National Academies Press: OpenBook
« Previous: 8 Approaches to Assess Cumulative Impacts
Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Approaches to Understanding the Cumulative Effects of Stressors on Marine Mammals. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23479.


Aarts, G., M. MacKenzie, B. McConnell, M. Fedak, and J. Matthiopoulos. 2008. Estimating space-use and habitat preference from wildlife telemetry data. Ecography 31:140-160.

Acevedo-Whitehouse, K., and A.L.J. Duffus. 2009. Effects of environmental change on wildlife health. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 364:3429-3438. doi: 10.1098/rstb.2009.0128.

Acevedo-Whitehouse, K., A. Rocha-Gosselin, and D. Gendron. 2009. A novel non-invasive tool for disease surveillance of free-ranging whales and its relevance to conservation programs. Animal Conservation 13(2):217-225.

Aguilar, A., and A. Borrell. 1994. Abnormally high polychlorinated biphenyl levels in striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba) affected by the 1990-92 Mediterranean epizootic. Science of the Total Environment 154:237-247.

Aguirre, A.A., T.J. Keefe, J.S. Reif, L. Kashinsky, P.K. Yochem, J.T. Saliki, J.L. Stott, T. Goldstein, J.P. Dubey, R. Braun, and G. Antonelis. 2007. Infectious disease monitoring of the endangered Hawaiian monk seal. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 43(2):229-241.

Aksenov, A.A., L. Yeates, A. Pasamontes, C. Siebe, Y. Zrodnikov, J. Simmons, M.M. McCartney, J.-P. Deplanque, R.S. Wells, and C.E. Davis. 2014. Metabolite content profiling of bottlenose dolphin exhaled breath. Analytical Chemistry 86:10616-10624.

Alexander, N., Y. Kuepper, A. Schmitz, R. Osinsky, E. Kozyra, and J. Hennig. 2009. Gene–environment interactions predict cortisol responses after acute stress: Implications for the etiology of depression. Psychoneuroendocrinology 34(9):1294-1303.

Anderson, M.J., and A.A. Thompson. 2004. Multivariate control charts for ecological and environmental monitoring. Ecological Applications 14:1921-1935.

Andrew, R.K., B.M. Howe, and J.A. Mercer. 2011. Long-time trends in ship traffic noise for four sites off the North American West Coast. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 129(2):642-651.

Angliss, R.P., and K.L. Lodge. 2002. Alaska Marine Mammal Stock Assessments, 2002. U.S. Department of Commerce, NOAA Technical Memorandum. NM FSAFSC-133, 224 pp.

Ankley, G.T., R.S. Bennett, R.J. Erickson, D.J. Hoff, M.W. Hornung, R.D. Johnson, D.R. Mount, J.W. Nichols, C.L. Russom, P.K. Schmieder, and J.A. Serrrano. 2010. Adverse outcome pathways: A conceptual framework to support ecotoxicology research and risk assessment. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 29(3):730-741.

Antunes, R., P.H. Kvadsheim, F.P.A. Lam, P.L. Tyack, L. Thomas, P.J. Wensveen, and P.J.O. Miller. 2014. High thresholds for avoidance of sonar by free-ranging long-finned pilot whales (Globicephala melas). Marine Pollution Bulletin 83:165-180.

Aoki, K., Y.Y. Watanabe, D.E. Crocker, P.W. Robinson, M. Biuw, D.P. Costa, N. Miyazaki, M. Fedak, and P. Miller. 2011. Northern elephant seals adjust gliding and stroking patterns with changes in buoyancy: Validation of at-sea metrics of body density. Journal of Experimental Biology 214(17):2973-2987.

Arnbom, T., M.A. Fedak, I.L. Boyd, and B.J. McConnell. 1993. Variation in weaning mass of pups in relation to maternal mass, postweaning fast duration, and weaned pup behavior in southern elephant seals at South Georgia. Canadian Journal of Zoology 71:1772-1781.

Asseburg, C., J. Harwood, J. Matthiopoulos, and S. Smout. 2006. The functional response of generalist predators, and their implications for the monitoring of marine ecosystems. Pp. 262-274 in Top Predators in Marine Ecosystems: Their Role in Monitoring and Management, I.L. Boyd, S. Wanless, and K. Camphuysen, eds. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Atkinson, S., D. Crocker, D. Houser, and K. Mashburn. 2015. Stress physiology in marine mammals: How well do they fit the terrestrial model? Journal of Comparative Physiology B 185(5):463-486.

Austin, D., W.D. Bowen, J.I. McMillan, and D.J. Boness. 2006. Stomach temperature telemetry reveals temporal patterns of foraging success in a free-ranging marine mammal. Journal of Animal Ecology 75(2):408-420.

Ayres, K.L., R.K. Booth, J.A. Hempelmann, K.L. Koski, C.K. Emmons, R.W. Baird, K. Balcomb-Bartok, M.B. Hanson, M.J. Ford, and S.K. Wasser. 2012. Distinguishing the impacts of inadequate prey and vessel traffic on an endangered killer whale (Orcinus orca) population. PLoS ONE 7:e36842.

Baggeroer, A., and W. Munk. 1992. The Heard Island feasibility test. Physics Today 45:22-30.

Bailey, H., B. Senior, D. Simmons, J. Rusin, G. Picken, and P.M. Thompson. 2010. Assessing underwater noise levels during pile-driving at an offshore windfarm and its potential impact on marine mammals. Marine Pollution Bulletin 60:888-897.

Bailey, H., K.L. Brookes, and P.M. Thompson. 2014. Assessing environmental impacts of offshore wind farms: Lessons learned and recommendations for the future. Aquatic Biosystems 10:8.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Approaches to Understanding the Cumulative Effects of Stressors on Marine Mammals. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23479.

Baird, R.W., and L.M. Dill. 1995. Occurrence and behaviour of transient killer whales: Seasonal and pod-specific variability, foraging behaviour, and prey handling. Canadian Journal of Zoology 73(7):1300-1311.

Baird, R.W., and L.M. Dill. 1996. Ecological and social determinants of group size in transient killer whales. Behavioral Ecology 7(4):408-416.

Baird, R.W., S.W. Martin, D.L. Webster, and B.L. Southall. 2014. Assessment of Modeled Received Sound Pressure Levels and Movements of Satellite-Tagged Odontocetes Exposed to Mid-Frequency Active Sonar at the Pacific Missile Range Facility: February 2011 Through February 2013. Prepared for U.S. Pacific Fleet, submitted to NAVFAC PAC by HDR Environmental, Operations and Construction, Inc.

Ban, S.S., N.A.J. Graham, and S.R. Connolly. 2014. Evidence for multiple stressor interactions and effects on coral reefs. Global Change Biology 20:681-697.

Banner, A., and M. Hyatt. 1973. Effects of noise on eggs and larvae of two estuarine fishes. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 102(1):134-136.

Barber, J.R., K.R. Crooks, and K.M. Fristrup. 2010. The costs of chronic noise exposure for terrestrial organisms. Trends in Ecology & Evolution 25:80-189.

Barbieri, M.M., S. Raverty, M.B. Hanson, S. Venn-Watson, J.K.B. Ford, and J.K. Gaydos. 2013. Spatial and temporal analysis of killer whale (Orcinus orca) strandings in the North Pacific Ocean and the benefits of a coordinated stranding response protocol. Marine Mammal Science 29:E448-E462.

Barbraud, C., V. Rolland, S. Jenouvrier, M. Nevoux, K. Delord, and H. Weimerskirch. 2012. Effects of climate change and fisheries bycatch on Southern Ocean seabirds: A review. Marine Ecology Progress Series 454:285-307.

Basner, M., W. Babisch, A. Davis, M. Brink, C. Clark, S. Janssen, and S. Stansfeld. 2014. Auditory and non-auditory effects of noise on health. The Lancet 383:1325-1332.

Bayne, E.M., L. Habib, and S. Boutin. 2008. Impacts of chronic anthropogenic noise from energy-sector activity on abundance of songbirds in the boreal forest. Conservation Biology 22:1186-1193.

Beale, C.M., and P. Monaghan. 2004. Behavioural responses to human disturbance: A matter of choice. Animal Behaviour 68:1065-1069.

Beaugrand, G. 2004. The North Sea regime shift: Evidence, causes, mechanisms and consequences. Progress in Oceanography 60(2):245-262.

Bejarano, A., F. Gulland, T. Goldstein, J.S. Leger, M. Hunter, L. Schwacke, F. VanDolah, and T. Rowles. 2008a. Demographics and spatio-temporal signature of the biotoxin domoic acid in California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) stranding records. Marine Mammal Science 24:899-912.

Bejarano, A.C., F.M. VanDola, F.M. Gulland, T.K. Rowles, and L.H. Schwacke. 2008b. Production and toxicity of the marine biotoxin domoic acid and its effects on wildlife: A review. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment 14(3):544-567.

Bejder, L., A. Samuels, H. Whitehead, and N. Gales. 2006. Interpreting short-term behavioural responses to disturbance within a longitudinal perspective. Animal Behaviour 72(5):1149-1158.

Bejder, L., A. Samuels, H. Whitehead, H. Finn, and S. Allen. 2009. Impact assessment research: Use and misuse of habituation, sensitisation and tolerance in describing wildlife responses to anthropogenic stimuli. Marine Ecology Progress Series 395:177-185.

Benson, S.R., D.A. Croll, B.B. Marinovic, F.P. Chavez, and J.T. Harvey. 2002. Changes in the cetacean assemblage of a coastal upwelling ecosystem during El Niño 1997–98 and La Niña 1999. Progress in Oceanography 54(1):279-291.

Bernaldo de Quiros, Y., O. González-Diaz, M. Arbelo, E. Sierra, S. Sacchini, and A. Fernández. 2012. Decompression vs. decomposition: Distribution, amount, and gas composition of bubbles in stranded marine mammals. Frontiers in Physiology 3:177.

Bexton, S., D. Thompson, A. Brownlow, J. Barley, R. Milne, and C. Bidewell. 2012. Unusual mortality of pinnipeds in the United Kingdom associated with helical (corkscrew) injuries of anthropogenic origin. Aquatic Mammals 38:229-240.

Bishop, A., P. Pomeroy, and S.D. Twiss. 2015. Breeding male grey seals exhibit similar activity budgets across varying exposures to human activity. Marine Ecology Progress Series 527:247-259.

Biuw, M., B. McConnell, C.J.A. Bradshaw, H. Burton, and M.A. Fedak. 2003. Blubber and buoyancy: Monitoring the body condition of free-ranging seals using simple dive characteristics. Journal of Experimental Biology 206:3405-3423.

Blickley, J.L., D. Blackwood, and G.L. Patricelli. 2012a. Experimental evidence for the effects of chronic anthropogenic noise on abundance of Greater Sage-Grouse at leks. Conservation Biology 26:461-471.

Blickley, J.L., K.R. Word, A.H. Krakauer, J.L. Phillips, S.N. Sells, C.C. Taff, J.C. Wingfield, and G.L. Patricelli. 2012b. Experimental chronic noise is related to elevated fecal corticosteroid metabolites in lekking male Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus). PLoS ONE 7:e50462.

Block, B.A., I.D. Jonsen, S.J. Jorgensen, A.J. Winship, S.A. Shaffer, S.J. Bograd, E.L. Hazen, D.G. Foley, G.A. Breed, A.-L. Harrison, J.E. Ganong, A. Swithenbank, M. Castleton, H. Dewar, B.E. Mate, G.L. Shillinger, K.M. Schaefer, S.R. Benson, M.J. Weise, R.W. Henry, and D.P. Costa. 2011. Tracking apex marine predator movements in a dynamic ocean. Nature 475(7354):86-90.

Boas, M., U. Feldt-Rasmussen, N.E. Skakkebaek, and K.M. Main. 2006. Environmental chemicals and thyroid function. European Journal of Endocrinology 154:599-611.

Bonde, R.K., A. Garrett, M. Belanger, N. Askin, L. Tan, and C. Wittnich. 2012. Biomedical health assessments of the Florida manatee in Crystal River—providing opportunities for training during the capture, handling, and processing of this unique aquatic mammal. Journal of Marine Animals and Their Ecology 5(2):17-28.

Bonier, F., P.R. Martin, I.T. Moore, and J.C. Wingfield. 2009. Do baseline glucocorticoids predict fitness? Trends in Ecology & Evolution 24(11):634-642.

Boonstra, R. 2005. Equipped for life: The adaptive role of the stress axis in male mammals. Journal of Mammalogy 86(2):236-247.

Borchers, D.L. 2012. A non-technical overview of spatially explicit capture–recapture models. Journal of Ornithology 152:435-444.

Bossart, G.D., T.A. Romano, M.M. Peden-Adams, A. Schaefer, S. McCulloch, J.D. Goldstein, C.D. Rice, J.T. Saliki, P.A. Fair, and J.S. Reif. 2011. Clinicoimmunopathologic findings in Atlantic bottlenose dolphins Tursiops truncatus with positive cetacean morbillivirus antibody titers. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 97(2):103-112.

Bottein, M.Y., L. Kashinsky, Z. Wang, C. Littnan, and J.S. Ramsdell. 2011. Identification of ciguatoxins in Hawaiian monk seals Monachus schauinslandi from the Northwestern and Main Hawaiian Islands. Environmental Science & Technology 45:5403-5409.

Boucher, O., G. Muckle, and C.H. Bastien. 2009. Prenatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls: A neuropsychologic analysis. Environmental Health Perspectives 117:7-16.

Bowen, W.D., J.D. Baker, D. Siniff, I.L. Boyd, R. Wells, J.K.B. Ford, S.D Kraus, J.A. Estes, and I. Stirling. 2010. Long-term studies. Pp. 283-305 in Marine Mammal Ecology and Conservation: A Handbook of Techniques, I. Boyd, D. Bowen, and S. Iverson, eds. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Boyd, I.L. 2000. State-dependent fertility in pinnipeds: Contrasting capital and income breeders. Functional Ecology 14(5):623-630.

Boziari, A., C. Koukorava, E. Carinou, C.J. Hourdakis, and V. Kamenopoulou. 2010. The use of active personal dosemeters as a personal monitoring device: Comparison with TL dosimetry. Radiation Protection Dosimetry 144:173-176.

Bräger, S., K. Brensing, R. Caddell, K.C. Detloff, S. Dolman, P. Evans, V. Frank, J. Haelters, R. Kless, K. Lucke, L. Nunny, G. Pavan, M. Simmonds, and H. Westerberg. 2009. Final Report of the ASCOBANS Intersessional Working Group on the Assessment of Acoustic Disturbance, August 11, 2009. Available at

Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Approaches to Understanding the Cumulative Effects of Stressors on Marine Mammals. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23479.

Branch, T.A., K.M. Stafford, D.M. Palacios, C. Allison, J.L. Bannister, C.L.K. Burton, E. Cabrera, C.A. Carlson, B. Galletti Vernazzani, P.C. Gill, R. Hucke-Gaete, K.C.S. Jenner, M.-N.M. Jenner, K. Matsuoka, Y.A. Mikhalev, T. Miyashita, M.G. Morrice, S. Nishiwaki, V.J. Sturrock, D. Tormosov, R.C. Anderson, A.N. Baker, P.B. Best, P. Borsa, R.L. Brownell, Jr., S. Childerhouse, K.P. Findlay, T. Gerrodette, A.D. Ilangakoon, M. Joergensen, B. Kahn, D.K. Ljungblad, B. Maughan, R.D. McCauley, S. McKay, T.F. Norris, Oman Whale and Dolphin Research Group, R.M. Warneke, S. Rankin, F. Samaran, D. Thiele, and K. Van Waerebeek. 2007. Past and present distribution densities and movements of blue whales in the Southern Hemisphere and Northern Indian Ocean. Mammal Review 37:116-175.

Branchi, I., F. Capone, E. Alleva, and L.G. Costa. 2003. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers: Neurobehavioral effects following developmental exposure. Neurotoxicology 24(3):449-462.

Brandt, M.J., A. Diederichs, K. Betke, and G. Nehls. 2011. Responses of harbor porpoises to pile driving at the Horns Rev II offshore wind farm in the Danish North Sea. Marine Ecology Progress Series 421:205-216.

Brandt, M.J., C. Hoschle, A. Diederichs, K. Betke, R. Matuschek, and G. Nehls. 2013. Seal scarers as a tool to deter harbour porpoises from offshore construction sites. Marine Ecology Progress Series 475:291-302.

Brandt-Lassen, R., S.P. Lund, and G.B. Jepsen. 2000. Rats exposed to toluene and noise may develop loss of auditory sensitivity due to synergistic interaction. Noise Health 3:33-44.

Brault, S., and H. Caswell. 1993. Pod-specific demography of killer whales (Orcinus orca). Ecology 74:1444-1454.

Brenner, I., J. Castellani, C. Gabaree, A. Young, J. Zamecnik, R. Shephard, and P. Shek. 1999. Immune changes in humans during cold exposure: Effects of prior heating and exercise. Journal of Applied Physiology 87(2):699-710.

Brinton, E., V.J. Loeb, M.C. Macaulay, and E. Shulenberger. 1987. Variability of Euphausia superba populations near Elephant Island and the South Shetlands: 1981 vs. 1984. Polar Biology 7(6):345-362.

Brock, P.M., A.J. Hall, S.J. Goodman, M. Cruz, and K. Acevedo-Whitehouse. 2013a. Immune activity, body condition and human-associated environmental impacts in a wild marine mammal. PloS ONE 8(6):e67132.

Brock, P.M., A.J. Hall, S.J. Goodman, M. Cruz, and K. Acevedo-Whitehouse. 2013b. Applying the tools of ecological immunology to conservation: A test case in the Galapagos sea lion. Animal Conservation 16(1):19-31.

Brough, T.E., S. Henderson, M. Guerra, and S.M. Dawson. 2016. Factors influencing heterogeneity in female reproductive success in a critically endangered population of bottlenose dolphins. Endangered Species Research 29:255-270.

Brumm, H., and S.A. Zollinger. 2011. The evolution of the Lombard effect: 100 years of psychoacoustic research. Behaviour 148:1173-1198.

Buckland, S.T., and A.E. York. 2009. Abundance estimation. Pp. 1-5 in Encyclopedia of Marine Mammals, W.F. Perrin, B. Wursig and J.G.M. Thewissen, eds. San Diego, CA: Academic Press.

Buckland, S.T., Anderson, D.R., Burnham, K.P., Laake, J.L., Borchers, D.L. and L. Thomas. 2001. Introduction to Distance Sampling: Estimating Abundance of Biological Populations. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Buckland, S.T., M.L. Burt, E. Rexstad, M. Mellor, A. Williams, and R. Woodward. 2012. Aerial surveys of seabirds: The advent of digital methods. Journal of Applied Ecology 49:960-967.

Buckstaff, K.C. 2004. Effects of watercraft noise on the acoustic behavior of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) in Sarasota Bay, Florida. Marine Mammal Science 20:709-725. doi: 10.1111/j.17487692.2004. tb01189.x.

Bunkley, J.P., and J.R. Barber. 2015. Noise reduces foraging efficiency in pallid bats (Antrozous pallidus). Ethology 121:1116-1121.

Burek, K.A., F. Gulland, and T.M. O’Hara. 2008. Effects of climate change on Arctic marine mammal health. Ecological Applications 18(sp2):S126-S134.

Burgin, S., and N. Hardiman. 2015. Effects of non-consumptive wildlife-oriented tourism on marine species and prospects for their sustainable management. Journal of Environmental Management 151:210-220.

Burns, W.C. 1997. The International Whaling Commission and future of cetaceans: Problems and prospects. Colorado Journal of International Environmental Law and Policy 8(1):31-88.

Caillat, M., and S. Smout. 2015. Harbour Seal Decline: Population Modeling. Sea Mammal Research Unit, University of St. Andrews, Report to Scottish Government, no. CSD 4, St. Andrews, 29 pp. Available at

Calabrese, E.J. 2005. Paradigm lost, paradigm found: The re-emergence of hormesis as a fundamental dose response model in the toxicological sciences. Environmental Pollution 138(3):378-411.

Calabrese, E.J., K.A. Bachmann, A.J. Bailer, P.M. Bolger, J. Borak, L. Cai, N. Cedergreen, M.G. Cherian, C.C. Chiueh, T.W. Clarkson, and R.R. Cook. 2007. Biological stress response terminology: Integrating the concepts of adaptive response and preconditioning stress within a hormetic dose–response framework. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 222(1):122-128.

Calvert, W., and M.A. Ramsay. 1998. Evaluation of age determination of polar bears by counts of cementum growth layer groups. Ursus 449-453.

Caro, T.M., and G. O’Doherty. 1999. On the use of surrogate species in conservation biology. Conservation Biology 13(4):805-814.

Carpenter, D.O. 2006. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs): Routes of exposure and effects on human health. Reviews on Environmental Health 21(1):1-23.

Carretta, J.V., K. Danil, S.J. Chivers, D.W. Weller, D.S. Janiger, M. Berman-Kowalewski, K.M. Hernandez, J.T. Harvey, R.C. Dunkin, D.R. Casper, S. Stoudt, M. Flannery, K. Wilkinson, J. Huggins, and D.M. Lambourn. 2015. Recovery rates of bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) carcasses estimated from stranding and survival rate data. Marine Mammal Science 32:349-362.

Cassoff, R.M., K.M. Moore, W.A. McLellan, S.G. Barco, D.S. Rotstein, and M.J. Moore. 2011. Lethal entanglement in baleen whales. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 96:175-185.

Castellote, M., C.W. Clark, and M.O. Lammers. 2012. Acoustic and behavioural changes by fin whales (Balaenoptera physalus) in response to shipping and airgun noise. Biological Conservation 147(1):115-122.

Caswell, H. 2001. Matrix Population Models, 2nd Ed. Sunderland, MA: Sinauer Associates.

Caswell, H., M. Fujiwara, and S. Brault. 1999. Declining survival probability threatens the North Atlantic right whale. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 96(6):3308-3313.

Celi, M., F. Filiciotto, M. Vazzana, V. Arizza, V. Maccarrone, M. Ceraulo, S. Mazzola, and G. Buscaino. 2015. Shipping noise affecting immune responses of European spiny lobster (Palinurus elephas). Canadian Journal of Zoology 93(2):113-121.

Champagne, C., D. Crocker, M. Fowler, and D. Houser. 2012. Fasting physiology of the pinnipeds: The challenges of fasting while maintaining high energy expenditure and nutrient delivery for lactation. Pp. 309-336 in Comparative Physiology of Fasting, Starvation, and Food Limitation, M. D. McCue, ed. Berlin: Springer.

Chan, A.A., Y.H. Chan, W.D. Stahlman, D. Garlick, C.D. Fast, D.T. Blumstein, and A.P. Blaisdell. 2010. Increased amplitude and duration of acoustic stimuli enhance distraction. Animal Behaviour 80:1075-1079.

Christiansen, F., and D. Lusseau. 2015. Linking behavior to vital rates to measure the effects of non-lethal disturbance on wildlife. Conservation Letters 8(6):424-431.

Christiansen, F., G.A. Vikingsson, M.H. Rasmussen, and D. Lusseau. 2014. Female body condition affects foetal growth in a capital breeding mysticete. Functional Ecology 28:579-588.

Claridge, D.E. 2013. Population Ecology of Blainville’s Beaked Whales (Mesoplodon densirostris). Doctoral dissertation, University of St. Andrews.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Approaches to Understanding the Cumulative Effects of Stressors on Marine Mammals. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23479.

Clark, C.W., W.T. Ellison, B.L. Southall, L.T. Hatch, S.M. Van Parijs, A. Frankel, and D. Ponirakis. 2009. Acoustic masking in marine ecosystems: Intuitions, analysis, and implications. Marine Ecology: Progress Series 395:201-222.

Cohen, J. 1991. Was underwater “shot” harmful to the whales? Science 252(5008):912.

Conn, P.B., and G.K. Silber. 2013. Vessel speed restrictions reduce risk of collision-related mortality for North Atlantic right whales. Ecosphere 4(4):43.

Connon, R.E., J. Geist, and I. Werner. 2012. Effect-based tools for monitoring and predicting the ecotoxicological effects of chemicals in the aquatic environment. Sensors 12(9):12741-12771.

Constantine, R. 2001. Increased avoidance of swimmers by wild bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) due to long-term exposure to swim-with-dolphin tourism. Marine Mammal Science 17(4):689-702.

Conversi, A., V. Dakos, A. Gårdmark, S. Ling, C. Folke, P.J. Mumby, C. Greene, M. Edwards, T. Blenckner, M. Casini, A. Pershing, and C. Möllmann. 2015. A holistic view of marine regime shifts. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B 370:20130279. doi: 10.1098/rstb.2013.0279.

Cook, P.F., C. Reichmuth, A.A. Rouse, L.A. Libby, S.E. Dennison, O.T. Carmichael, K.T. Kruse-Elliott, J. Bloom, B. Singh, V.A. Fravel, L. Barbosa, J.J. Stuppino, W.G. Van Bonn, F.M.D. Gulland, and C. Ranganath. 2015. Algal toxin impairs sea lion memory and hippocampal connectivity, with implications for strandings. Science 350(6267):1545-1547.

Cooke, R.M. 1991. Experts in Uncertainty: Opinion and Subjective Probability in Science. New York: Oxford University Press.

Cooke, S.J., S.S. Killen, J.D. Metcalfe, D.J. McKenzie, D. Mouillot, C. Jørgensen, and M.A. Peck. 2014. Conservation physiology across scales: Insights from the marine realm. Conservation Physiology 2(1):cou024.

Cordes, L. 2011. Demography and Breeding Phenology of a Marine Top Predator. PhD thesis, University of Aberdeen.

Costantini, D., A. Fanfani, and G. Dell’Omo. 2008. Effects of corticosteroids on oxidative damage and circulating carotenoids in captive adult kestrels (Falco tinnunculus). Journal of Comparative Physiology B 178(7):829-835.

Costantini, D., V. Marasco, and A.P. Møller. 2011. A meta-analysis of glucocorticoids as modulators of oxidative stress in vertebrates. Journal of Comparative Physiology B 181(4):447-456.

Côté, I.M., E.S. Darling, and C.J. Brown. 2016. Interactions among ecosystem stressors and their importance in conservation. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 283:2015-2592.

Cote, J., S. Meylan, J. Clobert, and Y. Voituron. 2010. Carotenoid-based coloration, oxidative stress and corticosterone in common lizards. Journal of Experimental Biology 213(12):2116-2124.

Cox, T.M., T.J. Ragen, A.J. Read, E. Vos, R.W. Baird, K. Balcomb, J. Barlow, J. Caldwell, T. Cranford, L. Crum, A. D’Amico, G. D’Spain, A. Fednandez, J. Finneran, R. Gentry, W. Gerth, F. Gulland, J. Hildebrand, D. Houser, T. Hullar, P.D. Jepson, D. Ketten, C.D. MacLeod, P. Miller, S. Moore, D.C. Mountain, D. Palka, P. Ponganis, S. Rommel, T. Rowles, B. Taylor, P. Tyack, D. Wartzok, R. Gisiner, J. Mead, and L. Benner. 2006. Understanding the impacts of anthropogenic sound on beaked whales. Journal of Cetacean Research Management 7:177-187.

Crain, C.M., K. Kroeker, and B.S. Halpern. 2008. Interactive and cumulative effects of multiple human stressors in marine systems. Ecology Letters 11:1304-1315.

Cranford, T.W., and P. Krysl. 2015. Fin whale sound reception mechanisms: Skull vibration enables low-frequency hearing. PLoS ONE 10:1-17.

Creel, S., D. Christianson, S. Liley, and J.A. Winnie. 2007. Predation risk affects reproductive physiology and demography of elk. Science 315:960.

Creel, S., J.A. Winnie, and D. Christianson. 2009. Glucocorticoid stress hormones and the effect of predation risk on elk reproduction. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 106:12388-12393.

Crocker, D.E., B.J. Le Boeuf, and D.P. Costa. 1997. Drift diving in female northern elephant seals: Implications for food processing. Canadian Journal of Zoology 75:27-39.

Crocker, D.E., D.P. Costa, B.J. Le Boeuf, P.M. Webb, and D.S. Houser. 2006. Impact of El Niño on the foraging behavior of female northern elephant seals. Marine Ecology Progress Series 309:1-10.

Crofton, K.M., D.-L. Ding, R. Padich, M. Taylor, and D. Henderson. 2000. Hearing loss following exposure during development to polychlorinated biphenyls: A cochlear site of action. Hearing Research 144(1-2):196-204.

Croll, D.A., C.W. Clark, A. Acevedo, B. Tershy, S. Flores, J. Gedamke, and J. Urban. 2002. Only male fin whales sing loud songs. Nature 417:809.

Croll, D.A., B. Marinovic, S. Benson, F.P. Chavez, N. Black, R. Ternullo, and B.R. Tershy. 2005. From wind to whales: Trophic links in a coastal upwelling system. Marine Ecology: Progress Series 289:117-130.

Croxall, J.P., T. Callaghan, R. Cervellati, and D.W.H. Walton. 1992. Southern Ocean environmental changes: Effects on seabird, seal and whale populations [and discussion]. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences 338(1285):319-328.

Cumeras, R.H.K., W. Cheung, F. Gulland, D. Goley, and C.E. Davis. 2014. Chemical analysis of whale breath volatiles: A case study for non-invasive field health diagnostics of marine mammals. Metabolites 4(3):790-806.

Curé, C., R. Antunes, A.C. Alves, F. Visser, P.H. Kvadsheim, and P.J. Miller. 2013. Responses of male sperm whales (Physeter macrocephalus) to killer whale sounds: Implications for anti-predator strategies. Scientific Reports 3:1579.

Dähne, M., A. Gilles, K. Lucke, V. Peschko, S. Adler, K. Krügel, J. Sundermeyer, and U. Siebert. 2013. Effects of pile-driving on harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) at the first offshore wind farm in Germany. Environmental Research Letters 8:025002.

Dai, L., D. Vorselen, K.S. Korolev, and J. Gore. 2012. Generic indicators for loss of resilience before a tipping point leading to population collapse. Science 336(6085):1175-1177.

Dakos, V., S.R. Carpenter, E.H. van Nes, and M. Scheffer. 2015. Resilience indicators: Prospects and limitations for early warnings of regime shifts. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B 370:1659. doi: 10.1098/rstb.2013.0263.

D’Amico, A.D., R. Gisiner, D.R. Ketten, J.A. Hammock, C. Johnson, P. Tyack, and J. Mead. 2009. Beaked whale strandings and naval exercises. Aquatic Mammals 35(4):452-472.

Dantzer, B., Q.E. Fletcher, R. Boonstra, and M.J. Sheriff. 2014. Measures of physiological stress: A transparent or opaque window into the status, management and conservation of species? Conservation Physiology 2(1):cou023.

Darling, E.S., and E.M. Côté. 2008. Quantifying the evidence for ecological synergies. Ecology Letters 11:1278-1286.

Daszak, P., A.A. Cunningham, and A.D. Hyatt. 2000. Emerging infectious diseases of wildlife—threats to biodiversity and human health. Science 287(5452):443-449.

Dawson, S.M., S. Northridge, D. Waples, and A.J. Read. 2013. To ping or not to ping: The use of active acoustic devices in mitigating interactions between small cetaceans and gillnet fisheries. Endangered Species Research 19:201-221.

De Guise, S., D. Martineau, P. Beland, and M. Fournier. 1998. Effects of in vitro exposure of beluga whale leukocytes to selected organochlorines. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Part A: Current Issues 55:479-493.

de Little, S.C., C.J.A. Bradshaw, C.R. McMahon, and M.A. Hindell. 2007. Complex interplay between intrinsic and extrinsic drivers of long-term survival trends in southern elephant seals. BMC Ecology 7:3. doi: 10.1186/1472-6785-7-3.

De Swart, R.L., P.S. Ross, J.G. Vos, and A.D. Osterhaus. 1996. Impaired immunity in harbour seals (Phoca vitulina) exposed to bioaccumulated environmental contaminants: Review of a long-term feeding study. Environmental Health Perspectives 104(Suppl. 4):823-828.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Approaches to Understanding the Cumulative Effects of Stressors on Marine Mammals. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23479.

De Vries, R.D., S. McQuaid, G. Van Amerongen, S. Yüksel, R.J. Verburgh, A.D. Osterhaus, W.P. Duprex, and R.L. De Swart. 2012. Measles immune suppression: Lessons from the macaque model. PLoS Pathogens 8(8):e1002885.

DeMaster, D.P., A.W. Trites, P. Clapham, S. Mizrock, P. Wade, R.J. Small, and J. Ver Hoef. 2006. The sequential megafauna collapse hypothesis: Testing with existing data. Progress in Oceanography 68:329-342.

DeRijk, R.H., E.M. Sternberg, and E.R. De Kloet. 1997. Glucocorticoid receptor function in health and disease. Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity 4(3)185-193.

DeRuiter, S.L., B.L. Southall, J. Calambokidis, W.M.X. Zimmer, D. Sadykova, E.A. Falcone, A.S. Friedlaender, J.E. Joseph, D. Moretti, G.S. Schorr, L. Thomas, and P.L. Tyack. 2013. First direct measurements of behavioral responses by Cuvier’s beaked whales to mid-frequency active sonar. Biology Letters 9. doi: 10.1098/rsbl.2013.0223.

Devineau, O., R. Choquet, and J.-D. Lebreton. 2006. Planning capture-recapture studies: Straightforward precision, bias and power calculations. Wildlife Society Bulletin 34:1028-1035.

Di Poi, C., S. Atkinson, A. Hoover-Miller, and G. Blundell. 2015. Maternal buffering of stress response in free-ranging Pacific harbor seal pups in Alaska. Marine Mammal Science 31:1098-1117.

Diamanti-Kandarakis, E., J.P. Bourguignon, L.C. Giudice, R. Hauser, G.S. Prins, A.M. Soto, R.T. Zoeller, and A.C. Gore. 2009. Endocrine-disrupting chemicals: An Endocrine Society scientific statement. Endocrine Reviews 30:293-342.

Diaz, R.J., and R. Rosenberg. 2008. Spreading dead zones and consequences for marine ecosystems. Science 321(5891):926-929.

Dickens, M.J., and L.M. Romero. 2013. A consensus endocrine profile for chronically stressed wild animals does not exist. General and Comparative Endocrinology 191:177-189.

Dickens, M.J., D.J. Delehanty, and L.M. Romero. 2009. Stress and translocation: Alterations in the stress physiology of translocated birds. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 276:1664. doi: 10.1098/rspb.2008.1778.

Dietz, R., F. Riget, and P. Johansen. 1996. Lead, cadmium, mercury and selenium in Greenland marine animals. Science of the Total Environment 186(1):67-93.

Dietz, R., P.M. Outridge, and K.A. Hobson. 2009. Anthropogenic contributions to mercury levels in present-day Arctic animals—A review. Science of the Total Environment 407(24):6120-613.

Dietz, R., C. Sonne, N. Basu, B. Braune, T. O’Hara, R.J. Letcher, T. Scheuhammer, M. Andersen, C. Andreasen, D. Andriashek, and G. Asmund. 2013. What are the toxicological effects of mercury in Arctic biota? Science of the Total Environment 443:775-790.

Doak, D.F., J.A. Estes, B.S. Halpern, U. Jacob, D.R. Lindberg, J. Lovvorn, D.H. Monson, M.T. Tinker, T.M. Williams, J.T. Wootton, I. Carroll, M. Emmerson, F. Micheli, and M. Novak. 2008. Understanding and predicting ecological dynamics: Are major surprises inevitable? Ecology 89(4):952-961.

Donaldson, R., H. Finn, and M. Calver. 2010. Illegal feeding increases risk of boat-strike and entanglement in bottlenose dolphins in Perth, Western Australia. Pacific Conservation Biology 16(3):157-161.

Doney, S.C., M. Ruckelshaus, J.E. Duffy, J.P. Barry, F. Chan, C.A. English, H.M. Galindo, J.M. Grebmeier, A.B. Hollowed, N. Knowlton, and J. Polovina. 2012. Climate change impacts on marine ecosystems. Marine Science 4:11-37.

Doniol-Valcroze, T., D. Berteaux, P. Larouche, and R. Sears. 2007. Influence of thermal fronts on habitat selection by four rorqual whale species in the Gulf of St. Lawrence. Marine Ecology: Progress Series 335:207-216.

Donovan, C.R., C. Harris, J. Harwood, and L. Milazzo. 2013. A simulation-based method for quantifying and mitigating the effects of anthropogenic sound on marine mammals. Proceedings of Meetings on Acoustics 17:070043.

Doroff, A.M., J.A. Estes, M.T. Tinker, D.M. Burn, and T.J. Evans. 2003. Sea otter population declines in the Aleutian archipelago. Journal of Mammalogy 84(1):55-64.

Dowling, D.K. and L.W. Simmons. 2009. Reactive oxygen species as universal constraints in life-history evolution. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 276(1663):1737-1745.

Downs, C.J., and N.A. Dochtermann. 2014. Testing hypotheses in ecoimmunology using mixed models: Disentangling hierarchical correlations. Integrative and Comparative Biology 54(3):407-418.

Drake, J.M., and B.D. Griffen. 2010. Early warning signals of extinction in deteriorating environments. Nature 467(7314):456-459.

Dunne, J.A., R.J. Williams, and N.D. Martinez. 2002. Food-web structure and network theory: The role of connectance and size. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 99:12917-12922.

Durban, J., H. Fearnbach, L. Barret-Lennard, W. Perryman, and D. LeRoi. 2015. Photogrammetry of killer whales using a small hexacopter launched at sea. 21st Biennial Conference on the Biology of Marine Mammals. San Francisco, CA, December 2015.

Durbin, E., G. Teegarden, R. Campbell, A. Cembella, M.F. Baumgartner, and B.R. Mate. 2002. North Atlantic right whales, Eubalaena glacialis, exposed to paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxins via a zooplankton vector, Calanus finmarchicus. Harmful Algae 1:243-251.

Eales, J.G. 1988. The influence of nutritional state on thyroid function in various vertebrates. American Zoologist 28:351-362.

Eberhardt, L.L. 2002. A paradigm for population analysis of long-lived vertebrates. Ecology 83:2841-2854.

Eberle, K.C., T.E. Waters, E.D. Jensen, S.K. Venn-Watson, and R.E. Sacco. 2013. Development and application of specific cytokine assays in tissue samples from a bottlenose dolphin with hyperinsulinemia. Frontiers in Endocrinology 4:134.

Ellison, W.T., B.L. Southall, C.W. Clark, and A.S. Frankel. 2011. A new context-based approach to assess marine mammal behavioral responses to anthropogenic sounds. Conservation Biology 26:21-28.

Engås, A., S. Løkkeborg, E. Ona, and A.V. Soldal. 1996. Effects of seismic shooting on local abundance and catch rates of cod (Gadus morhua) and haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus). Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 53(10):2238-2249.

Engelhard, G.H., A.N.J. Baarspul, M. Broekman, J.C.S. Creuwels, and P.J.H. Reijnders. 2002. Human disturbance, nursing behaviour, and lactational pup growth in a declining southern elephant seal (Mirounga leonina) population. Canadian Journal of Zoology 80(11):876-1886.

EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 2000. Supplementary Guidance for Conducting Risk Assessment of Chemical Mixtures. EPA/630/R-00/002, August 2000.

EPA. 2002. Guidance on Cumulative Risk Assessment of Pesticide Chemicals That Have a Common Mechanism of Toxicity. Office of Pesticide Programs, January 14, 2002.

EPA. 2007. Concepts, Methods and Data Sources for Cumulative Health Risk Assessment of Multiple Chemicals, Exposures and Effects: A Resource Document. EPA/600/R-06/013F. National Center for Environmental Assessment, Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH.

Erbe, C. 2013. International regulation of underwater noise. Acoustics Australia 41:12-19.

Ercal, N., H. Gurer-Orhan, and N. Aykin-Burns. 2001. Toxic metals and oxidative stress part I: Mechanisms involved in metal-induced oxidative damage. Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry 1(6):529-539.

Eriksson, P., E. Jakobsson, and A. Fredriksson. 2001. Brominated flame retardants: A novel class of developmental neurotoxicants in our environment? Environmental Health Perspectives 109(9):903-908.

Estes, J.A., M. Tinker, T.M. Williams, and D.F. Doak. 1998. Killer whale predation on sea otters linking oceanic and nearshore ecosystems. Science 282(5388):473-476.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Approaches to Understanding the Cumulative Effects of Stressors on Marine Mammals. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23479.

Estes, J.A., D.F. Doak, A.M. Springer, and T.M. Williams. 2009a. Causes and consequences of marine mammal population declines in southwest Alaska: A food-web perspective. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, Series B: Biological Sciences 364(May):1647-1658.

Estes, J.A., D.F. Doak, A.M. Springer, T.M. Williams, and G.B. van Vliet. 2009b. Trend data do support the sequential nature of pinniped and sea otter declines in the North Pacific, but does it really matter? Marine Mammal Science 25:748-754.

Estes, J.A., J.S. Brashares, and M.E. Power. 2013a. Predicting and detecting reciprocity between indirect ecological interactions and evolution. The American Naturalist 181(Suppl.):S76-S99.

Estes, J.A., R.S. Steneck, and D.R. Lindberg. 2013b. Exploring the consequences of species interactions through the assembly and disassembly of food webs: A Pacific/Atlantic comparison. Bulletin of Marine Science 89:11-29.

European Union. 2008. Directive 2008/56/Ec of European Parliament and of The Council of 17 June 2008 establishing a framework for community action in the field of marine environmental policy (Marine Strategy Framework Directive). Official Journal of the European Union, L: Legislation 164:19-40.

Evans, D.L., and G.R. England. 2001. Joint Interim Report Bahamas Marine Mammal Stranding Event of 14-16 March 2000. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Commerce and U.S. Navy. Available at

Fahlman, A., S.K. Hooker, A. Olszowka, B.L. Bostrom, and D.R. Jones. 2009. Estimating the effect of lung collapse and pulmonary shunt on gas exchange during breath-hold diving: The Scholander and Kooyman legacy. Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology 165(1):28-39.

Fahlman, A., P.L. Tyack, P.J. Miller, and P.H. Kvadsheim. 2014. How man-made interference might cause gas bubble emboli in deep diving whales. Frontiers in Physiology 5:13.

Fahlman, A., J. van der Hoop, M.J. Moore, G. Levine, J. Rocho-Levine, and M. Brodsky. 2016. Estimating energetics in cetaceans from respiratory frequency: Why we need to understand physiology. Biology Open 5(4):436-442. doi: 10.1242/bio.017251.

Fair, P.A., T.C. Hulsey, R.A. Varela, and J.D. Goldstein. 2006. Hematology, serum chemistry, and cytology findings from apparently healthy Atlantic bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) inhabiting the estuarine waters of Charleston, South Carolina. Aquatic Mammals 32(2):182.

Falcone, E.A., G.S. Schorr, A.B. Douglas, J. Calambokidis, E. Henderson M.F. McKenna, J. Hildebrand, and D. Moretti. 2009. Sighting characteristics and photo-identification of Cuvier’s beaked whales (Ziphius cavirostris) near San Clemente Island, California: A key area for beaked whales and the military? Marine Biology 156:2631-2640.

Falke, K.J., R.D. Hill, J. Qvist, R.C. Schneider, M. Guppy, G.C. Liggins, P.W. Hochachka, R.E. Elliott, and W.M. Zapol. 1985. Seal lungs collapse during free diving: Evidence from arterial nitrogen tensions. Science 229(4713):556-558. doi: 10.1126/science.4023700.

Farina, M., J.B. Rocha, and M. Aschner. 2011. Mechanisms of methyl-mercury induced neurotoxicity: evidence from experimental studies. Life Sciences 89(15-16):553-563. doi: 10.1016/j.lfs.2011.05.019.Epub 2011 Jun 13.

Fearnbach, H., J. Durban, D. Ellifrit, K. Balcomb, and L. Barre. 2015. Aerial photogrammetry reveals declining body condition and impaired reproduction in endangered Southern Resident killer whales. 21st Biennial Conference on the Biology of Marine Mammals, San Francisco, CA, December 2015.

Feller, W. 1968. Introduction to Probability Theory and Its Application. New York: John Wiley & Sons.

Ferguson, S.H., I. Stirling, and P. McLoughlin. 2005. Climate change and ringed seal (Phoca hispida) recruitment in western Hudson Bay. Marine Mammal Science 21(1):121-135.

Fernández, A., J.F. Edwards, F. Rodriguez, A.E. De Los Monteros, P. Herraez, P. Castro, J.R. Jaber, V. Martin, and M. Arbelo. 2005. Gas and fat embolic syndrome involving a mass stranding of beaked whales (family Ziphiidae) exposed to anthropogenic sonar signals. Veterinary Pathology 42(4):446-457.

Fernández, A., E. Sierra, V. Martín, M. Méndez, S. Sacchini, Y. Bernaldo de Quiros, M.Andrada, M. Rivero, O. Quesada, M. Tejedor, and M. Arbelo. 2012. Last “atypical” beaked whales mass stranding in the Canary Islands (July, 2004). Journal of Marine Science: Research and Development 2:107.

Finneran, J.J. 2016. Auditory weighting functions and TTS/PTS exposure functions for marine mammals exposed to underwater noise. Pp. 38-110 in National Marine Fisheries Service. Technical Guidance for Assessing the Effects of Anthropogenic Sound on Marine Mammal Hearing: Underwater Acoustic Thresholds for Onset of Permanent and Temporary Threshold Shifts. U.S. Department of Commerce, NOAA. NOAA Technical Memorandum. NMFS-OPR-55.

Finneran, J.J., and D.S. Houser. 2007. Bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) steady-state evoked responses to multiple simultaneous sinusoidal amplitude modulated tones. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 121:1775-1782.

Finneran, J.J., and A.K. Jenkins. 2012. Criteria and Thresholds for U.S. Navy Acoustic and Explosive Effects Analysis. Technical Report. Available at

Finneran, J.J., and C.E. Schlundt. 2004. Effects of Intense Pure Tones on the Behavior of Trained Odontocetes. Technical Report 1913. SPAWAR Systems Center, San Diego, CA. Available at

Fire, S.E., Z. Wang, T.A. Leighfield, S.L. Morton, W.E. McFee, W.A. McLellan, R.W. Litaker, P.A. Tester, A.A. Hohn, G. Lovewell, C. Harms, D.S. Rotstein, S.G. Barco, A. Costidis, B. Sheppard, G.D. Bossart, M. Stolen, W.N. Durden, and F.M. Van Dolah. 2009. Domoic acid exposure in pygmy and dwarf sperm whales (Kogia spp.) from southeastern and mid-Atlantic U.S. waters. Harmful Algae 8(5):658.

Fisher, R.A. 1937. The Design of Experiments, 9th Ed. London: Macmillan.

Fleshler, M. 1965. Adequate acoustic stimulus for startle reaction in the cat. Journal of Comparative Physiological Psychology 60:200-207.

Fletcher, H. 1940. Auditory patterns. Reviews of Modern Physics 12:47-65.

Flewelling, L.J., J.P. Naar, J.P. Abbott, D.G. Baden, N.B. Barros, G.D. Bossart, M.Y.D. Bottein, D.G. Hammond, E.M. Haubold, C.A. Heil, M.S. Henry, H.M. Jacocks, T.A. Leighfield, R.H. Pierce, T.D. Pitchford, S.A. Rommel, P.S. Scott, K.A. Steidinger, E.W. Truby, F.M. Van Dolah, and J.H. Landsberg. 2005. Red tides and marine mammal mortalities. Nature 435:755-756.

Folt, C.L., C.Y. Chen, M.V. Moore, and J. Burnaford. 1999. Synergism and antagonism among multiple stressors. Limnology and Oceanography 44(3):865-877.

Forcada, J., P.N. Trathan, K. Reid, E.J. Murphy, and J.P. Croxall. 2006. Contrasting population changes in sympatric penguin species in association with climate warming. Global Change Biology 12(3):411-423.

Ford, J.K.B., G.M. Ellis, P.F. Olesiuk, and K.C. Balcomb. 2010. Linking killer whale survival and prey abundance: Food limitation in the oceans’ apex predator? Biology Letters 6:139-142.

Ford, M.J. 2013. Status Review Update of Southern Resident Killer Whales. Conservation Biology Division Northwest Fisheries Science Center, National Marine Fisheries Service.

Forney, K.A. 2000. Environmental models of cetacean abundance: Reducing uncertainty in population trends. Conservation Biology 14:1271-1286.

Fowles, J.R., A. Fairbrother, M. Fix, S. Schiller, and N. Kerkvliet. 1993. Glucocorticoid effects on natural and humoral immunity in mallards. Developmental & Comparative Immunology 17(2):165-177.

Francis, C.D. 2015. Vocal traits and diet explain avian sensitivities to anthropogenic noise. Global Change Biology 21:1809-1820.

Francis, C.D., and J.R. Barber. 2013. A framework for understanding noise impacts on wildlife: An urgent conservation priority. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 11:305-313.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Approaches to Understanding the Cumulative Effects of Stressors on Marine Mammals. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23479.

Francis, C.D., C.P. Ortega, and A. Cruz. 2009. Noise pollution changes avian communities and species interactions. Current Biology 19:1415-1419.

Francis, C.D., C.P. Ortega, R.I. Kennedy, and P.J. Nylander. 2012a. Are nest predators absent from noisy areas or unable to locate nests? Ornithological Monographs 74:101-110.

Francis, C.D., N.J. Kleist, C.P. Ortega, and A. Cruz. 2012b. Noise pollution alters ecological services: Enhanced pollination and disrupted seed dispersal. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 279:2727-2735.

Francis, R.C., and S.R. Hare. 1994. Decadal-scale regime shifts in the large marine ecosystems of the north-east Pacific: A case for historical science. Fisheries Oceanography 3(4):279-291.

Frankel, A.S., W.T. Ellison, and J. Buchanan. 2002. Application of the Acoustic Integration Model (AIM) to predict and minimize environmental impacts. Oceans’02 MTS/IEEE 3:1438-1443.

Frantzis, A. 1998. Does acoustic testing strand whales? Nature 392(6671):29.

French, S.S., M. González-Suárez, J.K. Young, S. Durham, and L.R. Gerber. 2011. Human disturbance influences reproductive success and growth rate in California sea lions (Zalophus californianus). PLoS ONE 6(3):e17686.

Frid, A., and L.M. Dill. 2002. Human-caused disturbance stimuli as a form of predation risk. Conservation Ecology 6(1):11.

Friedlaender, A.S., E.L. Hazen, J.A. Goldbogen, A.K. Stimpert, J. Calambokidis, and B.L. Southall. 2016. Prey-mediated behavioral responses of feeding blue whales in controlled sound exposure experiments. Ecological Applications 26(4):1075-1085.

Frisén, M. 2009. Optimal sequential surveillance for finance, public health and other areas. Sequential Analysis: Design Methods and Applications 28:310-337.

Fritts, H.C. 2012. Tree Rings and Climate. New York: Elsevier.

Fromm, D.M. 2009. Reconstruction of acoustic exposure on orcas in Haro Strait. NRL Review 2009:127-129.

Fuente, A., and B. McPherson. 2006. Organic solvents and hearing loss: The challenge for audiology. International Journal of Audiology 45:367-381.

Fujiwara, M., and H. Caswell. 2001. Demography of the endangered North Atlantic right whale. Nature 414(6863):537-541.

Gardner, S.C. and S. Chávez-Rosales. 2000. Changes in the relative abundance and distribution of gray whales (Eschrichtius robustus) in Magdalena Bay, Mexico during an El Niño event. Marine Mammal Science 16(4):728-738.

Gascon, M., E. Morales, J. Sunyer, and M. Vrijheid. 2013. Effects of persistent organic pollutants on the developing respiratory and immune systems: A systematic review. Environmental International 52:51-56.

Geiger, A.C., and C.J. Jeffries. 1987. Evaluation of seal harassment techniques to protect gill netted salmon. Acoustical Deterrents in Marine Mammal Conflicts with Fisheries 37−55. Workshop held February 17-18, 1986, Newport, Oregon.

Gennings, C., W.H. Carter, R.A. Carchman, L.K. Teuschler, J.F. Simmons, and E.W. Carney. 2005. A unifying concept for assessing toxicological interactions: Changes in slope. Toxicological Sciences 88(2):287-297.

George, J.C., M.L. Druckenmiller, K.L. Laidre, R. Suydam, and B. Person. 2015. Bowhead whale body condition and links to summer sea ice and upwelling in the Beaufort Sea. Progress in Oceanography 136:250-262.

Gerrodette, T. and W.G. Gilmartin. 1990. Demographic consequences of changed pupping and hauling sites of the Hawaiian monk seal. Conservation Biology 4(4):423-430.

Gibbons, A. 1990. What’s the sound of one ocean warming? Science 248(4951):33-34.

Gill, J.A., K. Norris, and W.J. Sutherland. 2001. Why behavioural responses may not reflect the population consequences of human disturbance. Biological Conservation 97:265-268.

Gillespie, A. 2010. Noise pollution, the oceans, and the limits of international law. Yearbook of International Environmental Law 21:114-139.

Gisiner, R., S. Harper, E. Livingston, and J. Simmen. 2006. Effects of Sound on the Marine Environment (ESME): An underwater noise risk model. IEEE Journal of Oceanic Engineering 138(4):1067-1081.

Gobush, K.S., R.K. Booth, and S.K. Wasser. 2014. Validation and application of noninvasive glucocorticoid and thyroid hormone measures in free-ranging Hawaiian monk seals. General and Comparative Endocrinology 195:174-182.

Goetz, K.T., D.J. Rugh, A.J. Read, and R.C. Hobbs. 2007. Habitat use in a marine ecosystem: Beluga whales Delphinapterus leucas in Cook Inlet, Alaska. Marine Ecology Progress Series 330:247-256.

Goldbogen, J.A., B.L. Southall, S.L. DeRuiter, J. Calambokidis, A.S. Friedlaender, E.L. Hazen, E.A. Falcone, G.S. Schorr, A. Douglas, D.J. Moretti, C. Kyburg, M.F. McKenna, and P.L. Tyack. 2013. Blue whales respond to simulated mid-frequency military sonar. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 280(1765):20130657.

Goldstein, T., J.A. Mazet, T.S. Zabka, G. Langlois, K.M. Colegrove, M. Silver, S. Bargu, F. Van Dolah, T. Leighfield, P.A. Conrad, J. Barakos, D.C. Williams, S. Dennison, M. Haulena, and F.M. Gulland. 2008. Novel symptomatology and changing epidemiology of domoic acid toxicosis in California sea lions (Zalophus californianus): An increasing risk to marine mammal health. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 275:267-276.

Goldstein, T., T.S. Zabka, R.L. Delong, E.A. Wheeler, G. Ylitalo, S. Bargu, M. Silver, T. Leighfield, F. Van Dolah, G. Langlois, I. Sidor, J.L. Dunn, and F.M. Gulland. 2009. The role of domoic acid in abortion and premature parturition of California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) on San Miguel Island, California. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 45:91-108.

Goldstein, T., I. Mena, S.J. Anthony, R. Medina, P.W. Robinson, D.J. Greig, D.P. Costa, W.I. Lipkin, A. Garcia-Sastre, and W.M. Boyce. 2013. Pandemic H1N1 influenza isolated from free-ranging northern elephant seals in 2010 off the central California coast. PLoS ONE 8(5):e62259.

Gordine, S.A., Fedak, M., and L. Boehme. 2015. Fishing for drifts: detecting buoyancy changes of a top marine predator using a step-wise filtering method. Journal of Experimental Biology 218:3816-3824.

Gotelli, N.J. 2008. A Primer of Ecology, 4th Ed. Sunderland, MA: Sinauer Associates.

Götz, T., and V.M. Janik. 2011. Repeated elicitation of the acoustic startle reflex leads to sensitisation in subsequent avoidance behaviour and induces fear conditioning. BMC Neuroscience 12:30.

Götz, T., and V.M. Janik. 2013. Acoustic deterrent devices to prevent pinniped depredation: Efficiency, conservation concerns and possible solutions. Marine Ecology: Progress Series 492:285-302.

Graham, A.L., D.M. Shuker, L.C. Pollitt, S.K. Auld, A.J. Wilson, and T.J. Little. 2011. Fitness consequences of immune responses: Strengthening the empirical framework for ecoimmunology. Functional Ecology 25(1):5-17.

Green, D.M. 1985. Temporal factors in psychoacoustics. Pp. 122-140 in Time Resolution in Auditory Systems. Berlin: Springer.

Greene, C.H., and A.J. Pershing. 2004. Climate and the conservation biology of North Atlantic right whales: The right whale at the wrong time? Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 2:29-34.

Greenland, S. 2007. Interactions in epidemiology: Relevance, identification, and estimation. Epidemiology 20:14-17.

Greig, D.J., F.M. Gulland, C.A. Rios, and A.J. Hall. 2010. Hematology and serum chemistry in stranded and wild-caught harbor seals in central California: Reference intervals, predictors of survival, and parameters affecting blood variables. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 46(4):1172-1184.

Grimes, C.B. 2001. Fishery production and the Mississippi River discharge. Fisheries 26(8):17-26.

Gross, K., G. Pasinelli, and H.P. Kunc. 2010. Behavioral plasticity allows short-term adjustment to a novel environment. American Naturalist 176(4):456-464.

Groves, P.M., and R.F. Thompson. 1970. Habituation: A dual-process theory. Psychological Review 77(5):419-450.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Approaches to Understanding the Cumulative Effects of Stressors on Marine Mammals. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23479.

Gulland, F.M.D., and A.J. Hall. 2007. Is marine mammal health deteriorating? Trends in the global reporting of marine mammal disease. EcoHealth 4:135-150.

Gulland, F.M.D., M. Haulena, D. Fauquier, G. Langlois, M.E. Lander, T. Zabka, and R. Duerr. 2002. Domoic acid toxicity in Californian sea lions (Zalophus californianus): Clinical signs, treatment and survival. Veterinary Record 150:475-480.

Gulland, F.M.D., A.J. Hall, D.J. Greig, E.R. Frame, K.M. Colegrove, R.K. Booth, S K. Wasser, and J.C. Scott-Moncrieff. 2012. Evaluation of circulating eosinophil count and adrenal gland function in California sea lions naturally exposed to domoic acid. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 241:943-949.

Guzmán-Verri, C., R. González-Barrientos, G. Hernández-Mora, J.-A. Morales, E. Baquero-Calvo, E. Chavez-Olarte, and E. Moreno. 2012. Brucella ceti and brucellosis in cetaceans. Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology 2:1-22. doi: 10.3389/fcimb.2012.00003.

Habib, L., E.M. Bayne, and S. Boutin. 2007. Chronic industrial noise affects pairing success and age structure of ovenbirds Seiurus aurocapilla. Journal of Applied Ecology 44(1):176-184.

Halfwerk, W., L.J.M. Holleman, C.M. Lessells, and H. Slabbekoorn. 2011. Negative impact of traffic noise on avian reproductive success. Journal of Applied Ecology 48:210-219.

Hall, A., C. Duck, P. Hammond, G. Hastie, E. Jones, B. McConnell, C. Morris, J. Onoufriou, P. Pomeroy, D. Thompson, D. Russell, S. Smout, L. Wilson, and P. Thompson. 2015. Harbour Seal Decline Workshop II. Sea Mammal Research Unit, University of St. Andrews, Report to Scottish Government, no CSD6, St. Andrews, 12 pp. Available at

Hall, A.J., and E. Frame. 2010. Evidence of domoic acid exposure in harbour seals from Scotland: A potential factor in the decline in abundance? Harmful Algae 9:489-493.

Hall, A.J., R.J. Law, D.E. Wells, J. Harwood, H.M. Ross, S. Kennedy, C.R. Allchin, L.A. Campbell, and P.P. Pomeroy. 1992. Organochlorine levels in common seals (Phoca vitulina) which were victims and survivors of the 1988 Phocine Distemper Epizootic. Science of the Total Environment 115:145-162.

Hall, A.J., K. Hugunin, R. Deaville, R.J. Law, C.R. Allchin, and P.D. Jepson. 2006. The risk of infection from polychlorinated biphenyl exposure in the harbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena): A case-control approach. Environmental Health Perspectives 114(5):704-711.

Hall, A.J., G.O. Thomas, and B.J. McConnell. 2009. Exposure to persistent organic pollutants and first-year survival probability in gray seal pups. Environmental Science and Technology 43:6364-6369.

Halpern, B.S., K.A. Selkoe, F. Micheli, and C.V. Kappel. 2007. Evaluating and ranking the vulnerability of global marine ecosystems to anthropogenic threats. Conservation Biology 21:1301-1315.

Halpern, B.S., S. Walbridge, K.A. Selkoe, C.V. Kappel, F. Micheli, C. D’Agrosa, J.F. Bruno, K.S. Casey, C. Ebert, H.E. Fox, R. Fujita, D. Heinemann, H.S. Lenihan, E.M.P. Madin, M.T. Perry, E.R. Selig, M. Spalding, R. Steneck, and R. Watson. 2008. A global map of human impact on marine ecosystems. Science 319:948-952.

Hammond, J.A., A.J. Hall, and E.A. Dyrynda. 2005. Comparison of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) induced effects on innate immune functions in harbour and grey seals. Aquatic Toxicology 74(2):126-138.

Hammond, P.S., P. Berggren, H. Benke, D.L. Borchers, A. Collet, M.P. Heide-Jørgensen, S. Heimlich, A.R. Hiby, M.F. Leopold, and N. Øien. 2002. Abundance of harbour porpoises and other cetaceans in the North Sea and adjacent waters. Journal of Applied Ecology 39:361-376.

Hanson, N.N., D. Thompson, C.D. Duck, S. Moss, and M. Lonergan. 2013. Pup mortality in a rapidly declining harbour seal (Phoca vitulina) population. PLoS ONE 8(11):e80727.

Hanson, N.N., D. Thompson, C.D. Duck, J. Baxter, and M.E. Lonergan. 2015. Harbour seal (Phoca vitulina) abundance within the Firth of Tay and Eden Estuary, Scotland: Recent trends and extrapolation to extinction. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems. doi: 10.1002/aqc.2609.

Hare, S.R., and N.J. Mantua. 2000. Empirical evidence for North Pacific regime shifts in 1977 and 1989. Progress in Oceanography 47(2):103-145.

Harris, C.M., and L. Thomas. 2015. Status and Future of Research on the Behavioral Responses of Marine Mammals to U.S. Navy Sonar. CREEM Technical Report 2015-3, University of St. Andrews. Available at

Harris, C.M., D. Sadykova, S.L. DeRuiter, P.L. Tyack, P.J.O. Miller, P.H. Kvadsheim, F.P.A. Lam, and L. Thomas. 2015. Dose response severity functions for acoustic disturbance in cetaceans using recurrent event survival analysis. Ecosphere 6(11):236.

Hart, L.B., D.S. Rotstein, R.S. Wells, J. Allen, A. Barleycorn, B.C. Balmer, S.M. Lane, T. Speakman, E.S. Zolman, M. Stolen, W. McFee, T. Goldstein, T.K. Rowles, and L. Schwacke. 2012. Skin lesions on common bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) from three sites in the Northwest Atlantic, USA. PLoS ONE 7(3):e33081.

Harvell, C.D., C.E. Mitchell, J.R. Ward, S. Altizer, A.P. Dobson, R.S. Ostfeld, and M.D. Samuel. 2002. Climate warming and disease risks for terrestrial and marine biota. Science 296(5576):2158-2162.

Harvey, B.P., D. Gwynn-Jones, and P.J. Moore. 2013. Meta-analysis reveals complex marine biological responses to the interactive effects of ocean acidification and warming. Ecology and Evolution 3(4):1016-1030.

Harvey, P.W. 2016. Adrenocortical endocrine disruption. Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology 155:199-206.

Harwood, J. 1992. Assessing the competitive effects of marine mammal predation on commercial fisheries. South African Journal of Marine Science 12(1):689-693.

Harwood, J. 2001. Marine mammals and their environment in the twenty-first century. Journal of Mammalogy 82(3):630-640.

Harwood, L.A., T.G. Smith, and H. Melling. 2000. Variation in reproduction and body condition of the ringed seal (Phoca hispida) in western Prince Albert Sound, NT, Canada, as assessed through a harvest-based sampling program. Arctic 53(4):422-431.

Hatch, L.T., C.W. Clark, S.M. Van Parijs, A.S. Frankel, and D.W. Ponirakis. 2012. Quantifying loss of acoustic communication space for right whales in and around a U.S. National Marine Sanctuary. Conservation Biology 26:983-994.

Heithaus, M.R. 2001. Shark attacks on bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops aduncus) in Shark Bay, Western Australia: Attack rate, bite scar frequencies, and attack seasonality. Marine Mammal Science 17(3):526-539.

Hildebrand, J.A. 2009. Anthropogenic and natural sources of ambient noise in the ocean. Marine Ecology Progress Series 395:5-20.

Hobbs, R.C., D.J. Rugh, and D.P. DeMaster. 2000. Abundance of belugas, Delphinapterus leucas, in Cook Inlet, Alaska. 1994-2000. Marine Fisheries Review 62:37-45.

Hohn, A.A., M.D. Scott, R.S. Wells, J.C. Sweeney, and A.B. Irvine. 1989. Growth layers in teeth from known-age, free-ranging bottlenose dolphins. Marine Mammal Science 5(4):315-342.

Holt, M.M., D.P. Noren, V. Veirs, C.K. Emmons, and S. Veirs. 2009. Speaking up: Killer whales (Orcinus orca) increase their call amplitude in response to vessel noise. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 125:EL27.

Holt, M.M., D.P. Noren, R.C. Dunkin, and T.M. Williams. 2015. Vocal performance affects metabolic rate in dolphins: Implications for animals communicating in noisy environments. Journal of Experimental Biology 218:1647-1654.

Hooker, S.K., I.L. Boyd, M. Jessopp, O. Cox, J. Blackwell, P.L. Boveng, and J.L. Bengtson. 2002. Monitoring the prey-field of marine predators: Combining digital imaging with datalogging tags. Marine Mammal Science 18(3):680-697.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Approaches to Understanding the Cumulative Effects of Stressors on Marine Mammals. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23479.

Hooker, S.K., A. Fahlman, M.J. Moore, N. Aguilar de Soto, Y. Bernaldo de Quirós, A.O. Brubakk, D.P. Costa, A.M. Costidis, S. Dennison, K.J. Falke, A. Fernandez, M. Ferrigno, J.R. Fitz-Clarke, M.M. Garner, D.S. Houser, P.D. Jepson, D.R. Ketten, P.H. Kvadsheim, P.T. Madsen, N.W. Pollock, D.S. Rotstein, T.K. Rowles, S.E. Simmons, W. Van Bonn, P.K. Weathersby, M.J. Weise, T.M. Williams, and P.L. Tyack. 2012. Deadly diving? Physiological and behavioural management of decompression stress in diving mammals. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 279(1731):1041-1050.

Horning, M. and R.D. Hill. 2005. Designing an archival satellite transmitter for life-long deployments on oceanic vertebrates: The life history transmitter. IEEE Journal of Oceanic Engineering 30(4):807-817.

Horning, M., and J.A.E. Mellish. 2014. In cold blood: Evidence of Pacific sleeper shark (Somniosus pacificus) predation on Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus) in the Gulf of Alaska. Available at

Horning, M., M. Haulena, P.A. Tuomi, and J.A.E. Mellish. 2008. Intraperitoneal implantation of life-long telemetry transmitters in otariids. BMC Veterinary Research 4:51.

Houde, M., P.F. Hoekstra, K.R. Solomon, and D.C. Muir. 2005. Organohalogen contaminants in delphinoid cetaceans. Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 184:1-57.

Houde, M., G. Pacepavicius, C. Darling, P.A. Fair, M. Alaee, G.D. Bossart, K.R. Solomon, R.J. Letcher, A. Bergman, G. Marsh, and D.C. Muir. 2009. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers and their hydroxylated analogs in plasma of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) from the United States east coast. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 28(10):2061-2068.

Houser, D.S., D.A. Helweg, and P.W.B. Moore. 2001. A bandpass filter-bank model of auditory sensitivity in the humpback whale. Aquatic Mammals 27:82-91.

Houser, D.S., S.W. Martin, and J.J. Finneran. 2013a. Behavioral responses of California sea lions to mid-frequency (3250-3450 Hz) sonar signals. Marine Environmental Research 92:268-278.

Houser, D.S., S.W. Martin, and J.J. Finneran. 2013b. Exposure amplitude and repetition affect bottlenose dolphin behavioral responses to simulated mid-frequency sonar signals. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 443:123-133.

Hua, F., K.E. Sieving, R.J. Fletcher, and C.A. Wright. 2014. Increased perception of predation risk to adults and offspring alters avian reproductive strategy and performance. Behavioral Ecology 25:509-519.

Huang, S.-L., L.-S. Chou, N.-T. Shih, and I.-H Ni. 2011. Implication of life history strategies for prenatal investment in cetaceans. Marine Mammal Science 27:182-194. doi: 10.1111/j.1748-7692.2010.00392.x.

Huber, M., J.A. Knottnerus, L. Green, H. van der Horst, A.R. Jadad, D. Kromhout, B. Leonard, K. Lorig, M.I. Loureiro, J.W. van der Meer, P. Schnabel, R. Smith, C. van Weel, and H. Smid. 2011. How should we define health? British Medical Journal 343(7817):235-237.

Hughes, T.P. 1994. Catastrophes, phase shifts, and large-scale degradation of a Caribbean coral reef. Science 265(5178):1547-1551.

Hunsicker, M.E, C.V. Kappel, K.A. Selkoe, B.S. Halpern, C. Scarborough, L. Mease, and A. Amrhein. 2016. Characterizing driver-response relationships in marine pelagic ecosystems for improved ocean management. Ecological Applications 26(3):651-663.

Hunt, K.E., M.J. Moore, R.M. Rolland, N.M. Kellar, A.J. Hall, J. Kershaw, S.A. Raverty, C.E. Davis, L.C. Yeates, D.A. Fauquier, T.K. Rowles, and S.D. Kraus. 2013. Overcoming the challenges of studying conservation physiology in large whales: A review of available methods. Conservation Physiology 1:1-24.

Hunt, K.E., R. Stimmelmayr, C. George, C. Hanns, R. Suydam, H. Brower, and R.M. Rolland. 2014. Baleen hormones: A novel tool for retrospective assessment of stress and reproduction in bowhead whales (Balaena mysticetus). Conservation Physiology 2(1):cou030.

Hyrenbach, K.D., K.A. Forney, and P.K. Dayton. 2000. Marine protected areas and ocean basin management. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems 10:437-458.

Inoue, Y., T. Itou, T. Sakai, and T. Oike. 1999. Cloning and sequencing of a bottle-nosed dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) interleukin-4-encoding cDNA. Journal of Veterinary Medical Science 61(6):693-696.

IOM (Institute of Medicine) and NRC (National Research Council). 2009. Sustaining Global Surveillance and Response to Emerging Zoonotic Diseases. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.

Isaksson, C., B.C. Sheldon, and T. Uller. 2011. The challenges of integrating oxidative stress into life-history biology. BioScience 61(3):194-202.

Isojunno, S., C. Curé, P.H. Kvadsheim, F.-P.A. Lam, P.L. Tyack, P.J. Wensveen, and P.J.O. Miller. 2016. Sperm whales reduce foraging effort during exposure to 1–2 kHz sonar and killer whale sounds. Ecological Applications 26(1):77-93.

Jackson, M.C., C.J. Loewen, R.D. Vinebrooke, and C.T. Chimimba. 2016. Net effects of multiple stressors in freshwater ecosystems: A meta-analysis. Global Change Biology 22(1):180-189.

Jacobson, J.L. and S.W. Jacobson. 1996. Intellectual impairment in children exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls in utero. New England Journal of Medicine 335:783-789.

Jadad, A.R., and L. O’Grady. 2008. How should health be defined? British Medical Journal 337(7683):1363-1364.

Jefferson, T.A., and B.E. Curry. 1996. Acoustic methods of reducing or eliminating marine mammal interactions with fisheries: Do they work? Ocean & Coastal Management 31(1):41-70.

Jefferson, T.A., P.J. Stacey, and R.W. Baird. 1991. A review of killer whale interactions with other marine mammals: Predation to co-existence. Mammal Review 21(4):151-180.

Jensen, S.-K., J.-P. Lacaze, G. Hermann, J. Kershaw, A. Brownlow, A. Turner, and A.J. Hall. 2015. Detection and effects of harmful algal toxins in Scottish harbour seals and potential links to population decline. Toxicon 97:1-14.

Jenssen, B.M. 2006. Endocrine-disrupting chemicals and climate change: A worst-case combination for arctic marine mammals and seabirds? Environmental Health Perspectives 114(Suppl. 1):76-80.

Jepson, P.D., M. Arbelo, R. Deaville, I.A.P. Patterson, P. Castro, J.R. Baker, E. Degollada, H.M. Ross, P. Herraez, A.M. Pocknell, F. Rodriguez, F.E. Howiell, A. Espinosa, R.J. Reid, J.R. Jaber, V. Martin, A.A. Cunningham, and A. Fernández. 2003. Gas-bubble lesions in stranded animals: Was sonar responsible for a spate of whale deaths after an Atlantic military exercise? Nature 425(6958):575-576.

Jepson, P.D., P.M. Bennett, R. Deaville, C.R. Allchin, J.R. Baker, and R.J. Law. 2005. Relationships between polychlorinated biphenyls and health status in harbor porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) stranded in the United Kingdom. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 24(1):238-248.

Jewell, R., L. Thomas, C.M. Harris, K. Kaschner, R. Wiff, P.S. Hammond, and N.J. Quick. 2012. Global analysis of cetacean line-transect surveys: Detecting trends in cetacean density. Marine Ecology Progress Series 453:227-240.

Jiang, M., M.W. Brown, J.T. Turner, R.D. Kenney, C.A. Mayo, Z. Zhang, and M. Zhou. 2007. Springtime transport and retention of Calanus finmarchicus in Massachusetts and Cape Cod Bays, USA, and implications for right whale foraging. Marine Ecology Progress Series 349:183-197.

Johnson, A.C., P. Nylen, E. Borg, and G. Hoglund. 1990. Sequence of exposure to noise and toluene can determine loss of auditory sensitivity in the rat. Acta Otolaryngologica 109:34-40.

Johnson, C.K., M.T. Tinker, J.A. Estes, P.A. Conrad, M. Staedler, M.A. Miller, D.A. Jessup, and J.A.K. Mazet. 2009. Prey choice and habitat use drive sea otter pathogen exposure in a resource-limited coastal system. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 106(7):2242-2247.

Johnson, M., and P.L. Tyack. 2003. A digital acoustic recording tag for measuring the response of wild marine mammals to sound. IEEE Journal of Oceanic Engineering 28:3-12.

Kajiwara, N., S. Kamikawa, K. Ramu, D. Ueno, T.K. Yamada, A. Subramanian, P.K. Lam, T.A. Jefferson, M. Prudente, K.H. Chung, and S. Tanabe. 2006. Geographical distribution of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and organochlorines in small cetaceans from Asian waters. Chemosphere 64:287-295.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Approaches to Understanding the Cumulative Effects of Stressors on Marine Mammals. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23479.

Kakuschke, A., and A. Prange. 2007. The influence of metal pollution on the immune system a potential stressor for marine mammals in the North Sea. International Journal of Comparative Psychology 20:179-193.

Karl, D.M., R. Letelier, D. Hebel, L. Tupas, J. Dore, J. Christian, and C. Winn. 1995. Ecosystem changes in the North Pacific subtropical gyre attributed to the 1991–92 El Niño. Nature 373:230-234.

Kastak, D., J. Mulsow, A. Ghoul, and C. Reichmuth. 2008. Noise-induced permanent threshold shift in a harbor seal. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 123:2986.

Kastelein, R.A., N. Steen, C. de Jong, P.J. Wensveen, and W.C. Verboom. 2011. Effect of broadband-noise masking on the behavioral response of a harbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) to 1-s duration 6–7 kHz sonar up-sweeps. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 129:2307-2315.

Kastelein, R.A., N. Steen, R. Gransier, P.J. Wensveen, and C.A.F. de Jong. 2012. Threshold received sound pressure levels of single 1–2 kHz and 6–7 kHz up-sweeps and down-sweeps causing startle responses in a harbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena). Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 131:2325-2333.

Kastelein, R.A., R. Gransier, M. van den Hoogen, and L. Hoek. 2013. Brief behavioral response threshold levels of a harbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) to five helicopter dipping sonar signals (1.33 to 1.43 kHz). Aquatic Mammals 39:162-173.

Keenan, R.E. 2000. An introduction to GRAB eigenrays and CASS reverberation and signal excess. Pp. 1065-1070 in Oceans 2000 MTS/IEEE Conference & Exhibition, Volume 2. New York: IEEE.

Kellar, N.M., M.L. Trego, C.I. Marks, and A.E. Dizon. 2006. Determining pregnancy from blubber in three species of delphinids. Marine Mammal Science 22:1-16.

Kenet, T., R.C. Froemke, C.E. Schreiner, I.N. Pessah, and M.M. Merzenich. 2007. Perinatal exposure to a noncoplanar polychlorinated biphenyl alters tonotopy, receptive fields, and plasticity in rat primary auditory cortex. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 104(18):7646-7651.

Ketten, D.R., J. Lien, and S. Todd. 1993. Blast injury in humpback whale ears: Evidence and implication. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 94:1849-1850.

Khudyakov, J.I., C.D. Champagne, L. Preeyanon, R.M. Ortiz, and D.E. Crocker. 2015. Muscle transcriptome response to ACTH administration in a free-ranging marine mammal. Physiological Genomics 47(8):318-330.

Kight, C.R., M.S. Saha, and J.P. Swaddle. 2012. Anthropogenic noise is associated with reductions in the productivity of breeding eastern bluebirds (Sialia sialis). Ecological Applications 22:1989-1996.

Killen, S.S., S. Marras, N.B. Metcalfe, D.J. McKenzie, and P. Domenici. 2013. Environmental stressors alter relationships between physiology and behaviour. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 28:623-680.

Kindig, D., and G. Stoddart. 2003. What is population health? American Journal of Public Health 93(3):380-383.

King, D.P., M.D. Schrenzel, M.L. McKnight, T.H. Reidarson, K.D. Hanni, J.L. Stott, and D.A. Ferrick. 1996. Molecular cloning and sequencing of interleukin 6 cDNA fragments from the harbor seal (Phoca vitulina), killer whale (Orcinus orca), and Southern sea otter (Enhydra lutris nereis). Immunogenetics 43(4):190-195.

King, D.P., J.L. Sanders, C.T. Nomura, R.A. Stoddard, C.L. Ortiz, and S.W. Evans. 1998. Ontogeny of humoral immunity in northern elephant seal (Mirounga angustirostris) neonates. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology B 121:363-368.

King, S.L., R.S. Schick, C. Donovan, C.G. Booth, M. Burgman, L. Thomas, and J. Harwood. 2015. An interim framework for assessing the population consequences of disturbance. Methods in Ecology and Evolution 6:1150-1158.

Kitaysky, A., J. Piatt, and J. Wingfield. 2007. Stress hormones link food availability and population processes in seabirds. Marine Ecology Progress Series 352:245-258.

Klein, S.C., and M.E. Peterson. 2010. Canine hypoadrenocorticism: Part 1. Canine Veterinary Journal 51:63-69.

Knowlton, A.R., P.K. Hamilton, M.K. Marx, H.M. Pettis, and S.D. Kraus. 2012. Monitoring North Atlantic right whale Eubalaena glacialis entanglement rates: A 30 year retrospective. Marine Ecology: Progress Series 466:293-302.

Knowlton, N. 2004. Multiple “stable” states and the conservation of marine ecosystems. Progress in Oceanography 60(2):387-396.

Kooyman, G.L. 1985. Physiology without restraint in diving mammals. Marine Mammal Science 1(2):166-178.

Kooyman, G.L., and P.J. Ponganis. 1998. The physiological basis of diving to depth: Birds and mammals. Annual Review of Physiology 60(1):19-32.

Kovacs, K.M., and C. Lydersen. 2008. Climate change impacts on seals and whales in the North Atlantic Arctic and adjacent shelf seas. Science Progress 91(2):117-150.

Kovacs, K.M., C. Lydersen, J.E. Overland, and S.E. Moore. 2011. Impacts of changing sea-ice conditions on Arctic marine mammals. Marine Biodiversity 41(1):181-194.

Kraus, S.D., and R. Rolland. 2007. The Urban Whale: North Atlantic Right Whales at the Crossroads. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Kraus, S.D., M.W. Brown, H. Caswell, C.W. Clark, M. Fujiwara, P.K. Hamilton, R.D. Kenney, A.R. Knowlton, S. Landry, C.A. Mayo, W.A. McLellan, M.J. Moore, D.P. Nowacek, D.A. Pabst, A.J. Read, and R.M. Rolland. 2005. North Atlantic right whales in crisis. Science 309:561-562.

Kucklick, J., L. Schwacke, R. Wells, A. Hohn, A. Guichard, J. Yordy, L. Hansen, E. Zolman, R. Wilson, J. Litz, D. Nowacek, T. Rowles, R. Pugh, B. Balmer, C. Sinclair, and P. Rosel. 2011. Bottlenose dolphins as indicators of persistent organic pollutants in the western North Atlantic Ocean and northern Gulf of Mexico. Environmental Science & Technology 45:4270-4277.

Kuehl, D.W., R. Haebler, and C. Potter. 1991. Chemical residues in dolphins from the United States Atlantic Coast including Atlantic bottlenose obtained during the 1987/88 mass mortality. Chemosphere 22:1071-1084.

Kuitunen, M., E. Rossi, and A. Stenroos. 1998. Do highways influence density of land birds? Environmental Management 22:297-302.

Kujawa, S.G., and M.C. Liberman, 2006. Acceleration of age-related hearing loss by early noise exposure: Evidence of a misspent youth. Journal of Neuroscience 26(7):2115-2123.

Kvadsheim, P.H., P.J.O. Miller, P.L. Tyack, L.D. Sivle, F.P.A. Lam, and A. Fahlman. 2012. Estimated tissue and blood N2 levels and risk of in vivo bubble formation in deep-, intermediate- and shallow diving toothed whales during exposure to naval sonar. Frontiers in Aquatic Physiology 3(125):1-14.

Lafferty, K.D., J.W. Porter, and S.E. Ford. 2004. Are diseases increasing in the ocean? Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics 35:31-54.

Lagardère, J.P. 1982. Effects of noise on growth and reproduction of Crangon crangon in rearing tanks. Marine Biology 71(2):177-185.

Laidre, K.L., H. Stern, K.M. Kovacs, L. Lowry, S.E. Moore, E.V. Regehr, S.H. Ferguson, Ø.Wiig, P. Boveng, R.P. Angliss, E.W. Born, D. Litovka, L. Quakenbush, C. Lydersen, D. Vongraven, and F. Ugarte. 2015. Arctic marine mammal population status, sea ice habitat loss, and conservation recommendations for the 21st century. Conservation Biology 29:724-737.

Laist, D.W., A.R. Knowlton, J.G. Mead, A.S. Collet, and M. Podesta. 2001. Collisions between ships and whales. Marine Mammal Science 17:35-75.

Lane, S.M., C.R. Smith, J. Mitchell, B.C. Balmer, K.P. Barry, T. McDonald, C.S. Mori, P.E. Rosel, T.K. Rowles, T.R. Speakman, and F.I. Townsend. 2015. Reproductive outcome and survival of common bottlenose dolphins sampled in Barataria Bay, Louisiana, USA, following the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 282(1818):20151944.

Lataye, R., and P. Campo. 1997. Combined effects of a simultaneous exposure to noise and toluene on hearing function. Neurotoxicology Teratology 19:373-382.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Approaches to Understanding the Cumulative Effects of Stressors on Marine Mammals. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23479.

Lataye, R., P. Campo, and G. Loquet. 2000. Combined effects of noise and styrene exposure on hearing function in the rat. Hearing Research 139:86-96.

Le Boeuf, B.J., and D.E. Crocker. 2005. Ocean climate and seal condition. BMC Biology 3(1):1.

Leaper, R., J. Cooke, P. Trathan, K. Reid, V. Rowntree, and R. Payne. 2006. Global climate drives southern right whale (Eubalaena australis) population dynamics. Biology Letters 2(2):289-292.

Lercher, P., G.W. Evans, and M. Meis. 2003. Ambient noise and cognitive processes among primary schoolchildren. Environment and Behavior 35:725-735.

Levin, M., S. De Guise, and P.S. Ross. 2005. Association between lymphocyte proliferation and polychlorinated biphenyls in free-ranging harbor seal (Phoca vitulina) pups from British Columbia, Canada. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 24(5):1247-1252.

Levin, P.S., and C. Möllmann. 2015. Marine ecosystem regime shifts: Challenges and opportunities for ecosystem-based management. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences 370(1659): 20130275.

Levin, P.S., M.J. Fogarty, S.A. Murawski, and D. Fluharty. 2009. Integrated ecosystem assessments: Developing the scientific basis for ecosystem-based management of the ocean. PLoS ONE Biology 7(1):e1000014.

Levin, P.S., C.R. Kelble, R.L. Shuford, C. Ainsworth, R. Dunsmore, M.J. Fogarty, K. Holsman, E.A. Howell, M.E. Monaco, S.A. Oakes, and F. Werner. 2014. Guidance for implementation of integrated ecosystem assessments: A US perspective. ICES Journal of Marine Science 71(5):1198-1204.

Lewison, R.L., L.B. Crowder, B.P. Wallace, J.E. Moore, T. Cox, R. Zydelis, S. McDonald, A. DiMatteo, D.C. Dunn, C.Y. Kot, and R. Bjorkland. 2014. Global patterns of marine mammal, seabird, and sea turtle bycatch reveal taxa-specific and cumulative megafauna hotspots. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 111(14):5271-5276.

Lewontin, R.C. 1969. The meaning of stability. Pp. 13-24 in Diversity and Stability in Ecological Systems, G.W. Woodwell and H.H. Smith, eds. Upton, NY: Brookhaven National Laboratory.

Lie, E., H.J. Larsen, S. Larsen, G.M. Johansen, A.E. Derocher, N.J. Lunn, R.J. Norstrom, Ø. Wiig, and J.U. Skaare. 2004. Does high organochlorine (OC) exposure impair the resistance to infection in polar bears (Ursus maritimus)? Part I: Effect of OCs on the humoral immunity. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health A 67(7):555-582.

Lie, E., H.J. Larsen, S. Larsen, G.M. Johansen, A.E. Derocher, N.J. Lunn, R.J. Norstrom, Ø. Wiig, and J.U. Skaare. 2005. Does high organochlorine (OC) exposure impair the resistance to infection in polar bears (Ursus maritimus)? Part II: Possible effect of OCs on mitogen- and antigen-induced lymphocyte proliferation. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health A 68(6):457-484.

Lilienthal, H., P. Heikkinen, P.L. Andersson, L.T.M. van der Ven, and M. Viluksela. 2011. Auditory effects of developmental exposure to purity-controlled polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB52 and PCB180) in rats. Toxicological Sciences 122(1):100-111.

Lindenmayer, D.B., and G.E. Likens. 2009. Adaptive monitoring: A new paradigm for long-term research and monitoring. Trends in Ecology & Evolution 24:482-486.

Lioy, P.J., and S.M. Rappaport. 2011. Exposure science and the exposome: An opportunity for coherence in the environmental health sciences. Environmental Health Perspectives 119(11):A466-A467.

Lochmiller, R.L., and C. Deerenberg. 2000. Trade-offs in evolutionary immunology: Just what is the cost of immunity? Oikos 88(1):87-98.

Logan, D.C. 2009. Known knowns, known unknowns, unknown unknowns and the propagation of scientific enquiry. Journal of Experimental Botany 60(3):712-714.

Løkkeborg, S., E. Ona, A. Vold, and A. Salthaug. 2012. Sounds from seismic air guns: Gear- and species-specific effects on catch rates and fish distribution. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science 69(8):1278-1291.

Lonergan, M., C.D. Duck, D. Thompson, B.L. Mackey, L. Cunningham, and I.L. Boyd. 2007. Using sparse survey data to investigate the declining abundance of British harbour seals. Journal of Zoology 271:261-269.

Lucke, K., U. Siebert, P.A. Lepper, and M. A. Blanchet. 2009. Temporary shift in masked hearing thresholds in a harbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) after exposure to seismic airgun stimuli. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 125:4060-4070.

Luebke, R.W., C. Parks, and M.I. Luster. 2004. Suppression of immune function and susceptibility to infections in humans: Association of immune function with clinical disease. Journal of Immunotoxicology 1(1):15-24.

Lundquist, D., M. Sironi, B. Würsig, V. Rowntree, J. Martino, and L. Lundquist. 2013. Response of southern right whales to simulated swim-with-whale tourism at Península Valdés, Argentina. Marine Mammal Science 29(2):E24-E45.

Lusseau, D., and L. Bejder. 2007. The long-term consequences of short-term responses to disturbance experiences from whalewatching impact assessment. International Journal of Comparative Psychology 20:228-236.

Lusseau, D., E. Slooten, and R.J.C. Currey. 2006. Unsustainable dolphin-watching tourism in Fiordland, New Zealand. Tourism in Marine Environments 3:173-178.

Lusseau, D., L. New, C. Donovan, B. Cheney, G. Hastie, and J. Harwood. 2012. The Development of a Framework to Understand and Predict the Population Consequences of Disturbances for the Moray Firth Bottlenose Dolphin Population. Scottish Natural Heritage Commissioned Report No. 468. Available at

Madsen, P.T., B. Møhl, B.K. Nielsen, and M. Wahlberg. 2002. Male sperm whale behaviour during exposures to distant seismic survey pulses. Aquatic Mammals 28(3):231-240.

Madsen, P.T., M. Wahlberg, J. Tougaard, K. Lucke, and P. Tyack. 2006. Wind turbine underwater noise and marine mammals: Implications of current knowledge and data needs. Marine Ecology: Progress Series 309:279-295.

Mäkitie, A.A., U. Pirvola, I. Pyykkö, H. Sakakibara, V. Riihimäki, and J. Ylikoski. 2003. The ototoxic interaction of styrene and noise. Hearing Research 179(1-2):9-20.

Malme, C.I., P.R. Miles, C.W. Clark, P. Tyack, and J.E. Bird. 1983. Investigations of the Potential Effects of Underwater Noise from Petroleum Industry Activities on Migrating Gray Whale Behavior. Report No. 5366. Prepared by: Bolt Beranek and Newman Inc. for Minerals Management Service Alaska OCS Office. NTIS PB86-174174.

Malme, C.I., P.R. Miles, C.W. Clark, P. Tyack, and J.E. Bird. 1984. Investigations of the Potential Effects of Underwater Noise from Petroleum Industry Activities on Migrating Gray Whale Behavior. Phase II: January 1984 Migration. Report No. 5586. Prepared by Bolt Beranek and Newman Inc. for Minerals Management Service Alaska OCS Office. NTIS PB86-218377.

Mancia, A., M.L. Lundqvist, T.A. Romano, M.M. Peden-Adams, P.A. Fair, M.S. Kindy, B.C. Ellis, S. Gattoni-Celli, D.J. McKillen, H.F. Trent, Y.A. Chen, J.S. Almeida, P.S. Gross, R.W. Chapman, and G.W. Warr. 2007. A dolphin peripheral blood leukocyte cDNA microarray for studies of immune function and stress reactions. Developmental & Comparative Immunology 31(5):520-529.

Mann, D. A., Z. Lu, M.C. Hastings, and A.N. Popper. 1998. Detection of ultrasonic tones and simulated dolphin echolocation clicks by a teleost fish, the American shad (Alosa sapidissima). Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 104(1):562-568.

Marques, T.A., L. Thomas, S.W. Martin, D.K. Mellinger, J.A. Ward, D.J. Moretti, D. Harris, and P.L. Tyack. 2013. Estimating animal population density using passive acoustics. Biological Reviews 88(2):287-309.

Martin, L.B., E. Andreassi, W. Watson, and C. Coon. 2011. Stress and animal health: Physiological mechanisms and ecological consequences. Nature Education Knowledge 3(6):11.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Approaches to Understanding the Cumulative Effects of Stressors on Marine Mammals. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23479.

Martin, T., M. Burgman, F. Fidler, P. Kuhnert, S. Low-Choy, M. McBride, and K. Mengersen. 2012. Eliciting expert knowledge in conservation science. Conservation Biology 26:29-38.

Martineau, D. 2007. Potential synergism between stress and contaminants in free-ranging cetaceans. International Journal of Comparative Psychology 20:194-216.

Mason, J.T., C.J.W. McClure, and J.R. Barber. 2016. Anthropogenic noise impairs owl hunting behavior. Biological Conservation 199: 29-32.

Mate, B., R. Mesecar, and B. Lagerquist. 2007. The evolution of satellite-monitored radio tags for large whales: One laboratory’s experience. Deep Sea Research, Part II: Topical Studies in Oceanography 54(3): 224-247.

Matthiopoulos, J., S.C. Smout, A. Winship, D. Thompson, I.L. Boyd, and J. Harwood. 2008. Getting beneath the surface of marine mammal-fisheries competition. Mammal Review 38(2-3):167-188.

Matthiopoulos, J., L. Cordes, B. Mackey, D. Thompson, C. Duck, S. Smout, M. Caillat, and P. Thompson. 2014. State-space modeling reveals proximate causes of harbour seal population declines. Oecologia 174:151-162.

Maxwell, S.M., E.L. Hazen, S.J. Bograd, B.S. Halpern, G.A. Breed, B. Nickel, N.M. Teutschel, L.B. Crowder, S. Benson, P.H. Dutton, H. Bailey, M.A. Kappes, C.E. Kuhn, M.J. Weise, B. Mate, S.A. Shaffer, J.L. Hassrick, R.W. Henry, L. Irvine, B.I. McDonald, P.W. Robinson, and D.P. Costa. 2013. Cumulative human impacts on marine predators. Nature Communications 4:2688.

May, R.M. 1972. Will a large complex system be stable? Nature 238:413-414.

May, R.M. 1976. Thresholds and breakpoints in ecosystems with a multiplicity of stable states. Nature 260:471-477.

Mazet, J. K., I.A. Gardner, D.A. Jessup, L.J. Lowenstine, and W.M. Boyce. 2000. Evaluation of changes in hematologic and clinical biochemical values after exposure to petroleum products in mink (Mustela vison) as a model for assessment of sea otters (Enhydra lutris). American Journal of Veterinary Research 61:1197-1203.

McCarthy, E. 2007. International Regulation of Underwater Sound: Establishing Rules and Standards to Address Ocean Noise Pollution. New York: Springer.

McCarthy, E., D. Moretti, L. Thomas, N. DiMarzio, R. Morrissey, S. Jarvis, J. Ward, A. Izzi, and A. Dilley. 2011. Changes in spatial and temporal distribution and vocal behavior of Blainville’s beaked whales (Mesoplodon densirostris) during multiship exercises with mid-frequency sonar. Marine Mammal Science 27:E206-E226.

McCauley, R.D., J. Fewtrell, A.J. Duncan, C. Jenner, M.N. Jenner, J.D. Penrose, R.I.T Prince, A. Adhitya, J. Murdoch, and K. McCabe. 2000. Marine seismic surveys—a study of environmental implications. APPEA Journal 40:692-708.

McCauley, R.D., J. Fewtrell, and A.N. Popper. 2003. High intensity anthropogenic sound damages fish ears. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 113:638. doi: 10.1121/1.1527962.

McClure, C.J., H.E. Ware, J. Carlisle, G. Kaltenecker, and J.R. Barber. 2013. An experimental investigation into the effects of traffic noise on distributions of birds: Avoiding the phantom road. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 280(1773):20132290.

McDonald, B.I., and P.J. Ponganis. 2012. Lung collapse in the diving sea lion: Hold the nitrogen and save the oxygen. Biology Letters. doi: 10.1098/rsbl.2012.0743.

McEwen, B.S. 1998. Stress, adaptation, and disease—allostasis and allostatic load. Pp. 33-44 in Neuroimmunomodulation, W. Aerpaoli and N.H. Specter, eds. New York: New York Academy of Sciences.

McEwen, B.S., and J.C. Wingfield. 2003. The concept of allostasis in biology and biomedicine. Hormones and Behavior 43:2-15.

McMahon, C.R., H.R. Burton, and M.N. Bester. 2000. Weaning mass and the future survival of juvenile southern elephant seals, Mirounga leonina, at Macquarie Island. Antarctic Science 12:149-153.

McMahon, C.R., H.R. Burton, and M.N. Bester. 2003. A demographic comparison of two elephant seal populations. Journal of Animal Ecology 72:61-74.

Meegan, J., J.L. Dunn, S.K. Venn-Watson, C.R. Smith, I. Sidor, E.D. Jensen, W.G. Van Bonn, R. Pugh, T. Ficht, L.G. Adams, and K. Nielsen. 2012. Serologic response in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) infected with Brucella sp. using a dolphin-specific indirect ELISA. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 102:73-85.

Meir, J.U., C.D. Champagne, D.P. Costa, C.L. Williams, and P.J. Ponganis. 2009. Extreme hypoxemic tolerance and blood oxygen depletion in diving elephant seals. American Journal of Physiology: Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology 297(4):R927-R939.

Mellinger, D.K., and C.W. Clark. 2003. Blue whale (Balaenoptera musculus) sounds from the North Atlantic. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 114:1108-1119.

Mennitt, D., K.M. Fristrup, K. Sherrill, and L. Nelson. 2013. Mapping sound pressure levels on continental scales using a geospatial sound model. Proceedings of Inter-Noise. Innsbruck, Austria, September 15-18, 2013. 11 pp.

Metcalfe, N.B., and C. Alonso-Alvarez. 2010. Oxidative stress as a life-history constraint: The role of reactive oxygen species in shaping phenotypes from conception to death. Functional Ecology 24(5):984-996.

Meyer-Gutbrod, E.L., C.H. Greene, P.J. Sullivan, and A.J. Pershing. 2015. Climate-associated changes in prey availability drive reproductive dynamics of the North Atlantic right whale population. Marine Ecology: Progress Series 535:243-258.

Miksis-Olds, J.L., and S.M. Nichols. 2016. Is low frequency ocean sound increasing globally? Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 139(1):501-511.

Miller, C.A., P.B. Best, W.L. Perryman, M.F. Baumgartner, and M.J. Moore. 2012b. Body shape changes associated with reproductive status, nutritive condition and growth in right whales Eubalaena glacialis and E. australis. Marine Ecology: Progress Series 459:135-136.

Miller, P.J.O., N. Biassoni, A. Samuels, and P.L. Tyack. 2000. Whale songs lengthen in response to sonar. Nature 405:903.

Miller, P.J.O., M.P. Johnson, and P.L. Tyack. 2004a. Sperm whale behaviour indicates the use of echolocation click buzzes “creaks” in prey capture. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 271(1554):2239-2247.

Miller, P.J.O., M.P. Johnson, P.L. Tyack, and E.A. Terray. 2004b. Swimming gaits, passive drag, and buoyancy of diving sperm whales Physeter macrocephalus. Journal of Experimental Biology 207:1953-1967.

Miller, P.J.O., M.P. Johnson, P.T. Madsen, N. Biassoni, M.E. Quero, and P.L. Tyack. 2009. Using at-sea experiments to study the effects of airguns on the foraging behavior of sperm whales in the Gulf of Mexico. Deep-Sea Research 56:1168-1181.

Miller, P.J.O., R. Antunes, A. C. Alves, P. Wensveen, P. Kvadsheim, L. Kleivane, N. Nordlund, F.-P. Lam, S. van IJsselmuide, F. Visser, and P. Tyack. 2011. The 3S Experiments: Studying the Behavioural Effects of Naval Sonar on Killer Whales (Orcinus orca), Sperm Whales (Physeter macrocephalus), and Long-Finned Pilot Whales (Globicephala melas) in Norwegian Waters. Scottish Oceans Institute Technical Report SOI-2011-001.

Miller, P.J.O., P.H. Kvadsheim, F.P.A. Lam, P.J. Wensveen, R. Antunes, A.C. Alves, F. Visser, L. Kleivane, P.L. Tyack, and L. Doksæter. 2012a. The severity of behavioral changes observed during experimental exposures of killer (Orcinus orca), long-finned pilot (Globicephala melas), and sperm (Physeter macrocephalus) whales to naval sonar. Aquatic Mammals 38(4):362-401.

Miller, P.J.O., R.N. Antunes, P.J. Wensveen, F.I P. Samarra, A.C. Alves, P.L. Tyack, P.H. Kvadsheim, L. Kleivane, F.-P.A. Lam, M.A. Ainslie, and L. Thomas. 2014. Dose-response relationships for the onset of avoidance of sonar by free-ranging killer whales. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 135:975-993.

Mohr, F.C., B. Lasley, and S. Bursian. 2008. Chronic oral exposure to bunker C fuel oil causes adrenal insufficiency in ranch mink (Mustela vison). Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 54:337-347.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Approaches to Understanding the Cumulative Effects of Stressors on Marine Mammals. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23479.

Mohr, F.C., B. Lasley, and S. Bursian. 2010. Fuel oil-induced adrenal hypertrophy in ranch mink (Mustela vison): Effects of sex, fuel oil weathering, and response to adrenocorticotropic hormone. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 46(1):103-110.

Möllmann, C., R. Diekmann, B. Müller-Karulis, G. Kornilovs, M. Plikshs, and P. Axe. 2009. Reorganization of a large marine ecosystem due to atmospheric and anthropogenic pressure: A discontinuous regime shift in the Central Baltic Sea. Global Change Biology 15:1377–1393.

Monaghan, P., N.B. Metcalfe, and R. Torres. 2009. Oxidative stress as a mediator of life history trade-offs: Mechanisms, measurements and interpretation. Ecology Letters 12(1):75-92.

Montgomery, D.C. 1997. Design and Analysis of Experiments. New York: Wiley.

Mooney, T.A., M. Yamato, and B.K. Branstetter. 2012. Hearing in cetaceans: From natural history to experimental biology. Advances in Marine Biology 63:197-246.

Moore, J.E., and J.P. Barlow. 2013. Declining abundance of beaked whales (family Ziphiidae) in the California current large marine ecosystem. PLoS ONE 8(1):e52770. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0052770.

Moore, J.E., and A.J. Read. 2008. A Bayesian uncertainty analysis of cetacean demography and bycatch mortality using age-at-death data. Ecological Applications 18(8):1914-1931.

Moore, M.J., and G.A. Early. 2004. Cumulative sperm whale bone damage and the bends. Science 306(5705):2215.

Moore, M.J., and J.M. van der Hoop. 2012. The painful side of trap and fixed net fisheries: Chronic entanglement of large whales. Journal of Marine Biology 2012:230653.

Moore, S.C., and H.P. Huntington. 2008. Arctic marine mammals and climate change: Impacts and resilience. Ecological Applications 18(2 Suppl):s157-165.

Moore, S.E., K.E.W. Shelden, L.K. Litzky, B.A. Mahoney, and D.J. Rugh. 2000. Beluga, Delphinapterus leucas, habitat associations in Cook Inlet, Alaska. Marine Fisheries Review 62(3):60-80.

Morens, D.M., G.K. Folkers, and A.S. Fauci. 2004. The challenge of emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases. Nature 430(6996):242-249.

Moretti, D., L. Thomas, T. Marques, J. Harwood, A. Dilley, B. Neales, J. Shaffer, E. McCarthy, L. New, S. Jarvis, and R. Morrissey. 2014. A risk function for behavioral disruption of Blainville’s beaked whales (Mesoplodon densirostris) from mid-frequency active sonar. PLoS ONE 9:e85064.

Mori, C., B. Morsey, M. Levin, P.R. Nambiar, and S. De Guise. 2006. Immunomodulatory effects of in vitro exposure to organochlorines on T-cell proliferation in marine mammals and mice. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health A. 69:283-302.

Morris, W.F., and D.F. Doak. 2002. Quantitative Conservation Biology: Theory and Practice of Population Viability Analysis. Sunderland, MA: Sinauer Associates.

Morton, A.B., and H.K. Symonds. 2002. Displacement of Orcinus orca (L.) by high amplitude sound in British Columbia, Canada. ICES Journal of Marine Science 59(1):71-80.

Mullin, K.D., K. Barry, C. Sinclair, J. Litz, K. Maze-Foley, E. Fougeres, B. Mass-Guthrie, R. Ewing, A. Gorgone, J. Adams, and M. Tumlin. 2015. Common Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) in Lake Pontchartrain, Louisiana: 2007 to Mid-2014. NOAA Technical Memorandum NMFS-SEFSC 673 43.

Munk, W.H., R.C. Spindel, A. Baggeroer, and T.G. Birdsall. 1994. The Heard Island feasibility test. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 96(4):2330-2342.

Nabe-Nielsen, J., R.M. Sibly, J. Tougaard, J. Teilmann, and S. Sveegaard. 2014. Effects of noise and by-catch on a Danish harbour porpoise population. Ecological Modeling 272:242-251.

Narayan, E.J., J.F. Cockrem, and J.M. Hero. 2013. Sight of a predator induces a corticosterone stress response and generates fear in an amphibian. PLoS ONE 8:e73564.

New, L.F., J. Harwood, L. Thomas, C. Donovan, J.S. Clark, G. Hastie, P.M. Thompson, B. Cheney, L. Scott-Hayward, and D. Lusseau. 2013a. Modeling the biological significance of behavioural change in coastal bottlenose dolphins in response to disturbance. Functional Ecology 27:314-322.

New, L.F., D.J. Moretti, S.K. Hooker, D.P. Costa, and S.E. Simmons. 2013b. Using energetic models to investigate the survival and reproduction of beaked whales (family Ziphiidae). PLoS ONE 8:e68725.

New, L.F., J.S. Clark, D.P. Costa, E. Fleishman, M A. Hindell, T. Klanjšček, D. Lusseau, S. Kraus, C.R. McMahon, P.W. Robinson, R.S. Schick, L.K. Schwartz, S.E. Simmons, L. Thomas, P. Tyack, and J. Harwood. 2014. Using short-term measures of behaviour to estimate long-term fitness of southern elephant seals. Marine Ecology Progress Series 496:99-108.

New, L.F., A.J. Hall, R. Harcourt, G. Kaufman, E.C.M. Parsons, H.C. Pearson, A.M. Cosentino, and R.S. Schick. 2015. The modeling and assessment of whale-watching impacts. Ocean and Coastal Management 115:10-16.

Newman, A.E.M., L.Y. Zanette, M. Clinchy, N. Goodenough, and K.K. Soma. 2013. Stress in the wild: Chronic predator pressure and acute restraint affect plasma DHEA and corticosterone levels in a songbird. Stress 16:363-367.

Newman, K.B., S.T. Buckland, S.T. Lindley, L. Thomas, and C. Fernandez. 2006. Hidden process models for animal population dynamics. Ecological Applications 16(1):74-86.

Newsome, D., A. Milewski, N. Phillips, and R. Annear. 2002. Effects of horse riding on national parks and other natural ecosystems in Australia: Implications for management. Journal of Ecotourism 1(1):52-74.

Nichols, J.D., and B.K. Williams. 2006. Monitoring for conservation. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 21:668-673.

Nichols, J.W., M. Breen, R.J. Denver, J.J. DiStefano, J.S. Edwards, R.A. Hoke, D.C. Volz, and X. Zhang. 2011. Predicting chemical impacts on vertebrate endocrine systems. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 30(1):39-51.

NMFS (National Marine Fisheries Service). 2004. A Requirements Plan for Improving the Understanding of the Status of U.S. Protected Marine Species: Report of the NOAA Fisheries National Task Force for Improving Marine Mammal and Turtle Stock Assessments. U.S. Department of Commerce, NOAA Technical Memorandum NMFS-F/SPO-63 112. Available at

NMFS. 2008. Recovery Plan for the Steller Sea Lion (Eumetopias jubatus). Revision. Silver Spring, MD: National Marine Fisheries Service. 325 pages.

NMFS. 2015. Draft Recovery Plan for the Cook Inlet Beluga Whale (Delphinapterus leucas). National Marine Fisheries Service, Alaska Regional Office, Protected Resources Division, Juneau, AK.

NMFS. 2016a. Technical Guidance for Assessing the Effects of Anthropogenic Sound on Marine Mammal Hearing: Underwater Acoustic Thresholds for Onset of Permanent and Temporary Threshold Shifts. U.S. Department of Commerce, NOAA Technical Memorandum NMFS-OPR-55, 178 pp.

NMFS. 2016b. Species in the Spotlight. Priority Actions: 2016-2020. Hawaiian Monk Seal (Neomonachus schauinslandi). NOAA Fisheries, Silver Spring, MD. Available at

NMFS. 2016c. Species in the Spotlight. Priority Actions: 2016-2020. Southern Resident Killer Whale DPS (Orcinus ocra). NOAA Fisheries, Silver Spring, MD. Available at

Nordstad, T., M. Børge, J.O. Bustnes, C. Bech, O. Chastel, A. Goutte, K. Sagerup, C. Trouvé, D. Herzke, and G.W. Gabrielsen. 2012. Relationships between POPs and baseline corticosterone levels in black-legged kittiwakes (Rissa tridactyla) across their breeding cycle. Environmental Pollution 164:219-226.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Approaches to Understanding the Cumulative Effects of Stressors on Marine Mammals. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23479.

Northridge, S.P. 1984. World Review of Interactions Between Marine Mammals and Fisheries. Rome: Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations.

Nowacek, D.P., M.P. Johnson, and P.L. Tyack. 2004. North Atlantic right whales (Eubalaena glacialis) ignore ships but respond to alerting stimuli. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 271:227-231.

Nowacek, D.P., L.H. Thorne, D.W. Johnston, and P.L. Tyack. 2007. Responses of cetaceans to anthropogenic noise. Mammal Review 37:81-115. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2907.2007.00104.x.

Nowacek, S.M., R.S. Wells, and A.R. Solow. 2001. Short-term effects of boat traffic on bottlenose dolphins, Tursiops truncatus, in Sarasota Bay, Florida. Marine Mammal Science 17(4):673-688.

NRC (National Research Council). 1994. Low-Frequency Sound and Marine Mammals: Current Knowledge and Research Needs. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

NRC. 2000. Marine Mammals and Low-Frequency Sound: Progress Since 1994. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

NRC. 2003a. Ocean Noise and Marine Mammals. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.

NRC. 2003b. Decline of the Steller Sea Lion in Alaskan Waters: Untangling Food Webs and Fishing Nets. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.

NRC. 2005. Marine Mammal Populations and Ocean Noise: Determining When Noise Causes Biologically Significant Effects. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.

NURC (NATO Undersea Research Centre). 2006. NATO Undersea Research Centre Human Diver and Marine Mammal Risk Mitigation Rules and Procedures. NURC-SP-2006-008.

Oakley, G.G., U.-S. Devanaboyina, L.W. Robertson, and R.C. Gupta. 1996. Oxidative DNA damage induced by activation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs): Implications for PCB-induced oxidative stress in breast cancer. Chemical Research in Toxicology 9(8):1285-1292.

Ockendon, N., D.J. Baker, J.A. Carr, E.C. White, R.E. Almond, T. Amano, E. Bertram, R.B. Bradbury, C. Bradley, S.H. Butchart, and N. Doswald. 2014. Mechanisms underpinning climatic impacts on natural populations: Altered species interactions are more important than direct effects. Global Change Biology 20(7):2221-2229.

O’Connell, S.G., L.D. Kincl, and K.A. Anderson. 2014. Silicone wristbands as personal passive samplers. Environmental Science & Technology 48(6):3327-3335.

Oleaga, A., R. Casais, A. Balseiro, A. Espi, L. Llaneza, A. Hartasanchez, and C. Gortazar. 2011. New techniques for an old disease: Sarcoptic mange in the Iberian wolf. Veterinary Parasitology 181:255-266.

Olesiuk, P.F., L.M. Nicol, M.J. Sowden, and J.B. Ford. 2002. Effects of the sound generated by an acoustic harassment device on the relative abundance and distribution of harbor porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) in Retreat Passage, British Columbia. Marine Mammal Science 18(4):843-862.

Ortega, C.P. 2012. Effects of noise pollution on birds: A brief review of our knowledge. Ornithological Monographs 74:6-22.

Oskam I, E. Ropstad, E. Lie, A. Derocher, Ø. Wiig, E. Dahl, S. Larsen, and J.U. Skaare. 2004. Organochlorines affect the steroid hormone cortisol in free-ranging polar bears (Ursus maritimus) at Svalbard, Norway. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health A 67:959-977.

OSPAR. 2009. Overview of the Impacts of Anthropogenic Underwater Sound in the Marine Environment. OSPAR Convention for the Protection of the Marine Environment of the North-East Atlantic. Available at 133 pp.

Parks, S.E., C.W. Clark, and P.L. Tyack. 2007a. Short- and long-term changes in right whale calling behavior: The potential effects of noise on acoustic communication. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 122:3725-3731.

Parks, S.E., D.R. Ketten, J.T. O’Malley, and J. Arruda. 2007b. Anatomical predictions of hearing in the North Atlantic right whale. Anatomical Record 290:734-744.

Parks, S.E., M. Johnson, D. Nowacek, and P.L. Tyack. 2010. Individual right whales call louder in increased environmental noise. Biology Letters 7:33-35.

Parks, S.E., J.D. Warren, K. Stamiezkin, C.A. Mayo, and D. Wiley. 2012. Dangerous dining: Surface foraging of North Atlantic right whales increases risk of vessel collisions. Biology Letters 8:57-60.

Patrick, L. 2009. Thyroid disruption: Mechanism and clinical implications in human health. Alternative Medicine Review 14:326-346.

Paulik, L.B., B.W. Smith, A.J. Bergmann, G.J. Sower, N.D. Forsberg, J.G. Teeguarden, and K.A. Anderson. 2016. Passive samplers accurately predict PAH levels in resident crayfish. Science of the Total Environment 544:782-791.

Payne, R., and D. Webb. 1971. Orientation by means of long range acoustic signalling in baleen whales. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 188:110-141.

Peck, H.E., D.P. Costa, and D.E. Crocker. 2016. Body reserves influence allocation to immune responses in capital breeding female northern elephant seals. Functional Ecology 30:389-397.

Peetchey, O.L., M. Pontarp, T.M. Massie, S. Kéfi, A. Ozgul, M. Weilenmann, G.M. Palamara, F. Altermatt, B. Matthews, J.M. Levine, D.Z. Childs, B.J. McGill, M.E. Schaepman, B. Schmid, P. Spaak, A.P. Beckerman, F. Pennekamp, and I.S. Pearse. 2015. The Ecological Forecast Horizon, and examples of its uses and determinants. Ecology Letters 18:597-611.

Perrin, W.F., and J.E. Powers. 1980. Role of a nematode in natural mortality of spotted dolphins. Journal of Wildlife Management 44:960-963.

Peterson, S.H., M.G. Peterson, C. Debier, A. Covaci, A.C. Dirtu, G. Malarvannan, D.E. Crocker, L. Schwarz, and D.P. Costa. 2015. Deep-ocean foraging northern elephant seals bioaccumulate persistent organic pollutants. Science of the Total Environment 533:144-155.

Pettis, H.M., R.M. Rolland, P.K. Hamilton, S. Brault, A.R. Knowlton, and S.D. Kraus. 2004. Visual health assessment of North Atlantic right whales (Eubalaena glacialis) using photographs. Canadian Journal of Zoology 82:8-19.

Piggott, J.J., C.R. Townsend, and C.D. Matthaei. 2015. Reconceptualizing synergism and antagonism among multiple stressors. Ecology and Evolution 5:1538-1547.

Pimm, S.L. 1979. The structure of food webs. Theoretical Population Biology 16:144-158.

Pirotta, E., N.D. Merchant, P.M. Thompson, T.R. Barton, and D. Lusseau. 2015a. Quantifying the effect of boat disturbance on bottlenose dolphin foraging activity. Biological Conservation 181:82-89.

Pirotta, E., J. Harwood, P.M. Thompson, L. New, B. Cheney, M. Arso, P.S. Hammond, C. Donovan, and D. Lusseau. 2015b. Predicting the effects of human developments on individual dolphins to understand potential long-term consequences. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 282:20152109.

Pirotta, E., P.M. Thompson, B. Cheney, C.R Donovan, and D. Lusseau. 2015c. Estimating spatial, temporal and individual variability in dolphin cumulative exposure to boat traffic using spatially explicit capture–recapture methods. Animal Conservation 18:20-31.

Plötz, J., H. Bornemann, R. Knust, A. Schröder, and M. Bester. 2001. Foraging behaviour of Weddell seals, and its ecological implications. Polar Biology 24:901-909.

Polischuk, S.C., K.A. Hobson, and M.A. Ramsay. 2001. Use of stable-carbon and -nitrogen isotopes to assess weaning and fasting in female polar bears and their cubs. Canadian Journal of Zoology 79(3):499-511.

Proulx, S.R., D.E.L. Promislow, and P.C. Phillips. 2005. Network thinking in ecology and evolution. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 20:345-353.

Przeslawski, R., M. Byrne, and C. Mellin. 2015. A review and meta-analysis of the effects of multiple abiotic stressors on marine embryos and larvae. Global Change Biology 21(6):2122-2140.

Punt, A.E., and D.S. Butterworth. 1995. The effects of future consumption by the Cape fur seal on catches and catch rates of the Cape hakes. 4. Modeling the biological interaction between Cape fur seals Arctocephalus pusillus pusillus and the Cape hakes Merluccius capensis and M. paradoxus. South African Journal of Marine Science 16:255-285.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Approaches to Understanding the Cumulative Effects of Stressors on Marine Mammals. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23479.

Quick, N.J., S.J. Middlemas, and J.D. Armstrong. 2004. A survey of antipredator controls at marine salmon farms in Scotland. Aquaculture 230:69-180.

Quinn, J.L., M.J. Whittingham, S.J. Butler, and W. Cresswell. 2006. Noise, predation risk compensation and vigilance in the chaffinch Fringilla coelebs. Journal of Avian Biology 37:601-608. doi: 10.1111/j.2006.0908-8857.03781.x.

Rabalais, N.N., R.E. Turner, Q. Dortch, D. Justic, V. J. Bierman, Jr., and W.J. Wiseman, Jr. 2002. Review. Nutrient-enhanced productivity in the northern Gulf of Mexico: Past, present and future. Hydrobiologia 475/476:39-63.

Råberg, L., M. Grahn, D. Hasselquist, and E. Svensson. 1998. On the adaptive significance of stress-induced immunosuppression. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences 265(1406):1637-1641.

Rappaport, S.M. 2011. Implications of the exposome for exposure science. Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology 21(1):5-9.

Ray, G.C., and F.M. Potter, Jr. 2011. The making of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972. Aquatic Mammals 37:520-552.

Rayne, S., M.G. Ikonomou, P.S. Ross, G.M. Ellis, and L.G. Barrett-Lennard. 2004. PBDEs, PBBs, and PCNs in three communities of free-ranging killer whales (Orcinus orca) from the northeastern Pacific Ocean. Environmental Science & Technology 38(16):4293-4299.

Read, A.J., P. Drinker, and S. Northridge. 2006. Bycatch of marine mammals in US and global fisheries. Conservation Biology 20(1):163-169.

Redfern, J.V., M.C. Ferguson, E.A. Becker, K.D. Hyrenbach, C. Good, J. Barlow, K. Kaschner, M.F. Baumgartner, K.A. Forney, L.T. Ballance, P. Fauchald, P. Halpin, T. Hamazaki, A.J. Pershing, S.S. Qian, A. Read, S.B. Reilly, L. Torres, and F. Werner. 2006. Techniques for cetacean-habitat modeling. Marine Ecology: Progress Series 310:271-295.

Reeves, R.R., R.J. Hofman, G.K. Silber, and D. Wilkinson. 1996. Acoustic Deterrence of Harmful Marine Mammal-Fishery Interactions. Proceedings of a workshop held in Seattle, Washington, March 20-22, 1996. NOAA Technical Memorandum NMFS NMFS-OPR-10. 70 pp.

Regnault, M., and J.P. Lagardère. 1983. Effects of ambient noise on the metabolic level of Crangon crangon (Decapoda, Natantia). Marine Ecology Progress Series 11:71-78.

Reif, J.S., M.M. Kliks, A.A. Aguirre, and D.L. Borjesson. 2006. Gastrointestinal helminths in the Hawaiian monk seal (Monachus schauinslandi): Associations with body size, hematology, and serum chemistry. Aquatic Mammals 32:157-167.

Reijnders, P.J.H. 1986. Reproductive failure in common seals feeding on fish from polluted coastal waters. Nature 324:456-457.

Reijnders, P.J.H. 2003. Reproductive and developmental effects of environmental organochlorines on marine mammals. Pp. 55-66 in Toxicology of Marine Mammals. London: Taylor & Francis.

Reijnen, R., R. Foppen, C. Terbraak, and J. Thissen. 1995. The effects of car traffic on breeding bird populations in woodland. 3. Reduction of density in relation to the proximity of main roads. Journal of Applied Ecology 32:187-202.

Reyero, M., E. Cacho, A. Martinez, J. Vazquez, A. Marina, S. Fraga, and J.M. Franco. 1999. Evidence of saxitoxin derivatives as causative agents in the 1997 mass mortality of monk seals in the Cape Blanc Peninsula. Natural Toxins 7:311-315.

Richardson, W.J., B. Würsig, and C.R. Greene, Jr. 1986. Reactions of bowhead whales, Balaena mysticetus, to seismic exploration in the Canadian Beaufort Sea. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 79(4):1117-1128.

Ricklefs, R.E., and M. Wikelski. 2002. The physiology/life-history nexus. Trends in Ecology & Evolution 17(10):462-468.

Rider, C.V., M.L. Dourson, R.C. Hertzberg, M.M. Mumtaz, P.S. Price, and J.E. Simmons. 2012. Incorporating nonchemical stressors into cumulative risk assessments. Toxicological Sciences 127(1):10-17.

Rigét, F., B. Braune, A. Bignert, S. Wilson, J. Aars, E. Born, M. Dam, R. Dietz, M. Evans, T. Evans, and M. Gamberg. 2011. Temporal trends of Hg in Arctic biota, an update. Science of the Total Environment 409(18):3520-3526.

Roberts, J.J., B.D. Best, L. Mannocci, E. Fujioka, P.N. Halpin, D.L. Palka, L.P. Garrison, K.D. Mullin, T.V.N. Cole, C.B. Khan, W.A. McLellan, D.A. Pabst, and G.G. Lockhart. 2016. Habitat-based cetacean density models for the U.S. Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico. Scientific Reports 6:22615.

Robinson, P.W., D.P. Costa, D.E. Crocker, J.P. Gallo-Reynoso, C.D. Champagne, M.A. Fowler, C. Goetsch, K.T. Goetz, J.L. Hassrick, L.A. Hückstädt, and C.E. Kuhn. 2012. Foraging behavior and success of a mesopelagic predator in the northeast Pacific Ocean: Insights from a data-rich species, the northern elephant seal. PLoS ONE 7:e36728.

Rocha, R.C., P.J. Clapham, and Y.V. Ivashchenko. 2014. Emptying the oceans: A summary of industrial whaling catches in the 20th century. Marine Fisheries Review 76(4):37-48.

Rolland, R.M., S.E. Parks, K.E. Hunt, M. Castellote, P.J. Corkeron, D.P. Nowacek, S.K. Wasser, and S.D. Kraus. 2012. Evidence that ship noise increases stress in right whales. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. 279(1737):2363-2368.

Rolland, R.M., R.S. Schick, H.M. Pettis, A.R. Knowlton, P.K. Hamilton, J.S. Clark, and S.D. Kraus. 2016. Health of North Atlantic right whales (Eubalaena glacialis) over three decades: From individual health to demographic and population trends. Marine Ecology: Progress Series 542:265-282.

Rolland, V., M. Nevoux, C. Barbraud, and H. Weimerskirch. 2009. Respective impact of climate and fisheries on the growth of an albatross population. Ecological Applications 19:1336-1346.

Rollins-Smith, L.A., and P.J. Blair. 1993. The effects of corticosteroid hormones and thyroid hormones on lymphocyte viability and proliferation during development and metamorphosis of Xenopus laevis. Differentiation 54(3):155-160.

Romano, T.A., M.J. Keogh, C. Kelly, P. Feng, L. Berk, C.E. Schlundt, D.A. Carder, and J.J. Finneran. 2004. Anthropogenic sound and marine mammal health: Measures of the nervous and immune systems before and after intense sound exposure. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 61(7):1124-1134.

Romero, L.M., M.J. Dickens, and N.E. Cyr. 2009. The reactive scope model—a new model integrating homeostasis, allostasis, and stress. Hormones and Behavior 55(3):375-389.

Roos, M.M.H., G.M. Wu, and P.J.O. Miller. 2016. The significance of respiration timing in the energetics estimates of free-ranging killer whales (Orcinus orca). Journal of Experimental Biology 219(13):2066-2077.

Rosen, D.A., and S. Kumagai. 2008. Hormone changes indicate that winter is a critical period for food shortages in Steller sea lions. Journal of Comparative Physiology B 178:573-583.

Ross, P., R. De Swart, P. Reijnders, H.V. Loveren, J. Vos, and A. Osterhaus. 1995. Contaminant-related suppression of delayed-type hypersensitivity and antibody responses in harbor seals fed herring from the Baltic Sea. Environmental Health Perspectives 103:162-167.

Ross, P., R. De Swart, R. Addison, H. Van Loveren, J. Vos, and A. Osterhaus. 1996a. Contaminant-induced immunotoxicity in harbour seals: Wildlife at risk? Toxicology 112(2):157-169.

Ross, P., R. De Swart, H. Timmerman, P. Reijnders, J. Vos, H. V. Loveren, and A. Osterhaus. 1996b. Suppression of natural killer cell activity in harbour seals (Phoca vitulina) fed Baltic Sea herring. Aquatic Toxicology 34:71-84.

Ross, P.S., G.M. Ellis, M.G. Ikonomou, L.G. Barrett-Lennard, and R.F. Addison. 2000. High PCB concentrations in free-ranging Pacific killer whales, Orcinus orca: Effects of age, sex and dietary preference. Marine Pollution Bulletin 40:504-515.

Rotander, A., B. van Bavel, A. Polder, F. Rigét, G.A. Auðunsson, G.W. Gabrielsen, G. Víkingsson, D. Bloch, and M. Dam. 2012. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in marine mammals from Arctic and North Atlantic regions, 1986-2009. Environment International 40:102-109.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Approaches to Understanding the Cumulative Effects of Stressors on Marine Mammals. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23479.

Rotstein, D.S., L.G. Burdett, W. McLellan, L. Schwacke, T. Rowles, K.A. Terio, S. Schultz, and A. Pabst. 2009. Lobomycosis in offshore bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus), North Carolina. Emerging Infectious Diseases 15(4):588-590.

Royle, J.A., R.B. Chandler, R. Shollmann, and B. Gardner. 2013. Spatial Capture Recapture. New York: Elsevier.

Rudd, M.A. 2014. Scientists’ perspectives on global ocean research priorities. Frontiers in Marine Science 1:36. doi: 10.3389/fmars.2014.00036.

Rugh, D.J., K.E.W. Shelden, and R.C. Hobbs. 2010. Range contraction in a beluga whale population. Endangered Species Research 12:69-75.

Runge, M.C., S.J. Converse, and J.E. Lyons. 2011. Which uncertainty? Using expert elicitation and expected value of information to design an adaptive program. Biological Conservation 144(4):1214-1223. doi: 10.1016/j.biocon.2010.12.020.

Runge, M.C., C.A. Langtimm, J. Martin, and C.J. Fonnesbeck. 2015. Status and Threats Analysis for the Florida Manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris), 2012. U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2015-1083. doi: 10.3133/ofr20151083.

Ryser-Degiorgis, M.-P. 2013. Wildlife health investigations: Needs, challenges and recommendations. BMC Veterinary Research 9:223.

Samhouri, J.F., A.J. Haupt, P.S. Levin, J.S. Link, and R. Shuford. 2014. Lessons learned from developing integrated ecosystem assessments to inform marine ecosystem-based management in the USA. ICES Journal of Marine Science 71:1205-1215.

Sapolsky, R.M., L.M. Romero, and A.U. Munck. 2000. How do glucocorticoids influence stress responses? Integrating permissive, suppressive, stimulatory, and preparative actions 1. Endocrine Reviews 21(1):55-89.

Scales, K.L., P.I. Miller, L.A. Hawkes, S.N. Ingram, D.W. Sims, and S.C. Votier. 2014. On the front line: Frontal zones as priority at-sea conservation areas for mobile marine vertebrates. Journal of Applied Ecology 51(6):1575-1583.

Schaub, A., J. Ostwald, and B. M. Siemers. 2008. Foraging bats avoid noise. Journal of Experimental Biology 211:3174-3180.

Scheffer, M. 2009. Critical Transitions in Nature and Society. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Scheffer, M., S. Carpenter, J.A. Foley, C. Folke, and B. Walker. 2001. Catastrophic shifts in ecosystems. Nature 413:591-596.

Scheffer, M., J. Bascompte, W.A. Brock, V. Brovkin, S.R. Carpenter, V. Dakos, H. Held, E.H. van Nes, M. Rietkerk, and G. Sugihara. 2009. Early-warning signals for critical transitions. Nature 461:53-59.

Scheffer, V.B. 1950. Growth layers on the teeth of Pinnipedia as an indication of age. Science 112(2907):309-311.

Schick, R.S., L.F. New, L. Thomas, D.P. Costa, M.A. Hindell, C.R. McMahon, P.W. Robinson, S.E. Simmons, M. Thums, J. Harwood, and J.S. Clark. 2013. Estimating resource acquisition and at-sea body condition of a marine predator. Journal of Animal Ecology 82(6):1300-1315.

Scholin, C.A., F. Gulland, G.J. Doucette, S. Benson, M. Busman, F.P. Chavez, J. Cordaro, R. DeLong, A. De Vogelaere, J. Harvey, M. Haulena, K. Lefebvre, T. Lipscomb, S. Loscutoff, L.J. Lowenstine, R. Marin, P.E. Miller, W.A. McLellan, P.D.R. Moeller, C.L. Powell, T. Rowles, P. Silvagni, M. Silver, T. Spraker, V. Trainer, and F.M. Van Dolah. 2000. Mortality of sea lions along the central California coast linked to a toxic diatom bloom. Nature 403:80-84.

Schultner, J., B. Moe, O. Chastel, S. Tartu, C. Bech, and A.S. Kitaysky. 2014. Corticosterone mediates carry-over effects between breeding and migration in the kittiwake Rissa tridactyla. Marine Ecology Progress Series 496:125-133.

Schwacke, L.H., E.O. Voit, L.J. Hansen, R.S. Wells, G.B. Mitchum, A.A. Hohn, and P.A. Fair. 2002. Probabilistic risk assessment of reproductive effects of polychlorinated biphenyls on bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) from the Southeast United States coast. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 21:2752-2764. doi: 10.1002/etc.5620211232.

Schwacke, L.H., M.J. Twiner, S. De Guise, B.C. Balmer, R.S. Wells, F.I. Townsend, D.C. Rotstein, R.A. Varela, L.J. Hansen, E.S. Zolman, T.R. Spradlin, M. Levin, H. Leibrecht, Z.H. Wang, and T.K. Rowles. 2010. Eosinophilia and biotoxin exposure in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) from a coastal area impacted by repeated mortality events. Environmental Research 110:548-555.

Schwacke, L.H., E.S. Zolman, B.C. Balmer, S. De Guise, R.C. George, J. Hoguet, A.A. Hohn, J.R. Kucklick, S. Lamb, M. Levin, J.A. Litz, W.E. McFee, N.J. Place, F.I. Townsend, R.S. Wells, and T.K. Rowles. 2012. Anaemia, hypothyroidism and immune suppression associated with polychlorinated biphenyl exposure in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus). Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 279:48-57.

Schwacke, L.H., C.R. Smith, F.I. Townsend, R.S. Wells, L.B. Hart, B.C. Balmer, T.K. Collier, S. De Guise, M.M. Fry, L.J. Guillette, Jr., S.V. Lamb, S.M. Lane, W.E. McFee, N.J. Place, M.C. Tumlin, G.M. Ylitalo, E.S. Zolman, and T.K. Rowles. 2014a. Health of common bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) in Barataria Bay, Louisiana, following the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. Environmental Science and Technology 48:93-103.

Schwacke, L.H., C.R. Smith, F.I. Townsend, R.S. Wells, L.B. Hart, B.C. Balmer, T.K. Collier, S. De Guise, M.M. Fry, L.J. Guillette, Jr., S.V. Lamb, S.M. Lane, W.E. McFee, N.J. Place, M.C. Tumlin, G.M. Ylitalo, E.S. Zolman, and T.K. Rowles. 2014b. Response to comment on health of common bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) in Barataria Bay, Louisiana following the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. Environmental Science & Technology 48:4209-4211.

Schwartz, J.A., B.M. Aldridge, J.L. Stott, and F.C. Mohr. 2004. Immunophenotypic and functional effects of bunker C fuel oil on the immune system of American mink (Mustela vison). Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology 101:179-190.

Schwarz, K.B. 1996. Oxidative stress during viral infection: A review. Free Radical Biology and Medicine 21(5):641-649.

Scott, M.D., and S.J. Chivers. 2009. Movements and diving behavior of pelagic spotted dolphins. Marine Mammal Science 25(1):137-160.

Seixas, T.G., H.D.A. Kehrig, M. Costa, G. Fillmann, A.P.M. Di Beneditto, E.R. Secchi, C.M. Souza, O. Malm, and I. Moreira. 2008. Total mercury, organic mercury and selenium in liver and kidney of a South American coastal dolphin. Environmental Pollution 154(1):98-106.

Selkoe, K.A.,T. Blenckner, M.R. Caldwell, L.B. Crowder, A.L. Erickson, T.E. Essington, J.A. Estes, R.M. Fujita, B.S. Halpern, M.E. Hunsicker, C.V. Kappel, R.P. Kelly, J.N. Kittinger, P.S. Levin, J.M. Lynha, M.E. Mach, R.G. Martone, L.A. Mease, A.K. Salomon, J.F. Samhouri, C.S. Scahborough, A.C. Stier, A.C. Stier, C. White, and J. Zedler. 2015. Principles for managing marine ecosystems prone to tipping points. Ecosystem Health and Sustainability 1(5):17.

Senzaki, M., Y. Yamaura, C.D. Francis, and F. Nakamura. 2016. Traffic noise reduces foraging efficiency in wild owls. Scientific Reports 6:30602.

Sepulveda, M., and D. Oliva. 2005. Interactions between South American sea lions Otaria flavescens (Shaw) and salmon farms in southern Chile. Aquaculture Research 36:1062-1068.

Shannon, G., L.M. Angeloni, G. Wittemyer, K.M. Fristrup, and K.R. Crooks. 2014. Road traffic noise modifies behaviour of a keystone species. Animal Behaviour 94:135-141.

Shannon, G., M.F. McKenna, L.M. Angeloni, K.R. Crooks, K.M. Fristrup, E. Brown, K.A. Warner, M.D. Nelson, C. White, and J. Briggs. 2015. A synthesis of two decades of research documenting the effects of noise on wildlife. Biological Reviews 91(4):982-1005. doi: 10.1111/brv.12207.

Shannon, G., K.R. Crooks, G. Wittemyer, K.M. Fristrup, and L.M. Angeloni. 2016. Road noise causes earlier predator detection and flight response in a free-ranging mammal. Behavioral Ecology. doi: 10.1093/beheco/arw058.

Shelden, K.E.W., D.J. Rugh, B.A. Mahoney, and M.E. Dahlheim. 2003. Killer whale predation on belugas in Cook Inlet, Alaska: Implications for a depleted population. Marine Mammal Science 19(3):529-544.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Approaches to Understanding the Cumulative Effects of Stressors on Marine Mammals. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23479.

Shelden, K.E.W., C.L. Sims, L. Vate Brattström, K.T. Goetz, and R.C. Hobbs. 2015. Aerial Surveys of Beluga Whales (Delphinapterus leucas) in Cook Inlet, Alaska, June 2014. AFSC Processed Report 2015-03. NOAA Alaska Fisheries Science Center, National Marine Fisheries Service, Seattle, WA.

Sheldon, B.C., and S. Verhulst. 1996. Ecological immunology: Costly parasite defences and trade-offs in evolutionary ecology. Trends in Ecology & Evolution 11(8):317-321.

Shephard, R.J., and P.N. Shek. 1998. Cold exposure and immune function. Canadian Journal of Physiological Pharmacology 76:828-836.

Shero, M.R., R.T. Krotz, D.P. Costa, J.P. Avery, and J.M. Burns. 2015. How do overwinter changes in body condition and hormone profiles influence Weddell seal reproductive success? Functional Ecology 29:1278-1291.

Siemers, B.M., and A. Schaub. 2011. Hunting at the highway: Traffic noise reduces foraging efficiency in acoustic predators. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 278:1646-1652.

Sih, A., G. Englund, and D. Wooster. 1998. Emergent impacts of multiple predators on prey. Trends in Ecology & Evolution 13:350-355.

Simeone, C.A., F.M. Gulland, T. Norris, and T.K. Rowles. 2015. A systematic review of changes in marine mammal health in North America, 1972-2012: The need for a novel integrated approach. PLoS ONE 10:e0142105.

Sivle, L.D., P.H. Kvadsheim, A. Fahlman, F.P.A. Lam, P.L. Tyack, and P.J.O. Miller. 2012. Changes in dive behavior during naval sonar exposure in killer whales, long-finned pilot whales, and sperm whales. Frontiers in Physiology 3(400):1-11.

Small, R.J., P.L. Boveng, G.V. Byrd, and D.E. Withrow. 2008. Harbor seal population decline in the Aleutian Archipelago. Marine Mammal Science 24(4):845-863.

Smith, C.R., T.K. Rowles, L.B. Hart, F.I. Townsend, R.S. Wells, E.S. Zolman, B.C. Balmer, B. Quigley, M. Ivančić, W. McKercher, M.C. Tumlin, K.D. Mullin, J.D. Adams, Q. Wu, W. McFee, T.K. Collier, and L.H. Schwacke. 2017. Slow recovery of Barataria Bay dolphin health following the Deepwater Horizon oil spill (2013–2014), with evidence of persistent lung disease and impaired stress response. Endangered Species Research 33:127-147. doi: 10.3354/esr00778

Smith, T.D., J. Allen, P.J. Clapham, P.S. Hammond, S. Katona, F. Larsen, J. Lien, D. Mattila, P.J. Palsbøll, J. Sigurjónsson, and P.T. Stevick. 1999. An ocean-basin-wide mark-recapture study of the North Atlantic humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae). Marine Mammal Science 15(1):1-32.

Smout, S., A. Rindorf, P.S. Hammond, J. Harwood, and J. Matthiopoulos. 2014. Modelling prey consumption and switching by UK grey seals. ICES Journal of Marine Science: Journal du Conseil 71:81-89.

Sormo, E.G., I. Jussi, M. Jussi, M. Braathen, J.U. Skaare, and B.M. Jenssen. 2005. Thyroid hormone status in gray seal (Halichoerus grypus) pups from the Baltic Sea and the Atlantic Ocean in relation to organochlorine pollutants. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 24:610-616.

Soto, S., A. Alba, L. Ganges, E. Vidal, J.A. Raga, F. Alegre, B. González, P. Medina, I. Zorrilla, J. Martínez, and A. Marco. 2011. Post-epizootic chronic dolphin morbillivirus infection in Mediterranean striped dolphins Stenella coeruleoalba. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 96(3):187-194.

Southall, B.L., A.E. Bowles, W.T. Ellison, J.J. Finneran, R.L. Gentry, C.R. Greene, Jr., D. Kastak, D.R. Ketten, J.H. Miller, P.E. Nachtigall, W.J. Richardson, J.A. Thomas, and P.L. Tyack. 2007. Marine mammal noise exposure criteria: Initial scientific recommendations. Aquatic Mammals 33:411-521.

Spoon, T.R., and T.A. Romano. 2012. Neuroimmunological response of beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas) to translocation and a novel social environment. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity 26:22-131.

Springer, A.M., J.A. Estes, G.B. van Vliet, T.M. Williams, D.F. Doak, E.M. Danner, K.A. Forney, and B. Pfister. 2003. Sequential megafaunal collapse in the North Pacific Ocean: An ongoing legacy of industrial whaling? Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 100(21):12223-12228.

Springer, A.M., J.A. Estes, G.B. Van Vliet, T.M. Williams, D.F. Doak, E.M. Danner, and B. Pfister. 2008. Mammal-eating killer whales, industrial whaling, and the sequential megafaunal collapse in the North Pacific Ocean: A reply to critics of Springer et al. 2003. Marine Mammal Science 24(April):414-442.

Stamation, K.A., D.B. Croft, and P.D. Shaughnessy. 2009. Behavioral responses of humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) to whalewatching vessels on the southeastern coast of Australia. Marine Mammal Science 26(1):98-122. doi: 10.1111/j.1748-7692.2009.00320.x.

Steele, J.H. 2004. Regime shifts in the ocean: Reconciling observations and theory. Progress in Oceanography 60(2):135-141.

Steiger, J.W. 1994. The Consultation Provision of Section 7(a)(2) of the Endangered Species Act and its application to delegable federal programs. Ecology Law Quarterly 21:2. doi: 10.15779/Z382K05.

Steneck, R.S., M.H. Graham, B.J. Bourque, D. Corbett, J.M. Erlandson, J.A. Estes, and M.J. Tegner. 2002. Kelp forest ecosystems: Biodiversity, stability, resilience and future. Environmental Conservation 29(4):436-459.

Stephen, C. 2014. Toward a modernized definition of wildlife health. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 50(3):427-430.

Stephens, P.A., W.J. Sutherland, and R.P. Freckleton. 1999. What is the Allee effect? Oikos 87:185-190.

Sternberg, E.M., G.P. Chrousos, R.L. Wilder, and P.W. Gold. 1992. The stress response and the regulation of inflammatory disease. Annals of Internal Medicine 117(10):854-866.

Stewart, K.R., R.L. Lewison, D.C. Dunn, R.H. Bjorkland, S. Kelez, P.N. Halpin, and L.B. Crowder. 2010. Characterizing fishing effort and spatial extent of coastal fisheries. PLoS ONE 5(12):e14451.

Stewart, P.W., J. Reihman, E. Lonky, T.J. Darvill, and J. Pagano. 2003. Cognitive development in preschool children prenatally exposed to PCBs and MeHg. Neurotoxicology and Teratology 25:11-22.

Stewart, P.W., E. Lonky, J. Reihman, J. Pagano, B.B. Gump, and T. Darvill. 2008. The relationship between prenatal PCB exposure and intelligence (IQ) in 9-year-old children. Environmental Health Perspectives 116:1416-1422.

Stier, K.S., B. Almasi, J. Gasparini, R. Piault, A. Roulin, and L. Jenni. 2009. Effects of corticosterone on innate and humoral immune functions and oxidative stress in barn owl nestlings. Journal of Experimental Biology 212(13):2085-2091.

Stirling, I., and C.L. Parkinson. 2006. Possible effects of climate warming on selected populations of polar bears (Ursus maritimus) in the Canadian Arctic. Arctic 59(3):261-275.

Stirling, I., C. Spencer, and D. Andriashek. 1989. Immobilization of polar bears (Ursus maritimus) with Telazol® in the Canadian Arctic. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 25(2):159-168.

Stirling, I., N.J. Lunn, and J. Iacozza. 1999. Long-term trends in the population ecology of polar bears in western Hudson Bay in relation to climatic change. Arctic 52(3):294-306.

Stirling, I., N.J. Lunn, J. Iacozza, C. Elliott, and M. Obbard. 2004. Polar bear distribution and abundance on the southwestern Hudson Bay coast during open water season, in relation to population trends and annual ice patterns. Arctic 57(1):15-26.

Stohs, S.J. 1990. Oxidative stress induced by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). Free Radical Biology and Medicine 9(1)79-90.

Sugihara, G., R. May, H. Ye, C.H. Hsieh, E. Deyle, M. Fogarty, and S. Munch. 2012. Detecting causality in complex ecosystems. Science 338(6106):496-500.

Sutherland, J.P. 1974. Multiple stable points in natural communities. American Naturalist 108(964):859-873.

Sutherland, W.J. 2006. Predicting the ecological consequences of environmental change: A review of the methods. Journal of Applied Ecology 43:599-616.

Sutherland, W.J., and M.A. Burgman. 2015. Use experts wisely. Nature (London) 526:317-318.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Approaches to Understanding the Cumulative Effects of Stressors on Marine Mammals. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23479.

Svensson, E., L. Råberg, C. Koch, and D. Hasselquist. 1998. Energetic stress, immunosuppression and the costs of an antibody response. Functional Ecology 12(6):912-919.

Swaddle, J.P., C.D. Francis, J.R. Barber, C.B. Cooper, C.M. Kyba, D.M. Dominoni, G. Shannon, E. Aschehoug, S.E. Goodwin, A.Y. Kawahara, D. Luther, K. Spoelstra, M. Voss, and T. Longcore. 2015. A framework to assess evolutionary responses to anthropogenic light and sound. Trends in Ecology & Evolution 30(9):550-560.

Symons, J., E. Pirotta, and D. Lusseau. 2014. Sex differences in risk perception in deep-diving bottlenose dolphins leads to decreased foraging efficiency when exposed to human disturbance. Journal of Applied Ecology 51:1584-1592.

Tabuchi, M., N. Veldhoen, N. Dangerfield, S. Jeffries, C.C. Helbing, and P.S. Ross. 2006. PCB-related alteration of thyroid hormones and thyroid hormone receptor gene expression in free-ranging harbor seals (Phoca vitulina). Environmental Health Perspectives 114:1024-1031.

Tartu, S., F. Angelier, J. Bustnes, B. Moe, S. Hanssen, D. Herzke, G.W. Gabrielsen, N. Verboven, J. Jerreault, P. Labadie, H. Budzinski, J.C. Wingfield, and O. Chastel. 2015. Polychlorinated biphenyl exposure and corticosterone levels in seven polar seabird species. Environmental Pollution 197:173-180.

Tasker, M.L., M. Amundin, M. Andre, A.D. Hawkins, W. Lang, T. Merck, A. Scholik-Schlomer, J. Teilman, F. Thomsen, S. Werner, and M. Zakharia. 2010. Marine Strategy Framework Directive: Task Group 11 Report: Underwater Noise and Other Forms of Energy. JRC Scientific and Technical Report No. EUR 24341 EN-2010, European Commission and International Council for the Exploration of the Sea, Luxembourg.

Taylor, B.L., and D.P. Demaster. 1993. Implications of non-linear density dependence. Marine Mammal Science 9(4):360-371.

Taylor, B.L., P.R. Wade, D.P. De Master, and J. Barlow. 2000. Incorporating uncertainty into management models for marine mammals. Conservation Biology 14:1243-1252.

Taylor, B.L., M. Martinez, T. Gerrodette, J. Barlow, and Y.N. Hrovat. 2007. Lessons from monitoring trends in abundance of marine mammals. Marine Mammal Science 23:157-175.

Tennessen, J.B., S.E. Parks, and T. Langkilde. 2014. Traffic noise causes physiological stress and impairs breeding migration behaviour in frogs. Conservation Physiology 2:cou032.

Thomas, C.D., A. Cameron, R.E. Green, M. Bakkenes, L.J. Beaumont, Y.C. Collingham, B.F.N. Erasmus, M. Ferreira de Siqueira, A. Grainger, L. Hannah, L. Hughes, B. Huntley, A.S. van Jaarsveld, G.F. Midgley, L. Miles, M.A. Ortega-Huerta, A.T. Peterson, O.L. Phillips, and S.E. Williams. 2004. Extinction risk from climate change. Nature 427:145-148. doi: 10.1038/nature02121.

Thomas, L., S.T. Buckland, K.B. Newman, and J. Harwood. 2005. A unified framework for modeling wildlife population dynamics. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Statistics 47:19-34.

Thomas, P.O., R.R. Reeves, and R.L. Brownell. 2016. Status of the world’s baleen whales. Marine Mammal Science 32(2):682-734.

Thompson, D., J. Onoufriou, A. Brownlow, and A. Bishop. 2015. Preliminary Report on Predation by Adult Grey Seals on Grey Seal Pups as a Possible Explanation for Corkscrew Injury Patterns Seen in the Unexplained Seal Deaths: Addendum. Sea Mammal Research Unit, University of St. Andrews, Report to Scottish Government. Available at

Thompson, P.M., B. Mackey, T.R. Barton, C. Duck, and J.R.A. Butler. 2007. Assessing the potential impact of salmon fisheries management on the conservation status of harbour seals (Phoca vitulina) in north-east Scotland. Animal Conservation 10:48-56.

Thompson, P.M., D. Lusseau, T. Barton, D. Simmons, J. Rusin, and H. Bailey. 2010. Assessing the responses of coastal cetaceans to the construction of offshore wind turbines. Marine Pollution Bulletin 60:1200-1208.

Thompson, P.M., K.L. Brookes, I.M. Graham, T.R. Barton, K. Needham, G. Bradbury, and N.D. Merchant. 2013a. Short-term disturbance by a commercial two-dimensional seismic survey does not lead to long-term displacement of harbour porpoises. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences 280:20132001.

Thompson, P.M., G.D. Hastie, J. Nedwell, R. Barham, K.L. Brookes, L.S. Cordes, H. Bailey, and N. Mclean. 2013b. Framework for assessing impacts of pile-driving noise from offshore wind farm construction on a harbour seal population. Environmental Impact Assessment Review 43:73-85.

Tinker, M.T., G. Bentall, and J.A. Estes. 2008. Food limitation leads to behavioral diversification and dietary specialization in sea otters. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 105:560-565.

Tougaard, J., J. Carstensen, and J. Teilmann. 2009. Pile driving zone of responsiveness extends beyond 20 km for harbor porpoises (Phocoena phocoena (L.)). Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 126:11-14.

Trickey, J.S., B.K. Branstetter, and J.J. Finneran. 2010. Auditory masking of a 10 kHz tone with environmental, comodulated, and Gaussian noise in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus). Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 128:3799-3804.

Trillmich, F., K.A. Ono, D.P. Costa, R.L. DeLong, S.D. Feldkamp, J.M. Francis, R.L. Gentry, C.B. Heath, B.J. Le Boeuf, P. Majluf, and A.E. York. 1991. The effects of El Niño on pinniped populations in the eastern Pacific. Pp. 247-270 in Pinnipeds and El Niño. Berlin: Springer.

Trites, A.W., V.B. Deecke, E.J. Gregr, J.K.B. Ford, and P.F. Olesiuk. 2007. Killer whales, whaling, and sequential megafaunal collapse in the North Pacific: A comparative analysis of the dynamics of marine mammals in Alaska and British Columbia following commercial whaling. Marine Mammal Science 23(4):751-765.

Trumble, S.J., E.M. Robinson, M. Berman-Kowalewski, C.W. Potter, and S. Usenko. 2013. Blue whale earplug reveals lifetime contaminant exposure and hormone profiles. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 110(42):16922-16926.

Tubelli, A.A., A. Zosuls, D.R. Ketten, M. Yamato, and D.C. Mountain. 2012. A prediction of the minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata) middle-ear transfer function. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 132:3263-3272.

Turvey, S.T., R.L. Pitman, B.L. Taylor, J. Barlow, T. Akamatsu, L.A. Barrett, X. Zhao, R.R. Reeves, B.S. Stewart, K. Wang, and Z. Wei. 2007. First human-caused extinction of a cetacean species? Biology Letters 3(5):537-540.

Twiner, M.J., S. Fire, L. Schwacke, L. Davidson, Z.H. Wang, S. Morton, S. Roth, B. Balmer, T.K. Rowles, and R.S. Wells. 2011. Concurrent exposure of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) to multiple algal toxins in Sarasota Bay, Florida, USA. PLoS ONE 6(3):e17394.

Twiner, M.J., L.J. Flewelling, S.E. Fire, S.R. Bowen-Stevens, J.K. Gaydos, C.K. Johnson, J.H. Landsberg, T.A. Leighfield, B. Mase-Guthrie, L. Schwacke, F.M. Van Dolah, Z. Wang, and T.K. Rowles. 2012. Comparative analysis of three brevetoxin-associated bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) mortality events in the Florida Panhandle region (USA). PLoS ONE 7:e42974.

Tyack, P.L., and C.W. Clark. 1998. Quick-Look Report: Playback of Low-Frequency Sound to Gray Whales Migrating Past the Central California Coast. Woods Hole, MA: Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution.

Tyack, P.L., and V.J. Janik. 2013. Effects of noise on acoustic signal production. Pp. 251-271 in Animal Communication and Noise, H. Brumm, ed. Berlin: Springer.

Tyack, P.L., W.M.X. Zimmer, D. Moretti, B.L. Southall, D.E. Claridge, J.W. Durban, C.W. Clark, A. D’Amico, N. DiMarzio, S. Jarvis, E. McCarthy, R. Morrissey, J. Ward, and I.L. Boyd. 2011. Beaked whales respond to simulated and actual navy sonar. PLoS ONE 6(3):e17009.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Approaches to Understanding the Cumulative Effects of Stressors on Marine Mammals. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23479.

Uchida, K., M. Muranaka, Y. Horii, N. Murakami, R. Yamaguchi, and S. Tateyama. 1999. Non-purulent meningoencephalomyelitis of a Pacific striped dolphin (Lagenorhynchus obliquidens). The first evidence of morbilivirus infection in a dolphin at the Pacific Ocean around Japan. Journal of Veterinary Medical Science 61(2):159-162.

Ulbrich, B., and R. Stahlmann. 2004. Developmental toxicity of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs): A systematic review of experimental data. Archives of Toxicology 78:252-268.

U.S. Department of the Navy. 2013. Hawaiian-Southern California Training and Testing Activities. Final Environmental Impact Statement/Overseas Environmental Impact Statement. Available at

USFWS (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service). 2013. Southwest Alaska Distinct Population Segment of the Northern Sea Otter (Enhydra lutris kenyoni) Recovery Plan. Available at

Vacquié-Garcia, J., F. Royer, A.-C. Dragon, M. Viviant, F. Bailleul, and C. Guinet. 2012. Foraging in the darkness of the Southern Ocean: Influence of bioluminescence on a deep diving predator. PLoS ONE 7(8):e43565.

Valavanidis, A., T. Vlahogianni, M. Dassenakis, and M. Scoullos. 2006. Molecular biomarkers of oxidative stress in aquatic organisms in relation to toxic environmental pollutants. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 64(2):178-189.

Van Bressem, M.-F.E., J.A. Raga, G. Di Guardo, P.D. Jepson, P.J. Duignan, U. Siebert, T. Barrett, M.C. de Oliveira Santos, I.B. Moreno, S. Siciliano, and A. Aguilar. 2009. Emerging infectious diseases in cetaceans worldwide and the possible role of environmental stressors. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 86(2):143-157.

Van Bressem, M.-F.E., P.J. Duignan, A. Banyard, M. Barbieri, K.M. Colegrove, S. De Guise, G. Di Guardo, A. Dobson, M. Domingo, D. Fauquier, and A. Fernandez. 2014. Cetacean morbillivirus: Current knowledge and future directions. Viruses 6(12):5145-5181.

Van Bressem, M.-F.E., L. Flach, J.C. Reyes, M. Echegaray, M. Santos, F. Viddi, F. Félix, L. Lodi, and K. Van Waerebeek. 2015. Epidemiological characteristics of skin disorders in cetaceans from South American waters. Latin American Journal of Aquatic Mammals 10(1):20-32.

Van den Berg, M., L.S. Birnbaum, M. Denison, M. De Vito, W. Farland, M. Feeley, H. Fiedler, H. Hakansson, A. Hanberg, L. Haws, and M. Rose. 2006. The 2005 World Health Organization reevaluation of human and mammalian toxic equivalency factors for dioxins and dioxin-like compounds. Toxicological Sciences 93(2):223-241.

Van der Graaf, A.J., M.A. Ainslie, M. André, K. Brensing, J. Dalen, R.P.A. Dekeling, S. Robinson, M.L. Tasker, F. Thomsen, and S. Werner. 2012. European Marine Strategy Framework Directive–Good Environmental Status (MSFD GES): Report of the Technical Subgroup on Underwater Noise and Other Forms of Energy. Available at

Van der Zande, A.N., W.J. ter Keurs, and W.J. Weijden. 1980. The impact of roads on the densities of four bird species in an open field habitat—evidence of a long-distance effect. Biological Conservation 18:299-321.

Van Dolah, F.M. 2005. Effects of harmful algal blooms. Pp. 85-99 in Marine Mammal Research, Conservation Beyond Crisis, J. Reynolds, W. Perrin, R. Reeves, S. Montgomery, and T. Ragen, eds. Baltimore, MD: The Johns Hopkins University Press.

Van Dolah, F.M., M.G. Neely, L.E. McGeorge, B.C. Balmer, G.M. Ylitalo, E.S. Zolman, T. Speakman, C. Sinclair, N.M. Kellar, P.E. Rosel, K.D. Mullin, and L.H. Schwacke. 2015. Seasonal variation in the skin transcriptome of common bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) from the Northern Gulf of Mexico. PLoS ONE 10(6):e0130934.

Van Loveren, H., P.S. Ross, A.D. Osterhaus, and J.G. Vos. 2000. Contaminant-induced immunosuppression and mass mortalities among harbor seals. Toxicology Letters 112-113:319-324.

Van Neer, A., L.F. Jensen, and U. Siebert. 2014. Grey seal (Halichoerus grypus) predation on harbour seals (Phoca vitulina) on the island of Helgoland, Germany. Journal of Sea Research 97:1-4.

Vanderlaan, A.S.M., and C.T. Taggart. 2007. Vessel collisions with whales: The probability of lethal injury based on vessel speed. Marine Mammal Science 23:144-156.

VanWormer, E., P.A. Conrad, M.A. Miller, A.C. Melli, T.E. Carpenter, and J.A.K. Mazet. 2013. Toxoplasma gondii, source to sea: Higher contribution of domestic felids to terrestrial parasite loading despite lower infection prevalence. EcoHealth 10(3):277-289.

VanWormer, E., M.A. Miller, P.A. Conrad, M.E. Grigg, D. Rejmanek, T.E. Carpenter, and J.A.K. Mazet. 2014. Using molecular epidemiology to track Toxoplasma gondii from terrestrial carnivores to marine hosts: Implications for public health and conservation. PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases 8(5):e2852.

Vázquez-Medina, J.P., T. Zenteno-Savín, R. Elsner, and R.M. Ortiz. 2012. Coping with physiological oxidative stress: A review of antioxidant strategies in seals. Journal of Comparative Physiology B 182:741-750.

Vecchione, A., M.M. Peden-Adams, T.A. Romano, and P.A. Fair. 2008. Recent cytokine findings and implications toward health assessment of the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus). Aquatic Mammals 34(1):93-101.

Vélez-Espino, A., J.K.B. Ford, H.A. Araujo, G. Ellis, C.K. Parken, and R. Sharma. 2015. Relative importance of chinook salmon abundance on resident killer whale population growth and viability. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems 25(6):756-780.

Venn-Watson, S., C.R. Smith, E.D. Jensen, and T. Rowles. 2013. Assessing the potential health impacts of the 2003 and 2007 firestorms on bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops trucatus) in San Diego Bay. Inhalation Toxicology 25:481-491.

Venn-Watson, S., K.M. Colegrove, J. Litz, M. Kinsel, K. Terio, J. Saliki, S. Fire, R. Carmichael, C. Chevis, W. Hatchett, J. Pitchford, M. Tumlin, C. Field, S. Smith, R. Ewing, D. Fauquier, G. Lovewell, H. Whitehead, D. Rotstein, W. McFee, E. Fougeres, and T. Rowles. 2015. Adrenal gland and lung lesions in Gulf of Mexico common bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) found dead following the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. PLoS ONE 10:e0126538.

Verborgh, P., R. De Stephanis, S. Pérez, Y. Jaget, C. Barbraud, and C. Guinet. 2009. Survival rate, abundance, and residency of long-finned pilot whales in the Strait of Gibraltar. Marine Mammal Science 25(3):523-536.

Vert-pre, K.A., R.O. Amoroso, O.P. Jensen, and R. Hilborn. 2013. Frequency and intensity of productivity regime shifts in marine fish stocks. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 110(5):1779-1784.

Villegas-Amtmann, S., L.K. Schwarz, J.L. Sumich, and D.P. Costa. 2015. A bioenergetics model to evaluate demographic consequences of disturbance in marine mammals applied to gray whales. Ecosphere 6(10):183.

Wade, P.R., V.N. Burkanov, M.E. Dahlheim, N.A. Friday, L.W. Fritz, T.R. Loughlin, S.A. Mizroch, M.M. Muto, and D.W. Rice. 2007. Killer whales and marine mammal trends in the North Pacific—A re-examination of evidence for sequential megafauna collapse and the prey-switching hypothesis. Marine Mammal Science 23(4):766-802.

Wade, P.R., J.M. Ver Hoef, and D.P. Demaster. 2009. Mammal-eating killer whales and their prey—trend data for pinnipeds and sea otters in the North Pacific Ocean do not support the sequential megafaunal collapse hypothesis. Marine Mammal Science 25:737-747.

Wagemann, R., S. Innes, and P.R. Richard. 1996. Overview and regional and temporal differences of heavy metals in Arctic whales and ringed seals in the Canadian Arctic. Science of the Total Environment 186(1-2):41-46. doi: 10.1016/0048-9697(96)05085-1.

Wale, M.A., S.D. Simpson, and A.N. Radford. 2013. Noise negatively affects foraging and antipredator behaviour in shore crabs. Animal Behaviour 86:111-118.

Walters, C.J. 1986. Adaptive Management of Renewable Resources. New York: MacMillan.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Approaches to Understanding the Cumulative Effects of Stressors on Marine Mammals. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23479.

Ward, E.J., E.E. Holmes, and K.C. Balcomb. 2009. Quantifying the effects of prey abundance on killer whale reproduction. Journal of Applied Ecology 46:632-640.

Ward, W.D., E.M. Cushing, and E.M. Burns. 1976. Effective quiet and moderate TTS: Implications for noise exposure standards. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 59(1):160-165.

Ware, H.E., C.J. McClure, J.D. Carlisle, and J.R. Barber. 2015. A phantom road experiment reveals traffic noise is an invisible source of habitat degradation. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 112:12105-12109.

Watanabe, Y., E.A. Baranov, K. Sato, Y. Naito, and N. Miyazaki. 2006. Body density affects stroke patterns in Baikal seals. Journal of Experimental Biology 209:3269-3280.

Watkins, W.A., P. Tyack, K.E. Moore and J.E. Bird. 1987. The 20-Hz signals of finback whales (Balaenoptera physalus). Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 82:1901-1912.

Weihe, P., P. Grandjean, F. Debes, and R. White. 1996. Health implications for Faroe Islanders of heavy metals and PCBs from pilot whales. Science of the Total Environment 186(1):141-148.

Weinrich, M., and C. Corbelli. 2009. Does whale watching in Southern New England impact humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae) calf production or calf survival? Biological Conservation 142:2931-2940.

Wells, R.S., H.L. Rhinehart, L.J. Hansen, J.C. Sweeney, F.I. Townsend, R. Stone, D.R. Casper, M.D. Scott, A.A. Hohn, and T.K. Rowles. 2004. Bottlenose dolphins as marine ecosystem sentinels: Developing a health monitoring system. EcoHealth 1(3):246-254.

Wells, R.S., J.B. Allen, S. Hofmann, K. Bassos-Hull, D.A. Fauquier, N.B. Barros, R.E. DeLynn, G. Sutton, V. Socha, and M. Scott. 2008. Consequences of injuries on survival and reproduction of common bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) along the west coast of Florida. Marine Mammal Science 24(4):774-794.

Westgate, M.J., G.E. Likens, and D.B. Lindenmayer. 2013. Adaptive management of biological systems: A review. Biological Conservation 158:129-139.

Whitehead, H. 2002. Estimates of the current global population size and historical trajectory for sperm whales. Marine Ecology Progress Series 242:295-304.

Whitehead, H., and I.D. Jonsen. 2013. Inferring animal densities from tracking data using Markov chains. PLoS ONE 8:e60901.

Wild, C.P. 2005. Complementing the genome with an “exposome”: The outstanding challenge of environmental exposure measurement in molecular epidemiology. Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention 14(8):1847-1850.

Wiley, D.N., M.A. Thompson, R.M. Pace, and J. Levenson. 2011. Modeling speed restrictions to mitigate lethal collisions between ships and whales in the Stellwagen Bank National Marine Sanctuary, USA. Biological Conservation 144:2377-2381.

Williams, B.K. 2011a. Adaptive management of natural resources: Framework and issues. Journal of Environmental Management 92:1346-1353.

Williams, B.K. 2011b. Passive and active adaptive management: Approaches and an example. Journal of Environmental Management 92(5):1371-1378.

Williams, B.K., J.D. Nichols, and M.J. Conroy. 2001. Analysis and Management of Animal Populations. San Diego, CA: Academic Press.

Williams, R., S. Gero, L. Bejder, J. Calambokidis, S.D. Kraus, D. Lusseau, A.J. Read, and J. Robbins. 2011. Underestimating the damage: Interpreting cetacean carcass recoveries in the context of the Deepwater Horizon/BP incident. Conservation Letters 4:228-233.

Williams, R., G.A. Vikingsson, A. Gislason, C. Lockyer, L. New, L. Thomas, and P.S. Hammond. 2013. Evidence for density-dependent changes in body condition and pregnancy rate of North Atlantic fin whales over four decades of varying environmental conditions. ICES Journal of Marine Science 70(6):273-1280.

Williams, R., E. Ashe, L. Bright, M. Jasny, and L. Nowlan. 2014. Viewpoint: Marine mammals and ocean noise: Future directions and information needs with respect to science, policy and law in Canada. Marine Pollution Bulletin 86:29-38.

Williams, R., C. Erbe, E. Ashe, and C.W. Clark. 2015. Quiet(er) marine protected areas. Marine Pollution Bulletin 100:154-161.

Wilson, B., H. Arnold, G. Bearzi, C.M. Fortuna, R. Gaspar, S. Ingram, C. Liret, S. Probanic, A.J. Read, V. Ridoux, K. Schneider, K.W. Urian, R.S. Wells, C. Wood, P.M. Thompson, and P.S. Hammond. 1999. Epidermal diseases in bottlenose dolphins: Impacts of natural and anthropogenic factors. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 266:1077-1083.

Wilson, M., H.B. Shack, P.T. Madsen, A. Surlykke, and M. Wahlberg. 2011. Directional escape behavior in allis shad (Alosa alosa) exposed to ultrasonic clicks mimicking an approaching toothed whale. Journal of Experimental Biology 214:22-29. doi: 10.1242/jeb.043323.

Wilson, R.P., C.R. White, F. Quintana, L.G. Halsey, N. Liebsch, G.R. Martin, and P.J. Butler. 2006. Moving towards acceleration for estimates of activity-specific metabolic rate in free-living animals: The case of the cormorant. Journal of Animal Ecology 75(5):1081-1090.

Wilson, R.P., E.L.C. Shepard, and N. Liebsch. 2008. Prying into the intimate details of animal lives: Use of a daily diary on animals. Endangered Species Research 4:123-137.

Wiseman, S.B., Y. Wan, H. Chang, X. Zhang, M. Hecker, P.D. Jones, and J.P. Giesy. 2011. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers and their hydroxylated/methoxylated analogs: Environmental sources, metabolic relationships, and relative toxicities. Marine Pollution Bulletin 63(2011):179-188.

Wobeser, G.A. 1981. Diseases of Wild Waterfowl. New York: Plenum Press.

Wolkers, H., C. Lydersen, and K.M. Kovacs. 2004. Accumulation and lactational transfer of PCBs and pesticides in harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) from Svalbard, Norway. Science of the Total Environment 319:137-146.

Wright, A.J., and L.A. Kyhn. 2015. Practical management of cumulative anthropogenic impacts with working marine examples. Conservation Biology 29:333-340.

Yang, W.C., V.F. Pang, C.R. Jeng, L.S. Chou, and L.L. Chueh. 2006. Morbilliviral infection in a pygmy sperm whale (Kogia breviceps) from Taiwanese waters. Veterinary Microbiology 116(1):69-76.

Yeates, L.C., and D.S. Houser. 2008. Thermal tolerance in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus). Journal of Experimental Biology 211(20): 3249-3257.

Yodzis, P. 1988. The indeterminacy of ecological interactions as perceived through perturbation experiments. Ecology 69:508-515.

Yordy, J.E., R.S. Wells, B.C. Balmer, L.H. Schwacke, T.K. Rowles, and J.R. Kucklick. 2010. Life history as a source of variation for persistent organic pollutant (POP) patterns in a community of common bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) resident to Sarasota Bay, FL. Science of the Total Environment 408:2163-2172.

Zanette, L., A. White, M. Allen, and M. Clinchy. Perceived predation risk reduces the number of offspring songbirds produce per year. 2011. Science 334:1398-1401.

Zoeller, R.T., A.L.S. Dowling, C.T.A. Herzig, E.A. Iannocone, K.J. Gauger, and R. Bansal. 2002. Thyroid hormone, brain development, and the environment. Environmental Health Perspectives 110(Suppl. 3):355-361.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Approaches to Understanding the Cumulative Effects of Stressors on Marine Mammals. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23479.
Page 99
Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Approaches to Understanding the Cumulative Effects of Stressors on Marine Mammals. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23479.
Page 100
Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Approaches to Understanding the Cumulative Effects of Stressors on Marine Mammals. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23479.
Page 101
Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Approaches to Understanding the Cumulative Effects of Stressors on Marine Mammals. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23479.
Page 102
Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Approaches to Understanding the Cumulative Effects of Stressors on Marine Mammals. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23479.
Page 103
Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Approaches to Understanding the Cumulative Effects of Stressors on Marine Mammals. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23479.
Page 104
Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Approaches to Understanding the Cumulative Effects of Stressors on Marine Mammals. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23479.
Page 105
Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Approaches to Understanding the Cumulative Effects of Stressors on Marine Mammals. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23479.
Page 106
Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Approaches to Understanding the Cumulative Effects of Stressors on Marine Mammals. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23479.
Page 107
Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Approaches to Understanding the Cumulative Effects of Stressors on Marine Mammals. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23479.
Page 108
Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Approaches to Understanding the Cumulative Effects of Stressors on Marine Mammals. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23479.
Page 109
Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Approaches to Understanding the Cumulative Effects of Stressors on Marine Mammals. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23479.
Page 110
Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Approaches to Understanding the Cumulative Effects of Stressors on Marine Mammals. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23479.
Page 111
Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Approaches to Understanding the Cumulative Effects of Stressors on Marine Mammals. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23479.
Page 112
Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Approaches to Understanding the Cumulative Effects of Stressors on Marine Mammals. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23479.
Page 113
Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Approaches to Understanding the Cumulative Effects of Stressors on Marine Mammals. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23479.
Page 114
Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Approaches to Understanding the Cumulative Effects of Stressors on Marine Mammals. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23479.
Page 115
Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Approaches to Understanding the Cumulative Effects of Stressors on Marine Mammals. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23479.
Page 116
Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Approaches to Understanding the Cumulative Effects of Stressors on Marine Mammals. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23479.
Page 117
Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Approaches to Understanding the Cumulative Effects of Stressors on Marine Mammals. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23479.
Page 118
Next: Appendix A: Workshop Agenda »
Approaches to Understanding the Cumulative Effects of Stressors on Marine Mammals Get This Book
 Approaches to Understanding the Cumulative Effects of Stressors on Marine Mammals
Buy Paperback | $65.00 Buy Ebook | $54.99
MyNAP members save 10% online.
Login or Register to save!
Download Free PDF

Marine mammals face a large array of stressors, including loss of habitat, chemical and noise pollution, and bycatch in fishing, which alone kills hundreds of thousands of marine mammals per year globally. To discern the factors contributing to population trends, scientists must consider the full complement of threats faced by marine mammals. Once populations or ecosystems are found to be at risk of adverse impacts, it is critical to decide which combination of stressors to reduce to bring the population or ecosystem into a more favorable state. Assessing all stressors facing a marine mammal population also provides the environmental context for evaluating whether an additional activity could threaten it.

Approaches to Understanding the Cumulative Effects of Stressors on Marine Mammals builds upon previous reports to assess current methodologies used for evaluating cumulative effects and identify new approaches that could improve these assessments. This review focuses on ways to quantify exposure-related changes in the behavior, health, or body condition of individual marine mammals and makes recommendations for future research initiatives.


  1. ×

    Welcome to OpenBook!

    You're looking at OpenBook,'s online reading room since 1999. Based on feedback from you, our users, we've made some improvements that make it easier than ever to read thousands of publications on our website.

    Do you want to take a quick tour of the OpenBook's features?

    No Thanks Take a Tour »
  2. ×

    Show this book's table of contents, where you can jump to any chapter by name.

    « Back Next »
  3. ×

    ...or use these buttons to go back to the previous chapter or skip to the next one.

    « Back Next »
  4. ×

    Jump up to the previous page or down to the next one. Also, you can type in a page number and press Enter to go directly to that page in the book.

    « Back Next »
  5. ×

    Switch between the Original Pages, where you can read the report as it appeared in print, and Text Pages for the web version, where you can highlight and search the text.

    « Back Next »
  6. ×

    To search the entire text of this book, type in your search term here and press Enter.

    « Back Next »
  7. ×

    Share a link to this book page on your preferred social network or via email.

    « Back Next »
  8. ×

    View our suggested citation for this chapter.

    « Back Next »
  9. ×

    Ready to take your reading offline? Click here to buy this book in print or download it as a free PDF, if available.

    « Back Next »
Stay Connected!