970). Goodman, K. M., Green, M. A., and Beesley, M. E., The San Diego Transit Corporation: The Impacts of Fare and Service Changes on Ridership and Deficits. The Urban Institute, Working Paper 5066-5-1, Washington, DC (May, 1977). Henderson, G., Kwong, P., and Atkins, H., “Regularity Indices for Evaluating Transit Performance.” Transportation Research Record 1297 (1991). Hocking, R. J., “Effectiveness of Downtown Transit Centers.” ITE Journal (Sept. 1990). Holland, D. K., A Review of Reports Relating to the Effects of Fare and Service Changes in Metropolitan Public Transportation Systems. Center for Urban Programs, St. Louis University. St. Louis, MO (June 1974). Jolliffe, J. K. and Hutchinson, T. P., “A Behavioral Explanation of the Association Between Bus and Passenger Arrivals at a Bus Stop.” Transportation Science. Volume 9, Number 3. (November 1975). Kilcoyne, R., Telephone interview. Santa Clarita Transit. (July 6, 1998a). Kilcoyne, R., Timeline of Service Changes Santa Clarita Transit 1992-1998, unpublished [1998b]. Elmore-Yalch, R., “A Handbook: Integrating Market Research into Transit Management.” TCRP Report 37 (1998). Hufstedler, G., Dallas Area Rapid Transit, telephone interviews and e-mail to the authors with accompanying undated presentation materials, tabulations and graphs (February 6-9, 2004).

9-39 Kurth, D., Chang, C., and Costinett, P., “Enhancements to Circulator-Distributor Models for Chicago Central Area Based on Recently Collected Survey Data.” Transportation Research Record 1443 (1994). Kyte, M., Stoner, J., and Cryer, J., “A Time-Series Analysis of Public Transit Ridership in Portland, Oregon, 1971-1982.” Transportation Research -A, Vol. 22A, No. 5 (1988). Lago, A., Mayworm, P., and McEnroe, J., “Ridership Response to Changes in Transit Services.” Transportation Research Record 818 (1981). London Transport, “London Transport Buses” — “Bus Service Planning.” http://www. londontransport.co.uk/ltbuses/b_fact04.html, London, UK (Webpage revised June, 1998). London Transport Planning Department, London Transport Traffic Trends 1971-1990. Research Report R273 (February, 1993). Lunden, P., “Shorter Waits for the Bus.” Norwegian Trial Scheme for Public Transport (May 3, 1993). Miller, E. J. and Crowley, D. F., “Panel Survey Approach to Measuring Transit Route Service Elasticity of Demand.” Transportation Research Record 1209 (1989). Michael Baker Corporation, Crain & Associates, LKC Consulting Services, and Howard/Stein- Hudson, “The Potential of Public Transit as a Transportation Control Measure: Case Studies and Innovations, Draft Document.” Annapolis, MD (October, 1997). Paine, F. T., et al, Consumer Conceived Attributes of Transportation. University of Maryland, College Park, MD (1967). Peat, Marwick, Mitchell and Company, “Assessment of the Impacts of the AC Transit Strike upon BART.” Prepared for the Metropolitan Transportation Commission, Berkeley, CA (1975). Parsons Brinckerhoff Quade and Douglas, Inc., “Calibration of the Mode Choice Models for the Minneapolis-St. Paul Region.” Prepared for the Metropolitan Council (September 30, 1993). Kim, K.-H., Technical Specifications for the March 1998 Travel Demand Model. Metro Transportation Department, Portland, OR (March, 1998). Kyte, M., Stanley, K., and Gleason, E., Planning, Implementation, and Evaluation of a Timed-Transfer System in Portland, Oregon’s Suburban Westside. 1982 Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board, Washington, DC (1982). Mass Transportation Commission, MA, McKinsey & Co., Systems Analysis and Research Corp., and Joseph Napolitan & Assoc., “Mass Transportation in Massachusetts.” U.S. Housing and Home Finance Agency, Washington, DC (July 1964). Mayworm, P., Lago, A., and McEnroe, J., Patronage Impacts of Changes in Transit Fares and Services. Ecosometrics, Inc. Bethesda, MD. Sponsored by Urban Mass Transportation Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation (Sept. 3, 1980). Newman, D. A., Bebendorf, M., and McNally, J., Timed Transfer: An Evaluation of Its Structure, Performance, and Cost. Final Report. Urban Mass Transit Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation, Washington, DC (1983).

Parsons Brinckerhoff Quade and Douglas, Inc., “Travel Demand Model Development Methodology Report.” Northeast Illinois Regional Commuter Railroad Corporation (METRA) (June 30, 1999). Parsons Brinckerhoff, Richard H. Pratt, Consultant, Inc., and RJM Engineering, Inc., “Long Range Model Methodology.” Virginia Railway Express Commuter Rail Patronage Forecasts Technical Memorandum (October, 1994). Pignataro, L. J., Falcocchio, J. C., and Roess, R. P., “Selected Bus Demonstration Projects.” Transportation Engineering Journal, Volume 96, No. TE3 (August 1970). Pratt, R. H. and Bevis, H. W., An Initial Chicago North Suburban Transit Improvement Program 1971- 1975 -Vol. I: Report and Exhibits -Vol. II: Technical Supplement. Urban Mass Transit Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation, Washington, DC (1971). Pratt, R. H., Pedersen, N. J., and Mather, J. J., Traveler Response to Transportation System Changes - A Handbook for Transportation Planners [first edition]. Federal Highway Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation (February, 1977). Pratt, R. H., and Shapiro, P. S., The Potential for Transit as An Energy Saving Option. R.H. Pratt Associates, Inc., Kensington, MD, (March, 1976). Public Technologies, Inc., “Tri-Met Line 5 Ridership.” Vancouver, WA SMD (Service and Methods Demonstration) Brief #4, Urban Mass Transportation Administration, Washington, DC (September, 1980). Quarmby, D. A., “Choice of Travel Mode for the Journey to Work — Some Findings.” Journal of Transport Economics and Policy, Vol. 1, No. 3 (1967). Regional Transit Board, Transit Service Needs Assessment. St. Paul, MN (March, 1987). Rosenbloom, S., “Transit Markets of the Future: The Challenge of Change.” TCRP Report 28, Transportation Research Board, Washington, DC (1998). Schultz, G. W., Modeling Approach. Memorandum to Seattle Metro Files (March 5, 1991). Shunk, G. A. and Bouchard, R. J., “An Application of Marginal Utility to Travel Mode Choice.” Highway Research Record 322 (1970). SG Associates, Inc. and Transportation Behavior Consultants, “Marketing Routes and Schedules Study for Charlottesville, Virginia Final Report.” Annandale, VA (December, 1982). Santa Clarita Transit, “Local Ridership [and service measures].” Tabulations, Santa Clarita, CA (1993-1998). Parsons Brinckerhoff Quade and Douglas, Inc., “Cleveland Regional Travel Demand Forecasting Model Documentation Report.” Prepared for the Greater Cleveland Regional Transit Authority and the Northeast Ohio Areawide Coordinating Agency (December 1998). 9-40

9-41 Stanley, R., “Continuing Examination of Successful Transit Ridership Initiatives.” TCRP Research Results Digest 29. Transportation Research Board, Washington, DC (August 1998). Tebb, R. G. P., Passenger Resistance to a Rural Bus - Bus Interchange. Transport and Road Research Laboratory, Crowthorne, Berkshire, England, Special Report Number 269 (1977). Tri-State Transportation Commission, “Suburban Service Adjustment Experiment.” U.S. Housing and Home Finance Agency, Washington, DC (February 1966). Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority, “Impact of the District of Columbia Fare and Service Changes on Ridership and Revenues. “ Unpublished [1995]. Webster, F. V., and Bly, P. H., The Demand for Public Transport. Transport and Road Research Laboratory, Crowthorne, Berkshire, England (1980). U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, “COMMUTER Model Coefficients.” Washington, DC (October, 2000). Victoria Transport Policy Institute, “Transportation Elasticities — How Prices and Other Factors Affect Travel Behavior.” TDM Encyclopedia. http://www.vtpi.org/tdm/tdm11.htm (Webpages updated December 17, 2003). Stangeby, I., “The Dream: A Seat on a Bus that is Never Late!” Norwegian Trial Scheme for Public Transport (May 3, 1993). Southeastern Pennsylvania Transportation Authority, “Sepact III: Final Report — Operation Reading.” Sponsored by U.S. Department of Transportation , Washington, DC (June 1971).

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TRB’s Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP) Report 95: Chapter 9 – Transit Scheduling and Frequency examines scheduling changes made to conventional bus and rail transit, including changes in the frequency of service, hours of service, structuring of schedules, and schedule reliability.

The Traveler Response to Transportation System Changes Handbook consists of these Chapter 1 introductory materials and 15 stand-alone published topic area chapters. Each topic area chapter provides traveler response findings including supportive information and interpretation, and also includes case studies and a bibliography consisting of the references utilized as sources.

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