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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C - Research Review." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Evaluating Methods for Determining Interior Noise Levels Used in Airport Sound Insulation Programs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23473.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C - Research Review." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Evaluating Methods for Determining Interior Noise Levels Used in Airport Sound Insulation Programs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23473.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C - Research Review." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Evaluating Methods for Determining Interior Noise Levels Used in Airport Sound Insulation Programs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23473.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C - Research Review." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Evaluating Methods for Determining Interior Noise Levels Used in Airport Sound Insulation Programs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23473.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C - Research Review." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Evaluating Methods for Determining Interior Noise Levels Used in Airport Sound Insulation Programs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23473.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C - Research Review." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Evaluating Methods for Determining Interior Noise Levels Used in Airport Sound Insulation Programs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23473.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C - Research Review." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Evaluating Methods for Determining Interior Noise Levels Used in Airport Sound Insulation Programs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23473.
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Page 130
Suggested Citation:"Appendix C - Research Review." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Evaluating Methods for Determining Interior Noise Levels Used in Airport Sound Insulation Programs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23473.
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Page 131
Suggested Citation:"Appendix C - Research Review." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Evaluating Methods for Determining Interior Noise Levels Used in Airport Sound Insulation Programs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23473.
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Page 132
Suggested Citation:"Appendix C - Research Review." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Evaluating Methods for Determining Interior Noise Levels Used in Airport Sound Insulation Programs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23473.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C - Research Review." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Evaluating Methods for Determining Interior Noise Levels Used in Airport Sound Insulation Programs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23473.
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C-1 A P P E N D I X C As a part of the research project, the research team reviewed various documents related to this study. The following summarizes the findings. Research Review Table C-1. National and international standards. Document Title Quanes and procedures for descripon and measurement of environmental sound, Part 1: Basic quanes and procedures Publicaon ANSI/ASA S12.9 2013/Part 1 Date June 1, 1993 Summary of Content This standard defines the basic metrics (quanes) that can be used separately or in combinaon for the descripon of community sound and describes basic procedures for measurement of the quanes. The scope of this standard encompasses all types of environmental sounds, separately or in combinaon, that contribute to the total sound at a site. Defined are consistent metrics for physical quanes that may be used to measure and assess environmental sound. This standard does not specify limits for environmental sounds or recommend measurement locaons or duraons. This standard is applicable to the descripon and measurement of community sound for purposes of land use planning, environmental assessment, and noise control. Relevance to this study Essenally, the ACRP Project 02 51 aircra‹ measurements and classic TL measurements are made in accordance with the procedures of clause .2.1 and in parcular, sub clauses (a), (b), and (d). These procedures are only parally relevant to the intensity measurements. Conclusions/findings/guidance related to this study NA In agreement with this study’s findings? NA (continued on next page)

C-2 Evaluating Methods for Determining Interior Noise Levels Used in Airport Sound Insulation Programs Conclusions/findings/guidance related to this study It is to be expected that something so precise as measurement of the TL of rooms in houses to in situ aircra noise will not directly mesh with general environmental noise measurements. In agreement with this study’s findings? NA Document Title ASTM E 966: Standard Guide for Field Measurements of AirborneSound A†enua‡on of Building Facades and Facade Elements Publica‡on ASTM Standards E966 2010 Date 2010 Summary of Content A 15 page standard providing methods to measure the sound isola‡on of a room from outdoor sound, and to evaluate the sound transmission or apparent sound transmission through a par‡cular façade of the room or an element of that façade such as a window or door. Relevance to this study Acous‡cal measurement techniques are described and discussed. Conclusions/findings/guidance related to this study Specific procedures are described in detail. In agreement with this study’s findings? This standard addresses the major issues, such as angle of incidence, in the measurement techniques. It is state of the art for the ‡me of publica‡on. Document Title Quan‡‡es and procedures for descrip‡on and measurement of environmental sound, Part 3: Short term measurements with an observer present Publica‡on ANSI/ASA S12.9 2013/Part 3 Date June 1, 1993 Summary of Content This standard includes the measurement, with an observer present, of quan‡‡es such as equivalent con‡nuous SPL or sound exposure from a specific source or sources at a specified loca‡on. These measurements require several minutes to several hours to perform; they take less than one day to perform. Measurements may be obtained with a standard frequency weigh‡ng, may be frequency filtered in a defined manner, or may be frequency filtered by octave band or frac‡onal octave band filters. This standard specifies procedures to effec‡vely eliminate, to the extent possible, the contribu‡ons of extraneous background sound from the source specific measurements. Measurement procedures in this standard require the presence of an instrument operator and are not applicable to measurements by una†ended instruments. Relevance to this study Essen‡ally, this study’s classic TL measurements (using a loudspeaker)are made in accordance with the procedures of S12.9 Part 3. Table C-1. (Continued).

Research Review C-3 (continued on next page) findings? Document Title Determina on of sound power levels of noise sources using sound intensity — Part 2: Measurement by scanning Publica on ISO 9614 1 1996 08 01 Date August 1, 1996 Summary of Content This standard, like Part 1, is for the measurement o‡ he sound power emiˆed by some machinery or device. This document introduces various quality indicators and the 3 grades of measurement: Precision grade, engineering grade, survey grade. This Part 2 is for measurement by scanning. The indicators deal with such topics as background noise; is it quiet enough? Source varia on; is it stable enough? Is it regular enough? Etc. Relevance to this study The quality grading system and the corresponding indicators are relevant but not par cularly illumina ng in the context of this study. This study’s source, pink noise, is by defini on stable and regular, the background was very quiet so there could be no highly direc onal extraneous sources. The method of Part 2, measurement by scanning is relevant to our measurements Conclusions/findings/guidance related to this study The research team is mee ng the precision requirements and scanning substan ally as recommended. In agreement with this study’s findings? NA Document Title Determina on of sound power levels of noise sources using sound intensity — Part 1: Measurement at discrete points Publica on ISO 9614 1 1993 06 01 Date June 1, 1993 Summary of Content This standard is for the measurement of the sound power emiˆed by some machinery or device. This document introduces various quality indicators and the 3 grades of measurement: precisiongrade, engineering grade, survey grade. This Part 1 is for measurements at discrete points. The indicators deal with such topics as background noise: is it quiet enough? Source varia on: is it stable enough? Is it regular enough? Etc. Relevance to this study The quality grading system and the corresponding indicators are relevant but not par cularly illumina ng in the context of this study. This study’s source, pink noise, is by defini on stable and regular, the background was very quiet so there could be no highly direc onal extraneous sources. The method of Part 1, discrete measurement points is not relevant to our measurements. Conclusions/findings/guidance related to this study None In agreement with this study’s NA Table C-1. (Continued).

C-4 Evaluating Methods for Determining Interior Noise Levels Used in Airport Sound Insulation Programs related to this study measurements (same equipment and staff). The study’s uncertainty was 0.4 dB for ground level loudspeaker and 0 2 dB for elevated loudspeaker, so the results were in line with the ISO uncertainty. In agreement with this study’s findings? Yes, the research team measured similar levels of uncertainty for repeated measurements as s€pulated in the ISO document. Document Title Determina€on of sound power levels of noise sources using sound intensity— Part 3: Precision method for measurement by scanning Publica€on ISO 9614 3 Date 2002 Summary of Content This standard, like Parts 1 and 2, is for the measurement of the sound power emiŒed by some machinery or device. The terminology in the first 2 parts was inconsistent and this Part 3 cleaned up these inconsistencies. It draws on the temporal variability and field non uniformity, nega€ve par€al power indicators from Part 1 and concepts from Part 2 to create a coherent set of indicators. Relevance to this study Again, this quality grading system and corresponding indicators are relevant but not par€cularly illumina€ng in the context of this study. This study’s source, pink noise, is by defini€on stable and regular, the background was very quiet so there could be no highly direc€onal extraneous sources. The method of measurement by scanning is relevant to the research team’s measurements. Conclusions/findings/guidance related to this study Again, the research team is mee€ng the precision requirements and scanning substan€ally as recommended. In agreement with this study’s findings? NA Document Title Acous€cs: Determina€on and applica€on of measurementuncertain€es in building acous€cs–Part 1: Sound Insula€on Publica€on ISO 12999 1 Date May 15, 2015 Summary of Content This standard discusses how to calculate and quan€fy the measurement uncertainty (e.g., margin of error) of sound insula€on measurements conducted in acous€cal laboratories. Tables of standard uncertain€es for different types of sound insula€on measurements are provided. Relevance to this study While this study’s sound insula€on measurements were field measurements and not laboratory measurements, this document provides standard uncertain€es for situa€ons where a measurement is repeated using the same equipment and staff. The research team did repeat measurements in the field, so it would be reasonable to expect that the measurement uncertainty for this situa€on is the same as that encountered in the lab. Conclusions/findings/guidance The standard s€pulates a 0.4 dB standard uncertainty for repeated Table C-1. (Continued).

Research Review C-5 Relevance to this study Acouscal measurement techniques are described for internal room to room measurements, not for exterior measurements. Conclusions/findings/gui- dance related to this study Specific procedures are described in detail. In agreement with this study’s findings? This standard addresses only interior noise reducon measurement. However, many of the techniques described and discussed are applicable to exterior measurement. Document Title Acouscs — Field measurement of sound insulaon in buildings and of building elements — Part 1: Airborne sound insulaon Publicaon ISO 16283 1 Date Feb. 15, 2014 Summary of Content This 50 page standard specifies procedures to determine the airborne sound insulaon between two rooms in a building using sound pressure measurements. These procedures are intended for room volumes in the range from 10 m3 to 250 m3 in the frequency range from 50 Hz to 5000 Hz. The test results can be used to quanfy, assess and compare the airborne sound insulaon in unfurnished or furnished rooms where the sound field may or may not approximate to a diffuse field. The measured airborne sound insulaon is frequency dependent and can be converted into a single number quanty to characterize the acousc performance using the rang procedures in ISO 717 1. Table C-1. (Continued).

C-6 Evaluating Methods for Determining Interior Noise Levels Used in Airport Sound Insulation Programs Document Title FAA Advisory Circular 150/5000 9A, Announcement of Availability Report No. DOT/FA7A/PP/92 5, Guidelines for the Sound Insulaon of Residences Exposed to Aircra Operaons Publicaon FAA Advisory Circular 150/5000 9A Date July 02, 1993 Summary of Content Announcement and inclusion of a 234 page report by Wyle Laboratories for the Naval Facilies Engineering Command, Guidelines for the Sound Insulaon of Residences Exposed to Aircra Operaons, July 2, 1993. Relevance to this study Outlines the basic methods and procedures for sound insulaon ofresidences used in most sound insulaon projects. Conclusions/findings/gui- dance related to this study This is mostly a handbook guide for residenal sound insulaon. It does not rely on acouscal measurement but provides good general guidance for retrofit sound insulaon treatment by home type and basic construcon. In agreement with this study’s findings? The research team agrees with most of the conclusions and recommendaons if sound insulaon is to be undertaken without the aid of acouscal measurements. Table C-2. FAA documents.

Research Review C-7 Document Titles Measurements of the Sound Insulaon of a Wood Frame House Exposed to Aircra Noise (IRC IR 831), Bradley et al., 2002. Interference Effects in Field Measurements of Airborne Sound Insulaon of Building Facades. Berardi, U. Noise Control Engineering Journal, April 2011. The Posion of the Instruments for the Sound Insulaon Measurement of Building Facades: From ISO 140 5 to ISO 16283 3. Berardi, U. Noise Control Engineering Journal, February 2013. Sound Fields Near Exterior Building Surfaces. Quirt, J.D. Journal of the Acouscal Society of America. February, 1985. Date Mulple (see above) Summary of Content Berardi (2011, 2013), Bradley et al. (2002), and Quirt (1985) all have very similar content. Each is a theorecal analysis of potenal geometric resonances. All use pure tone (single frequency) analyses. Quirt also provides a simple model to obtain these analyses for bands of noise. Figure 1 (aer Berardi, 2011, Figure 4) is typical of these analyses. These dramac dips and curves never occur in the real world when using bands of noise. The only dip that does normally occur is the broad ground dip. Even the broad ground dip is usually predicted to be deeper than is measured. Figure 2 (aer Bradley et al., 2002, Figure 4) provides a good example of this phenomenon, and there are several other such examples in this report. Berardi (2013) and Bradley and Chu (2002) provide data upon which some inference as to the standard deviaons can be made. In addion to ground dip, a second major problem is the mass air mass resonance (MAM) of double glazed windows (Berardi 2013). This is probably the weakest link in the sound insulaon of the wall and it will change with orientaon. And the MAM frequency range prey well coincides with ground dip. There also are effects from the angle the source makes with the house surface in queson. Relevance to this study These topics, data, and results are all highly relevant to this study. Conclusions/findings/guidance related to this study Overall, in addion to the topics above, these papers discuss number and posion of microphones for both interior and exterior measurements, scanning microphones, and the posion(s) of the loudspeakers when used. In agreement with this study’s findings? The research team agrees with many of the conclusions and recommendaons but not all. For example, the research team would not recommend scanning microphones because there is no clear standard method of scanning. Table C-3. Research papers/reports. (continued on next page)

C-8 Evaluating Methods for Determining Interior Noise Levels Used in Airport Sound Insulation Programs Document Title Policy, Engineering, Analysis, and Research Support (PEARS), Contract No. DTFAWA 11 D 00019, Study of Noise Level Reducon Variaon, Landrum and Brown, 2013 Publicaon PEARS Contract No. DTFAWA 11 D 00019 Date April 2013 Summary of Content A 99 page report on the variaon of NLR using the different tesng methods, and the execuon thereof. Tesng methods and the elements of each are described. Parallel measurements are reported for the loudspeaker and flyover test methods on several homes, with the variaon in NLR reported. Sources of error and discrepancy are discussed. Relevance to this study The enre report is extremely relevant to this study in that it deals withthe same subject. Conclusions/findings/gui- dance related to this study An average 3 dB discrepancy is found for NLR results between the two test methods. Potenal causes are outlined. In agreement with this study’s findings? The research team agrees with the findings and the outline of possible sources of error and discrepancy between the test methods. Document Title ACRP Report 89: Guidelines for Airport Sound Insulaon Programs (Payneet al. 2013) Publicaon ACRP Report 89 Date 2013 Summary of Content A 313 page report outlining the recommended conduct of residenal sound insulaon projects conducted for the FAA. Topics include program development, community outreach, acouscal engineering, architectural treatment, historic structures, HVAC, ”Green” iniaves, construcon contracng, costs, and reporng and closeout. Relevance to this study Acouscal measurement techniques are described and discussed in thesecons on acouscal engineering. Conclusions/findings/gui- dance related to this study Loudspeaker and flyover measurement techniques are described and discussed, outlining the various issues with each. In agreement with this study’s findings? The research team agrees with the discussions on acouscal measurement and the various issues discussed for the different measurement techniques. Table C-3. (Continued).

Research Review C-9 Table C-3. (Continued). Authors Ashwin Thomas, Thomas Bowling, Erica Ryherd, Javier Irizarry Date May 8, 2014 Summary of Content This presentaon summarized the authors’ work to validate computer model NLR predicons. Insul and IBANA Calc soware were analyzed, and six buildings (represenng the six climate regions) were modeled. Results were compared to acouscal measurement results contained in the DOT FAA AEQ 77 9 study. Calculated NLR was typically within 1 dB of measured NLR. Georgia Tech then built a one room home in the lab to compare modeling results to laboratory gathered NLR data. Laboratory data was gathered using mulple source speaker, microphone posions, and façade construcon (e.g., different window STC rangs). Relevance to this study The authors did some of the same tests (e.g., exterior loudspeaker) as performed in this study, although their measurements were conducted in a laboratory seng. Conclusions/findings/guidance related to this study Horizontal loudspeaker source angle of incidence affects measured noise reducon; correcon factor should be used: In agreement with this study’s findings? Yes, the research team found that angle of the incidence of the exterior loudspeaker affects the measured noise reducon. Document Title Aircra Sound Transmission in Homes Categorized by TypicalConstrucon Type Publicaon Paper submied for 2014 Construcon Research Congress Authors Ashwin Thomas, Daniel Castro, Rick Porter, Erica Ryherd, Javier Irizarry Date May 19, 2014 Summary of Content This paper summarizes the authors’ work to validate computer model NLR predicons. Insul and IBANA Calc soware was analyzed, and six buildings (represenng the six climate regions) were modeled. Results were compared to acouscal measurement results contained in the DOT FAA AEQ 77 9 study. Calculated NLR was typically within 1 dB of measured NLR. Georgia Tech then built a 90 square foot room in their lab to compare modeling results to laboratory gathered NLR data. Laboratory data gathered using mulple source speaker, microphone posions, and façade construcon (e.g., different window STC rangs) was measured. Relevance to this study The authors did some of the same tests (e.g., exterior loudspeaker) as performed in this study, although their measurements were conducted in a laboratory seng. Conclusions/findings/guidance related to this study Georgia Tech found that the modeling of noise reducon was within 1 dB of the measured noise reducon. Document Title Simulated and Laboratory Models of Aircra Sound Transmission Publicaon Partnership for Air Transportaon Noise and Emissions Reducon (PARTNER) Presentaon at Acouscal Society of America 2014 Spring Meeng in Providence, RI In agreement with this study’s findings? The research team found that acouscal modeling was within 1 to 2 dB of this study’s measured noise reducon, so the results generally agree with this paper. (continued on next page)

C-10 Evaluating Methods for Determining Interior Noise Levels Used in Airport Sound Insulation Programs Document Title The Posion of the Instruments for the Sound Insulaon Measurement of Building Facades: From ISO 140 5 to ISO 16283 3 Publicaon Noise Control Engineering Journal Author(s) Umberto Berardi Date January February 2013 Summary of Content This paper evaluates the effects of various outdoor, ground level loudspeaker measurement techniques. Specifically, the author quanfies the different NLR values measured with various exterior and interior microphone posions and different loudspeaker posions/angles. The author also discusses the uncertainty present in measuring low frequency noise (50 Hz to 100 Hz) due to interference wave effects. Relevance to this study This paper goes into detail on the effect of loudspeaker and microphone posion on NLR results, which this study also invesgated. Conclusions/findings/guidance related to this study The loudspeaker’s horizontal angle of incidence and microphone posion affect the overall measured NLR. In agreement with this study’s findings? Yes. Document Title Sound Insulaon Measurements of Facades with Variable Microphone Posions Publicaon Inter Noise 2011 Authors Sigmund Olafsen Date September 4 7, 2011 Summary of Content This paper evaluates interference effects of exterior loudspeaker measurements. The author quanfies loudspeaker noise levels measured at various distances from the façade (0.01 meter to 2 meters from the façade). Both theorecal and field measurement results are presented. Up to a 5 dB one-third octave band difference was measured between microphone posions. Relevance to this study This paper goes into detail on the effect of microphone posion on NLR results, which the ACRP Project 02 51 study also invesgated. Conclusions/findings/guidance related to this study The author found that there was li¤le difference in uncertainty between a microphone placed flush on the façade versus a microphone located in front of the façade. In agreement with this study’s findings? Not applicable. The research team did not directly evaluate the difference between a flush exterior microphone and a microphone located 1 2 meters from the façade. Table C-3. (Continued).

Research Review C-11 Document Title Relaonship Between Air Infiltraon and Acousc Leakage of Building Enclosures Publicaon Argonne Naonal Laboratory Presentaon at Acouscal Society of America 2014 Spring Meeng in Providence, RI Author(s) Ralph Muehleisen, Eric Tatara, Bre… Bethke Date May 8, 2014 Summary of Content This presentaon proposes a building infiltraon evaluaon method using a microphone array rather than the tradional method of using a blower door to pressurize a room. Due to patent laws, the authors do not provide many details on how the microphone array method works. Relevance to this study Air infiltraon measurements and interior loudspeaker measurements were conducted as a part of this project’s field research; the authors’ proposed air infiltraon evaluaon method ulizes an interior loudspeaker and a microphone array. Conclusions/findings/guidance related to this study None. In agreement with this study’s findings? Not applicable, there were no findings yet. Table C-3. (Continued).

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TRB's Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Report 152: Evaluating Methods for Determining Interior Noise Levels Used in Airport Sound Insulation Programs provides guidance for selecting and implementing methods for measuring noise level reduction in dwellings associated with airport noise insulation programs. The report complements the results of ACRP Report 89: Guidelines for Airport Sound Insulation Programs.

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