National Academies Press: OpenBook
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Pathways to Urban Sustainability: Challenges and Opportunities for the United States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23551.
×

PATHWAYS TO URBAN SUSTAINABILITY

CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES FOR THE UNITED STATES

Committee on Pathways to Urban Sustainability: Challenges and Opportunities

Science and Technology for Sustainability Program

Policy and Global Affairs

A Report of

images

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS
Washington, DC
www.nap.edu

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Pathways to Urban Sustainability: Challenges and Opportunities for the United States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23551.
×

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001

This activity was supported by a grant from the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation under award number 13-105685-000-USP, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency under award number EP-C-14-005, TO #0001, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration under award number NNX15AD84G. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of any organization or agency that provided support for the project.

International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-44453-8
International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-44453-5
Digital Object Identifier: 10.17226/23551

Additional copies of this report are available for sale from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, NW, Keck 360, Washington, DC 20001; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313; http://www.nap.edu.

Copyright 2016 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

Printed in the United States of America

Suggested citation: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Pathways to Urban Sustainability: Challenges and Opportunities for the United States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23551.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Pathways to Urban Sustainability: Challenges and Opportunities for the United States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23551.
×

Image

The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, nongovernmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Marcia McNutt is president.

The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to bring the practices of engineering to advising the nation. Members are elected by their peers for extraordinary contributions to engineering. Dr. C. D. Mote, Jr., is president.

The National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine) was established in 1970 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to advise the nation on medical and health issues. Members are elected by their peers for distinguished contributions to medicine and health. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president.

The three Academies work together as the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to provide independent, objective analysis and advice to the nation and conduct other activities to solve complex problems and inform public policy decisions. The Academies also encourage education and research, recognize outstanding contributions to knowledge, and increase public understanding in matters of science, engineering, and medicine.

Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine at www.national-academies.org.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Pathways to Urban Sustainability: Challenges and Opportunities for the United States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23551.
×

Image

Reports document the evidence-based consensus of an authoring committee of experts. Reports typically include findings, conclusions, and recommendations based on information gathered by the committee and committee deliberations. Reports are peer reviewed and are approved by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine.

Proceedings chronicle the presentations and discussions at a workshop, symposium, or other convening event. The statements and opinions contained in proceedings are those of the participants and have not been endorsed by other participants, the planning committee, or the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine.

For information about other products and activities of the National Academies, please visit nationalacademies.org/whatwedo.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Pathways to Urban Sustainability: Challenges and Opportunities for the United States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23551.
×

COMMITTEE ON PATHWAYS TO URBAN SUSTAINABILITY: CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES

Linda P. B. Katehi (NAE) (Chair), Chancellor Emerita, University of California, Davis

Charles Branas, Professor, Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania

Marilyn A. Brown, Brook Byers Professor of Sustainable Systems, School of Public Policy, Georgia Institute of Technology

John W. Day, Distinguished Professor Emeritus, Department of Oceanography and Coastal Sciences, School of the Coast & Environment, Louisiana State University

Paulo Ferrão, President, Board of Directors of Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia; Professor, Instituto Superior Tecnico, University of Lisbon

Susan Hanson (NAS), Distinguished University Professor Emerita, School of Geography, Clark University

Chris T. Hendrickson (NAE), Hamerschlag University Professor, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Department of Engineering and Public Policy, Heinz School of Public Policy, Carnegie Mellon University

Suzanne Morse Moomaw, Associate Professor, Urban and Environmental Planning, Director, Community Design Research Center, School of Architecture, University of Virginia

Amanda Pitre-Hayes, Director of Planning, Vancouver Public Library

Karen C. Seto, Professor of Geography and Urbanization Science, Associate Dean of Research, Yale School of Forestry and Environmental Studies, Yale University

Ernest Tollerson, Board of Directors, Hudson River Foundation

Rae Zimmerman, Professor of Planning and Public Administration, Director of the Institute for Civil Infrastructure Systems, Wagner Graduate School of Public Service, New York University

Science and Technology for Sustainability Program Staff

Jerry Miller, Director, Science and Technology for Sustainability Program

Michael Dorsey, Senior Program Officer (from February 2016)

Dominic Brose, Program Officer

Emi Kameyama, Program Associate

Yasmin Romitti, Research Assistant

Jennifer Saunders, Senior Program Officer (until October 2015)

Mark Lange, Program Officer (until January 2016)

Ryan Anderson, Christine Mirzayan Science and Technology Policy Graduate Fellow (January to April 2016)

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Pathways to Urban Sustainability: Challenges and Opportunities for the United States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23551.
×

This page intentionally left blank.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Pathways to Urban Sustainability: Challenges and Opportunities for the United States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23551.
×

Preface

More than 80 percent of the U.S. population now resides in urban areas, a number that is projected to continue to increase. Cities and their suburbs account for a proportion of the U.S. economy far higher than their share of population. Urban areas have been associated with several environmental and social inequities, such as disproportionate levels of air and water pollution, loss of biodiversity, increased rates of poverty, and high rates of wealth inequity. Despite these problems, urban centers may have the potential to be more sustainable than suburban or rural areas. Through smart land-use planning, they can locally greatly reduce environmental impacts with lower per capita energy and water use. While there is no “cookie-cutter” approach to urban sustainability, the innovative methods now being developed in some cities may be transferable to others. Thus, it is valuable to assess some of the most innovative practices being implemented in specific metropolitan regions to determine whether and how they might be adapted and applied in other regions. Significant opportunities exist to strengthen collaborative learning across metropolitan regions. However, it must be realized that, from a whole system perspective that includes the biosphere with humans as part of it, this may not be the case. There are constraints that will strongly impact how urban areas can be in striving for sustainability.

This report builds on previous work by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine’s Science and Technology for Sustainability (STS) Program in this quickly growing field. In 2009, STS hosted a public meeting to engage federal, academic, and private researchers focusing on emerging research on urban systems, and on how human and environment interactions and the interplay among energy, water, transportation, and other systems could help decision makers address complex challenges. Following the 2009 meeting, STS convened three place-based urban sustainability workshops—in Atlanta, Georgia; Houston, Texas; and Portland, Oregon. These public workshops gathered local, state, and federal officials, academics, and key stakeholders to examine how challenges due to continued growth in each region can be addressed within the context of sustainability.

The regional workshops highlighted the complex challenges American cities face in trying to maximize environmental, social, and economic benefits and emphasized the need for providing a collective guide to inform how cities and regions can become more successful in implementing sustainable strategies. To address this need, an ad hoc committee from government, academia, and the philanthropic community was convened in December 2014. Brief biographies of the individual committee members are provided in Appendix A. The committee was charged to produce a paradigm that incorporates the social, economic, and environmental systems that exist in metropolitan regions in the United States, which are critical in the transition to sustainable metropolitan regions.

Page viii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Pathways to Urban Sustainability: Challenges and Opportunities for the United States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23551.
×

This paradigm could then serve as a blueprint for other regions with similar barriers to and opportunities for sustainable development and redevelopment.

In this report, Chapter 1 describes the challenge that the committee addressed. Chapter 2 discusses detailed urban sustainability indicators and metrics, Chapter 3 examines principles of urban sustainability and offers a roadmap for decision making, Chapter 4 explores the city profiles and the lessons they provide, and Chapter 5 provides a vision for improved responses to urban sustainability.

This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine’s Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their review of this report: David Allen, University of Texas, Austin; John Crittenden, Georgia Institute of Technology; Christopher Crockett, Philadelphia Water Department; Ruth DeFries, Columbia University; Janet Hering, Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science & Technology; Andrew Hutson; Environmental Defense Fund; Danya Keene, Yale University; Kevin Krizek, University of Colorado, Boulder; Matt Petersen, City of Los Angeles, California; Kenneth Reifsnider, University of Texas, Arlington; Jerry Schubel, Aquarium of the Pacific; William Solecki, Hunter College of the City University of New York; and Alison Taylor, Siemens Corporation.

Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations, nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Richard Wright (Retired), National Institute of Standards and Technology, and Michael Kavanaugh, Geosyntec Consultants. Appointed by the National Academies, they were responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring committee and the institution.

The report would not have been possible without the sponsors of this study, including the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

The committee gratefully acknowledges the following individuals for making presentations to the committee: Alan Hecht, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency; Mijo Vodopic, John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation; Elisabeth Larson, National Aeronautics and Space Administration; Matt Petersen, City of Los Angeles; Nancy Sutley, Los Angeles Department of Water and Power; Martin Wachs, University of California, Los Angeles; Jonathan Parfrey, Climate Resolve; Ted Bardacke, City of Los Angeles; Christine Margiotta, United Way of Greater Los Angeles; Mark Gold, University of California, Los Angeles; Jerry R. Schubel, Aquarium of the Pacific; Kevin Wattier, Long Beach Water Department; Heather Tomley, Port of Long Beach; Brian Ulaszewski, City Fabrick; Mayor Robert Garcia, City of Long Beach; Dan Sperling, University of California, Davis; John Mahoney, OpTerra Energy Services; James Brown, University of New Mexico; Erik Schmidt, City of Chattanooga; Harold DePriest, Electric Power Board; Blythe Bailey, Chattanooga Department of Transportation; David Crockett, formerly City of Chattanooga; Michael Walton, Green Spaces; Charlie Catlett, Argonne National Laboratory; Donna Williams, Chattanooga Office of Economic and Community Development; Benic Clark, Lyndhurst Foundation; Rick Wood, The Trust for Public Land; Lisa Darger, University of Tennessee; Stephen A. Hammer, The World Bank Group; Philip Enquist, Oak Ridge National Laboratory; and Garrett Fitzgerald, Urban Sustainability Directors Network. The information provided during the meetings is used throughout this report and provided important perspectives that were utilized in this report’s findings and conclusions. The committee would also like to recognize Lee Huang, Econsult Solutions, Inc.; Robert A. Joseph, graduate student researcher at New York University; Lindsay Alexis Voirin, graduate student researcher at New York University; Daniel D’Arcy, graduate student researcher at Georgia Institute of Technology; Lu Wang, graduate student researcher at Georgia Institute of Technology; Melissa Kopf, City of Cedar Rapids; Debora Loader, City of Flint; and Brent Heard, University of Michigan, who provided valuable assistance that informed committee deliberations.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Pathways to Urban Sustainability: Challenges and Opportunities for the United States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23551.
×

On behalf of the committee, I want to express our thanks and appreciation to Jerry Miller, director of the Science and Technology for Sustainability Program; Michael Dorsey, senior program officer; Dominic Brose, program officer; Yasmin Romitti, research assistant; Emi Kameyama, program associate; Jennifer Saunders, senior program officer (through October 2015); Mark Lange, program officer (through January 2016); and Ryan Anderson, Christine Mirzayan Science and Technology Policy Graduate Fellow (January to April 2016) for the time and effort they put into assembling the committee, planning the meetings, and organizing the report. I also thank the Academies staff, including Adriana Courembis, financial officer; Marilyn Baker, director for report and communication; Rita Johnson, senior editor; Karen Autrey, report review associate; Kara Laney, senior program officer; and Richard Bissell, executive director of Policy and Global Affairs, for their support and assistance with study activities.

Finally, I thank especially the members of the committee for their tireless efforts throughout the development of this report.

Linda Katehi, Chair
Committee on Pathways to Urban Sustainability:
Challenges and Opportunities

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Pathways to Urban Sustainability: Challenges and Opportunities for the United States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23551.
×

This page intentionally left blank.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Pathways to Urban Sustainability: Challenges and Opportunities for the United States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23551.
×
Page xiii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Pathways to Urban Sustainability: Challenges and Opportunities for the United States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23551.
×

Abbreviations and Acronyms

ACS American Community Survey
APTA American Public Transportation Association
AQI Air Quality Index
CAA Clean Air Act
CARB California Air Resources Board
CBSA Core Based Statistical Area
COP United Nations Conference of Parties
CSP Grand Rapids Area Community Sustainability Partnership
CUSP Center for Urban Science and Progress
DOE U.S. Department of Energy
DOT U.S. Department of Transportation
DSM Demand Side Management
EAC Chattanooga Early Action Compact
EIA Energy Information Administration
EIU Economic Intelligence Unit
EPA U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
EPB Chattanooga Electric Power Board
EPD Chattanooga Environmental Protection Division
EPR Extended Producer Responsibility
FARS Fatality Analysis Reporting System
FEMA Federal Emergency Management Agency
FHWA Federal Highway Administration
F.I.R.E. Financial, Insurance and Real Estate
GCP Gross city product
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Pathways to Urban Sustainability: Challenges and Opportunities for the United States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23551.
×
GDP Gross domestic product
GFN Global Footprint Network
GHG Greenhouse gas
GSI Green Stormwater Infrastructure
HAP Hazardous air pollutant
HOT High Occupancy/Toll
ICT Information and communication technologies
IPCC Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
ISO International Organization for Standardization
LACMTA Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority
LADWP Los Angeles Department of Water and Power
LED Light-emitting diode
LEED Leadership in Energy & Environmental Design
MAC New York State Municipal Assistance Corporation
MIT Massachusetts Institute of Technology
MMR Mayor’s Management Report
MSA Metropolitan Statistical Area
MTA New York Metropolitan Transportation Authority
MTCO2e Metric tonnes of carbon dioxide equivalent
NAACP National Association for the Advancement of Colored People
NAAQS National Ambient Air Quality Standards
NASA National Aeronautics and Space Administration
NCA National Climate Assessment
NCDC National Climatic Data Center
NGO Nongovernmental organization
NHTSA National Highway Traffic Safety Administration
NOAA National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
NRC National Research Council
NYCCAS New York City Community Air Survey
NYC DEP New York City Department of Environmental Protection
NYMTC New York Metropolitan Transportation Council
NYS DEC New York State Department of Environmental Conservation
NYS ISO New York State Independent System Operator
PANYNJ Port Authority of New York and New Jersey
PEV Plug-in electric vehicle
PM Particulate matter
RPS Renewable Portfolio Standard
SAIDI System Average Interruption Duration Index
SCADA Supervisory control and data acquisition
SDG Sustainable Development Goal
SEPTA Southeastern Pennsylvania Transportation Authority
SLR Sea-level rise
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Pathways to Urban Sustainability: Challenges and Opportunities for the United States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23551.
×
SO2 Sulfur dioxide
S&P Standard & Poor’s
STAR Sustainability Tools for Assessing and Rating Communities
TDM Transportation demand management
TEU Twenty-foot Equivalent Units
TMDL Total maximum daily load
TSM Transportation system management
TVA Tennessee Valley Authority
UN United Nations
UN-Habitat United Nations Human Settlements Programme
USDN Urban Sustainability Directors Network
USGCRP U.S. Global Change Research Program
USGS U.S. Geological Survey
VMT Vehicle miles of travel
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Pathways to Urban Sustainability: Challenges and Opportunities for the United States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23551.
×

This page intentionally left blank.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Pathways to Urban Sustainability: Challenges and Opportunities for the United States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23551.
×
PageR1
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Pathways to Urban Sustainability: Challenges and Opportunities for the United States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23551.
×
PageR2
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Pathways to Urban Sustainability: Challenges and Opportunities for the United States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23551.
×
PageR3
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Pathways to Urban Sustainability: Challenges and Opportunities for the United States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23551.
×
PageR4
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Pathways to Urban Sustainability: Challenges and Opportunities for the United States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23551.
×
PageR5
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Pathways to Urban Sustainability: Challenges and Opportunities for the United States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23551.
×
PageR6
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Pathways to Urban Sustainability: Challenges and Opportunities for the United States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23551.
×
PageR7
Page viii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Pathways to Urban Sustainability: Challenges and Opportunities for the United States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23551.
×
PageR8
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Pathways to Urban Sustainability: Challenges and Opportunities for the United States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23551.
×
PageR9
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Pathways to Urban Sustainability: Challenges and Opportunities for the United States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23551.
×
PageR10
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Pathways to Urban Sustainability: Challenges and Opportunities for the United States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23551.
×
PageR11
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Pathways to Urban Sustainability: Challenges and Opportunities for the United States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23551.
×
PageR12
Page xiii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Pathways to Urban Sustainability: Challenges and Opportunities for the United States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23551.
×
PageR13
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Pathways to Urban Sustainability: Challenges and Opportunities for the United States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23551.
×
PageR14
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Pathways to Urban Sustainability: Challenges and Opportunities for the United States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23551.
×
PageR15
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Pathways to Urban Sustainability: Challenges and Opportunities for the United States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23551.
×
PageR16
Next: Summary »
Pathways to Urban Sustainability: Challenges and Opportunities for the United States Get This Book
×
Buy Paperback | $69.00 Buy Ebook | $54.99
MyNAP members save 10% online.
Login or Register to save!
Download Free PDF

Cities have experienced an unprecedented rate of growth in the last decade. More than half the world’s population lives in urban areas, with the U.S. percentage at 80 percent. Cities have captured more than 80 percent of the globe’s economic activity and offered social mobility and economic prosperity to millions by clustering creative, innovative, and educated individuals and organizations. Clustering populations, however, can compound both positive and negative conditions, with many modern urban areas experiencing growing inequality, debility, and environmental degradation.

The spread and continued growth of urban areas presents a number of concerns for a sustainable future, particularly if cities cannot adequately address the rise of poverty, hunger, resource consumption, and biodiversity loss in their borders. Intended as a comparative illustration of the types of urban sustainability pathways and subsequent lessons learned existing in urban areas, this study examines specific examples that cut across geographies and scales and that feature a range of urban sustainability challenges and opportunities for collaborative learning across metropolitan regions. It focuses on nine cities across the United States and Canada (Los Angeles, CA, New York City, NY, Philadelphia, PA, Pittsburgh, PA, Grand Rapids, MI, Flint, MI, Cedar Rapids, IA, Chattanooga, TN, and Vancouver, Canada), chosen to represent a variety of metropolitan regions, with consideration given to city size, proximity to coastal and other waterways, susceptibility to hazards, primary industry, and several other factors.

  1. ×

    Welcome to OpenBook!

    You're looking at OpenBook, NAP.edu's online reading room since 1999. Based on feedback from you, our users, we've made some improvements that make it easier than ever to read thousands of publications on our website.

    Do you want to take a quick tour of the OpenBook's features?

    No Thanks Take a Tour »
  2. ×

    Show this book's table of contents, where you can jump to any chapter by name.

    « Back Next »
  3. ×

    ...or use these buttons to go back to the previous chapter or skip to the next one.

    « Back Next »
  4. ×

    Jump up to the previous page or down to the next one. Also, you can type in a page number and press Enter to go directly to that page in the book.

    « Back Next »
  5. ×

    Switch between the Original Pages, where you can read the report as it appeared in print, and Text Pages for the web version, where you can highlight and search the text.

    « Back Next »
  6. ×

    To search the entire text of this book, type in your search term here and press Enter.

    « Back Next »
  7. ×

    Share a link to this book page on your preferred social network or via email.

    « Back Next »
  8. ×

    View our suggested citation for this chapter.

    « Back Next »
  9. ×

    Ready to take your reading offline? Click here to buy this book in print or download it as a free PDF, if available.

    « Back Next »
Stay Connected!