National Academies Press: OpenBook

Airport Advisories at Non-Towered Airports (2016)

Chapter: Front Matter

Page i
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Airport Advisories at Non-Towered Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23628.
×
Page R1
Page ii
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Airport Advisories at Non-Towered Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23628.
×
Page R2
Page iii
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Airport Advisories at Non-Towered Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23628.
×
Page R3
Page iv
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Airport Advisories at Non-Towered Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23628.
×
Page R4
Page v
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Airport Advisories at Non-Towered Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23628.
×
Page R5
Page vi
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Airport Advisories at Non-Towered Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23628.
×
Page R6
Page vii
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Airport Advisories at Non-Towered Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23628.
×
Page R7
Page viii
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Airport Advisories at Non-Towered Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23628.
×
Page R8

Below is the uncorrected machine-read text of this chapter, intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text of each book. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

Research Sponsored by the Federal Aviation Administration SubScriber categorieS Aviation • Security and Emergencies A I R P O R T C O O P E R A T I V E R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M ACRP SYNTHESIS 75 Airport Advisories at Non-Towered Airports A Synthesis of Airport Practice conSultant C. Daniel Prather California Baptist University and DPrather Aviation Solutions LLC Riverside, California 2016

AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM Airports are vital national resources. They serve a key role in transportation of people and goods and in regional, national, and international commerce. They are where the nation’s aviation sys- tem connects with other modes of transportation and where federal responsibility for managing and regulating air traffic operations intersects with the role of state and local governments that own and operate most airports. Research is necessary to solve common oper- ating problems, to adapt appropriate new technologies from other industries, and to introduce innovations into the airport industry. The Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) serves as one of the principal means by which the airport industry can develop innovative near-term solutions to meet demands placed on it. The need for ACRP was identified in TRB Special Report 272: Airport Research Needs: Cooperative Solutions in 2003, based on a study sponsored by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). ACRP carries out applied research on problems that are shared by airport operating agencies and not being adequately addressed by existing federal research programs. ACRP is modeled after the successful National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP) and Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP). ACRP undertakes research and other technical activities in various airport subject areas, including design, construction, legal, mainte- nance, operations, safety, policy, planning, human resources, and administration. ACRP provides a forum where airport operators can cooperatively address common operational problems. ACRP was authorized in December 2003 as part of the Vision 100—Century of Aviation Reauthorization Act. The primary par- ticipants in the ACRP are (1) an independent governing board, the ACRP Oversight Committee (AOC), appointed by the Secretary of the U.S. Department of Transportation with representation from airport operating agencies, other stakeholders, and relevant indus- try organizations such as the Airports Council International-North America (ACI-NA), the American Association of Airport Execu- tives (AAAE), the National Association of State Aviation Officials (NASAO), Airlines for America (A4A), and the Airport Consul- tants Council (ACC) as vital links to the airport community; (2) TRB as program manager and secretariat for the governing board; and (3) the FAA as program sponsor. In October 2005, the FAA executed a contract with the National Academy of Sciences for- mally initiating the program. ACRP benefits from the cooperation and participation of airport professionals, air carriers, shippers, state and local government officials, equipment and service suppliers, other airport users, and research organizations. Each of these participants has different interests and responsibilities, and each is an integral part of this cooperative research effort. Research problem statements for ACRP are solicited periodi- cally but may be submitted to TRB by anyone at any time. It is the responsibility of the AOC to formulate the research program by identifying the highest priority projects and defining funding levels and expected products. Once selected, each ACRP project is assigned to an expert panel appointed by TRB. Panels include experienced practitioners and research specialists; heavy emphasis is placed on including airport professionals, the intended users of the research products. The panels prepare project statements (requests for proposals), select contractors, and provide technical guidance and counsel throughout the life of the project. The process for developing research prob- lem statements and selecting research agencies has been used by TRB in managing cooperative research programs since 1962. As in other TRB activities, ACRP project panels serve voluntarily with- out compensation. Primary emphasis is placed on disseminating ACRP results to the intended users of the research: airport operating agencies, service providers, and academic institutions. ACRP produces a series of research reports for use by airport operators, local agencies, the FAA, and other interested parties; industry associations may arrange for workshops, training aids, field visits, webinars, and other activities to ensure that results are implemented by airport industry practitioners. ACRP SYNTHESIS 75 Project A11-03, Topic S04-15 ISSN 1935-9187 ISBN 978-0-309-38974-7 Library of Congress Control Number 2016941220 © 2016 National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. COPYRIGHT INFORMATION Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously published or copyrighted material used herein. Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permission is given with the understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB, AASHTO, FAA, FHWA, FMCSA, FRA, FTA, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Research and Technology, PHMSA, or TDC endorsement of a particular product, method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the material in this document for educational and not-for-profit uses will give appropriate acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of the material, request permission from CRP. NOTICE The report was reviewed by the technical panel and accepted for publication according to procedures established and overseen by the Transportation Research Board and approved by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The opinions and conclusions expressed or implied in this report are those of the researchers who performed the research and are not necessari- ly those of the Transportation Research Board; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; or the program sponsors. The Transportation Research Board; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; and the sponsors of the Airport Cooperative Research Program do not endorse products or manufacturers. Trade or manufacturers’ names appear herein solely because they are considered essential to the object of the report. Published reports of the AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM are available from Transportation Research Board Business Office 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 and can be ordered through the Internet by going to http://www.national-academies.org and then searching for TRB Printed in the United States of America

The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, non- governmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Marcia McNutt is president. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to bring the practices of engineering to advising the nation. Members are elected by their peers for extraordinary contributions to engineering. Dr. C. D. Mote, Jr., is president. The National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine) was established in 1970 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to advise the nation on medical and health issues. Members are elected by their peers for distinguished contributions to medicine and health. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president. The three Academies work together as the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to provide independent, objective analysis and advice to the nation and conduct other activities to solve complex problems and inform public policy decisions. The Academies also encourage education and research, recognize outstanding contributions to knowledge, and increase public understanding in matters of science, engineering, and medicine. Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine at www.national-academies.org. The Transportation Research Board is one of seven major programs of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The mission of the Transportation Research Board is to increase the benefits that transportation contributes to society by providing leadership in transportation innovation and progress through research and information exchange, conducted within a setting that is objective, interdisciplinary, and multimodal. The Board’s varied committees, task forces, and panels annually engage about 7,000 engineers, scientists, and other transportation researchers and practitioners from the public and private sectors and academia, all of whom contribute their expertise in the public interest. The program is supported by state transportation departments, federal agencies including the component administrations of the U.S. Department of Transportation, and other organizations and individuals interested in the development of transportation. Learn more about the Transportation Research Board at www.TRB.org.

TOPIC PANEL S04-15 KERRY L. AHEARN, Boulder City Municipal Airport, Boulder City, NV MEGAN BARNES, Paragon Aviation Group, Cyprus, TX SHELLY LESIKER DeZEVALLOS, West Houston Airport, Houston, TX BECKY LUTTE, University of Nebraska, Omaha, NE BRIAN D. McKEEHAN, Gresham Smith and Partners, Tampa, FL CHRIS ROZANSKY, Naples Airport Authority, Naples, FL REBECCA HENRY, Federal Aviation Administration (Liaison) JOHN L. COLLINS, AOPA Air Safety Institute, Frederick, MD (Liaison) SYNTHESIS STUDIES STAFF STEPHEN R. GODWIN, Director for Studies and Special Programs JON M. WILLIAMS, Program Director, IDEA and Synthesis Studies JO ALLEN GAUSE, Senior Program Officer GAIL R. STABA, Senior Program Officer DONNA L. VLASAK, Senior Program Officer TANYA M. ZWAHLEN, Consultant DON TIPPMAN, Senior Editor CHERYL KEITH, Senior Program Assistant DEMISHA WILLIAMS, Senior Program Assistant DEBBIE IRVIN, Program Associate COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAMS STAFF CHRISTOPHER W. JENKS, Director, Cooperative Research Programs MICHAEL R. SALAMONE, Senior Program Officer JEFFREY OSER, Program Associate EILEEN P. DELANEY, Director of Publications ACRP COMMITTEE FOR PROJECT 11-03 CHAIR JOSHUA D. ABRAMSON, Easterwood Airport, College Station, TX JULIE KENFIELD, Jacobsen/Daniels Associates, LLC, Garden Ridge, TX MEMBERS DEBBIE K. ALKE, Montana Department of Transportation, Helena, MT GLORIA G. BENDER, TransSolutions, Fort Worth, TX DAVID K. BYERS, Quadrex Aviation, LLC, Melbourne, FL DAVID N. EDWARDS, JR., Greenville–Spartanburg Airport District, Greer, SC BRENDA L. ENOS, Massachusetts Port Authority, East Boston, MA LINDA HOWARD, Independent Aviation Consultant, Bastrop, TX ARLYN PURCELL, Port Authority of New York & New Jersey, New York, NY FAA LIAISON PATRICK W. MAGNOTTA AIRCRAFT OWNERS AND PILOTS ASSOCIATION LIAISON ADAM WILLIAMS AIRPORTS CONSULTANTS COUNCIL LIAISON MATTHEW J. GRIFFIN AIRPORTS COUNCIL INTERNATIONAL–NORTH AMERICA LIAISON LIYING GU TRB LIAISON CHRISTINE GERENCHER Cover photo: General aviation aircraft on approach into a non-towered airport. Source: Eddie Maloney, Wikimedia Commons.

FOREWORD Airport administrators, engineers, and researchers often face problems for which informa- tion already exists, either in documented form or as undocumented experience and practice. This information may be fragmented, scattered, and unevaluated. As a consequence, full knowledge of what has been learned about a problem may not be brought to bear on its solution. Costly research findings may go unused, valuable experience may be overlooked, and due consideration may not be given to recommended practices for solving or alleviat- ing the problem. There is information on nearly every subject of concern to the airport industry. Much of it derives from research or from the work of practitioners faced with problems in their day-to-day work. To provide a systematic means for assembling and evaluating such useful information and to make it available to the entire airport community, the Airport Coop- erative Research Program authorized the Transportation Research Board to undertake a continuing project. This project, ACRP Project 11-03, “Synthesis of Information Related to Airport Practices,” searches out and synthesizes useful knowledge from all available sources and prepares concise, documented reports on specific topics. Reports from this endeavor constitute an ACRP report series, Synthesis of Airport Practice. This synthesis series reports on current knowledge and practice, in a compact format, without the detailed directions usually found in handbooks or design manuals. Each report in the series provides a compendium of the best knowledge available on those measures found to be the most successful in resolving specific problems. ACRP Synthesis 75: Airport Advisories at Non-Towered Airports documents the man- ner in which non-towered airports provide advisories to pilots regarding winds, traffic, and runways in use. Unlike with pilot advisories, there is little guidance available for airport operators in providing airport advisories. The objective of this report is to aggregate avail- able guidance on this topic and document information from non-towered airports with at least 50,000 annual aircraft operations. The report includes a literature review and a tele- phone interview survey of 165 non-towered airports. More detailed interviews were con- ducted and used to develop six case examples that document effective airport advisory programs in place at airports. C. Daniel Prather, California Baptist University and DPrather Aviation Solutions LLC, Riverside, California, collected and synthesized the information and wrote the report. The members of the topic panel are acknowledged on the preceding page. This synthesis is an immediately useful document that records the practices that were acceptable within the limitations of the knowledge available at the time of its preparation. As progress in research and practice continues, new knowledge will be added to that now at hand. PREFACE By Tanya M. Zwahlen Consultant Transportation Research Board

CONTENTS ix DEFINITIONS 1 SUMMARY 3 CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 5 CHAPTER TWO STUDY METHODOLOGY 8 CHAPTER THREE LITERATURE REVIEW Overview, 9 Observing the Segmented Circle, 9 Communicating with FSS, 9 Communicating with UNICOM Operator, 10 Communicating on CTAF, 12 Communicating on a Combined CTAF/UNICOM, 12 Listening to AWOS/ASOS, 13 Using Automated UNICOM, 13 Using AWOS Plus Automated UNICOM (Super AWOS), 14 Research, 15 Guidance, 16 Grant Assurance 19: Operation and Maintenance, 17 14 CFR Part 91.113: Right-of-Way Rules, 17 AC 150/5210-20: Ground Vehicle Operations on Airports, 17 FAA Guide to Ground Vehicle Operations, 17 AC 90-66A: Recommended Standard Traffic Patterns and Practices for Aeronautical Operations at Airports Without Operating Control Towers, 17 AC 90-42F: Traffic Advisory Practices at Airports Without Operating Control Towers, 18 Proposed Discontinuation of Airport Advisory Service, 18 AOPA Safety Advisor, 18 FAA Pilot Handbook, Chapter 13—Airport Operations, 19 47 CFR Part 87.213: Aeronautical Advisory Stations (UNICOMs), 19 Summary, 19 20 CHAPTER FOUR SURVEY RESULTS Method of Advisories, 20 Audible Advisories, 20 Difference Between Published and Actual Procedures, 22 Airport Operations/Maintenance/Aircraft Rescue Firefighting Vehicle Procedures, 23 Role of Common Traffic Advisory Frequency, 23 Common Traffic Advisory Frequency, 24 Pilot Consistency, 25 Efforts to Minimize Incursions, 26 Improvements to Airfield Safety, 27

Necessity of Airport Advisories, 27 Proposed Changes to Airport Advisories, 27 Lessons Learned, 28 NASA Aviation Safety Reporting System Reports, 29 32 CHAPTER FIVE CASE EXAMPLES Case Example 1: Shelbyville Municipal Airport, Shelbyville, Tennessee, 32 59 Based Aircraft, 141 Daily Operations, UNICOM Operated by FBO, 32 Case Example 2: Carson Airport, Carson City, Nevada, 32 201 Based Aircraft, 229 Daily Operations, CTAF/UNICOM Operated by Two FBOs, 32 Case Example 3: Bremerton National Airport, Bremerton, Washington, 33 168 Based Aircraft, 181 Daily Operations, UNICOM Operated by FBO, 33 Case Example 4: West Houston Airport, Houston, Texas, 34 400 Based Aircraft, 282 Daily Operations, CTAF/UNICOM Operated by FBO, 34 Case Example 5: Caldwell Industrial Airport, Caldwell, Idaho, 34 352 Based Aircraft, 403 Daily Operations, CTAF/UNICOM Operated by Airport, 34 Case Example 6: Meadow Lake Airport, Colorado Springs, Colorado, 35 421 Based Aircraft, 162 Daily Operations, CTAF/UNICOM Operated by Airport, 35 Summary of Case Example Findings, 35 37 CHAPTER SIX CONCLUSIONS AND FUTURE RESEARCH Conclusion 1, 37 Conclusion 2, 37 Conclusion 3, 37 Conclusion 4, 39 Conclusion 5, 39 Conclusion 6, 39 Conclusion 7, 39 Conclusion 8, 39 Conclusion 9, 39 Conclusion 10, 40 Future Research, 40 41 REFERENCES 43 APPENDIX A AIRPORTS INCLUDED IN STUDY 48 APPENDIX B SURVEY INTERVIEW SCRIPT 49 APPENDIX C CASE EXAMPLE INTERVIEW SCRIPT 50 APPENDIX D NASA AVIATION SAFETY REPORTING SYSTEM REPORTS FILED AT AIRPORTS IN STUDY Note: Photographs, figures, and tables in this report may have been converted from color to grayscale for printing. The electronic version of the report (posted on the web at www.trb.org) retains the color versions.

ASOS—Automated Surface Observing System. This is a joint effort of the National Weather Service (NWS), FAA, and the Department of Defense (DOD). The ASOS comprises a standard suite of weather sensors and is available from a single vendor. The ASOS system serves as the nation’s primary surface weather observing network. ASOS is designed to support weather forecast activities and aviation operations while supporting the needs of the meteorological, hydrological, and climatological research communities (ASOS 1999). ATCT—Air traffic control tower. ATIS—Automatic Terminal Information Service. Frequency on which a continuous broadcast of recorded noncontrol aeronautical information is available, typically at busier airports. AWOS—Automated Weather Observing System. The AWOS is a suite of weather sensors of many different configurations that were procured by the FAA or purchased by the airport from three dif- ferent vendors in the United States. AWSS—Automated Weather Sensors System. This is an AWOS with improved sensor technology. CFI—Certified flight instructor. CTAF—Common traffic advisory frequency. A designated frequency for the purpose of carrying out airport advisory practices while operating to or from an airport that does not have a control tower or an airport where the control tower is not operational. The CTAF is normally a UNICOM, MULTICOM, flight service station (FSS) frequency, or a tower frequency. FBO—Fixed-base operator. FCC—Federal Communications Commission. FSS—Flight service station. Air traffic facilities that provide pilot briefings, flight plan processing, in-flight radio communications, search and rescue (SAR) services, and assistance to lost aircraft and aircraft in emergency situations. FSSs also relay air traffic control (ATC) clearances, process Notices to Airmen (NOTAMs), broadcast aviation meteorological and aeronautical information, and notify Customs and Border Protection of transborder flights. MULTICOM—A mobile service, not open to public correspondence use, used for essential com- munications in the conduct of activities performed by or directed from private aircraft. NOTAM—Notice to Airmen. Pilot advisories—Pilots communicate intentions in and around the airport traffic pattern. PIREP—Pilot report. UNICOM—A nongovernment air/ground radio communication station that may provide airport information at public-use airports where there is no tower or FSS. On pilot request, UNICOM stations may provide pilots with weather information, wind direction, the recommended runway, or other necessary information. If the UNICOM frequency is designated as the CTAF, it will be identified in appropriate aeronautical publications. DEFINITIONS

Next: Summary »
Airport Advisories at Non-Towered Airports Get This Book
×
 Airport Advisories at Non-Towered Airports
Buy Paperback | $51.00
MyNAP members save 10% online.
Login or Register to save!
Download Free PDF

TRB’s Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Synthesis 75: Airport Advisories at Non-Towered Airports documents the manner in which non-towered airports provide advisories to pilots regarding winds, traffic, and runways in use. Unlike with pilot advisories, there is little guidance available for airport operators in providing airport advisories. The objective of this report is to aggregate available guidance on this topic and document information from non-towered airports with at least 50,000 annual aircraft operations. The report includes a literature review and a telephone interview survey of 165 non-towered airports. Six case examples are included, documenting effective airport advisory programs in place at airports.

READ FREE ONLINE

  1. ×

    Welcome to OpenBook!

    You're looking at OpenBook, NAP.edu's online reading room since 1999. Based on feedback from you, our users, we've made some improvements that make it easier than ever to read thousands of publications on our website.

    Do you want to take a quick tour of the OpenBook's features?

    No Thanks Take a Tour »
  2. ×

    Show this book's table of contents, where you can jump to any chapter by name.

    « Back Next »
  3. ×

    ...or use these buttons to go back to the previous chapter or skip to the next one.

    « Back Next »
  4. ×

    Jump up to the previous page or down to the next one. Also, you can type in a page number and press Enter to go directly to that page in the book.

    « Back Next »
  5. ×

    To search the entire text of this book, type in your search term here and press Enter.

    « Back Next »
  6. ×

    Share a link to this book page on your preferred social network or via email.

    « Back Next »
  7. ×

    View our suggested citation for this chapter.

    « Back Next »
  8. ×

    Ready to take your reading offline? Click here to buy this book in print or download it as a free PDF, if available.

    « Back Next »
Stay Connected!