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2016 T R A N S I T C O O P E R A T I V E R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M TCRP RESEARCH REPORT 187 Research sponsored by the Federal Transit Administration in cooperation with the Transit Development Corporation Subject Areas Public Transportation â¢ Planning and Forecasting Livable Transit Corridors: Methods, Metrics, and Strategies Christopher E. Ferrell Bruce S. Appleyard CFA ConsultAnts Berkeley and San Diego, CA Matthew Taecker tAeCker PlAnning And design Berkeley, CA Chris Allen Courtney Armusewicz Caleb Schroder San Diego, CA
TCRP RESEARCH REPORT 187 Project H-45 ISSN 1073-4872 ISBN 978-0-309-37567-2 Â© 2016 National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. COPYRIGHT INFORMATION Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously published or copyrighted material used herein. Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permission is given with the understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB, AASHTO, FAA, FHWA, FMCSA, FRA, FTA, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Research and Technology, PHMSA, or TDC endorsement of a particular product, method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the material in this document for educational and not-for-profit uses will give appropriate acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of the material, request permission from CRP. NOTICE The research report was reviewed by the technical panel and accepted for publication according to procedures established and overseen by the Transportation Research Board and approved by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The opinions and conclusions expressed or implied in this report are those of the researchers who performed the research and are not necessarily those of the Transportation Research Board; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; or the program sponsors. The Transportation Research Board; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; and the sponsors of the Transit Cooperative Research Program do not endorse products or manufacturers. Trade or manufacturersâ names appear herein solely because they are considered essential to the object of the report. TRANSIT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM The nationâs growth and the need to meet mobility, environmental, and energy objectives place demands on public transit systems. Cur- rent systems, some of which are old and in need of upgrading, must expand service area, increase service frequency, and improve efficiency to serve these demands. Research is necessary to solve operating prob- lems, adapt appropriate new technologies from other industries, and introduce innovations into the transit industry. The Transit Coopera- tive Research Program (TCRP) serves as one of the principal means by which the transit industry can develop innovative near-term solutions to meet demands placed on it. The need for TCRP was originally identified in TRB Special Report 213âResearch for Public Transit: New Directions, published in 1987 and based on a study sponsored by the Urban Mass Transportation Administrationânow the Federal Transit Administration (FTA). A report by the American Public Transportation Association (APTA), Transportation 2000, also recognized the need for local, problem- solving research. TCRP, modeled after the successful National Coop- erative Highway Research Program (NCHRP), undertakes research and other technical activities in response to the needs of transit ser- vice providers. The scope of TCRP includes various transit research fields including planning, service configuration, equipment, facilities, operations, human resources, maintenance, policy, and administrative practices. TCRP was established under FTA sponsorship in July 1992. Proposed by the U.S. Department of Transportation, TCRP was authorized as part of the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991 (ISTEA). On May 13, 1992, a memorandum agreement outlining TCRP operating procedures was executed by the three cooperating organi- zations: FTA; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, acting through the Transportation Research Board (TRB); and the Transit Development Corporation, Inc. (TDC), a nonprofit educational and research organization established by APTA. TDC is responsible for forming the independent governing board, designated as the TCRP Oversight and Project Selection (TOPS) Committee. Research problem statements for TCRP are solicited periodically but may be submitted to TRB by anyone at any time. It is the responsibility of the TOPS Committee to formulate the research program by identi- fying the highest priority projects. As part of the evaluation, the TOPS Committee defines funding levels and expected products. Once selected, each project is assigned to an expert panel appointed by TRB. The panels prepare project statements (requests for propos- als), select contractors, and provide technical guidance and counsel throughout the life of the project. The process for developing research problem statements and selecting research agencies has been used by TRB in managing cooperative research programs since 1962. As in other TRB activities, TCRP project panels serve voluntarily without compensation. Because research cannot have the desired effect if products fail to reach the intended audience, special emphasis is placed on disseminat- ing TCRP results to the intended users of the research: transit agen- cies, service providers, and suppliers. TRB provides a series of research reports, syntheses of transit practice, and other supporting material developed by TCRP research. APTA will arrange for workshops, train- ing aids, field visits, and other activities to ensure that results are imple- mented by urban and rural transit industry practitioners. TCRP provides a forum where transit agencies can cooperatively address common operational problems. TCRP results support and complement other ongoing transit research and training programs. Published research reports of the TRANSIT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM are available from Transportation Research Board Business Office 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 and can be ordered through the Internet by going to http://www.national-academies.org and then searching for TRB
The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, non- governmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Marcia McNutt is president. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to bring the practices of engineering to advising the nation. Members are elected by their peers for extraordinary contributions to engineering. Dr. C. D. Mote, Jr., is president. The National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine) was established in 1970 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to advise the nation on medical and health issues. Members are elected by their peers for distinguished contributions to medicine and health. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president. The three Academies work together as the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to provide independent, objective analysis and advice to the nation and conduct other activities to solve complex problems and inform public policy decisions. The Academies also encourage education and research, recognize outstanding contributions to knowledge, and increase public understanding in matters of science, engineering, and medicine. Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine at www.national-academies.org. The Transportation Research Board is one of seven major programs of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The mission of the Transportation Research Board is to increase the benefits that transportation contributes to society by providing leadership in transportation innovation and progress through research and information exchange, conducted within a setting that is objective, interdisciplinary, and multimodal. The Boardâs varied committees, task forces, and panels annually engage about 7,000 engineers, scientists, and other transportation researchers and practitioners from the public and private sectors and academia, all of whom contribute their expertise in the public interest. The program is supported by state transportation departments, federal agencies including the component administrations of the U.S. Department of Transportation, and other organizations and individuals interested in the development of transportation. Learn more about the Transportation Research Board at www.TRB.org.
C O O P E R A T I V E R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M S AUTHOR ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The research reported herein was performed under TCRP Project H-45 by CFA Consultants, the prime contractor for this study. Dr. Christopher E. Ferrell, Principal at CFA Consultants was the Project Director and Principal Investigator. Dr. Bruce S. Appleyard, Principal at CFA Consultants and Assistant Professor at San Diego State University was the Deputy Principal Investigator. The other authors of this report were Matthew Taecker, AICP AIA, Principal of Taecker Planning and Design; Chris Allen, Courtney Armusewicz, and Caleb Schroder, all graduate students at San Diego State University. Important contributions to this project were made by Michael Carroll, President of CFA Consultants; Dr. Reid Ewing, Professor at the University of Utah; Dr. Arthur C. Nelson, formerly Professor at the Uni- versity of Utah and now Associate Dean for Research and Discovery and Professor at the University of Arizona; Herbert Levinson, President of Herbert S. Levinson Consulting; John Fregonese, AICP, President of Fregonese Associates; C.J. Gabbe, AICP, formerly Project Manager at Fregonese Associates and cur- rently a Ph.D. student in Urban Planning at the University of California, Los Angeles; Alex Joyce, AICP, Project Manager at Fregonese Associates; and Evan Casey, Alexander Frost, Edvardo Cordova, and Ardisher Beheshti, all graduate students at San Diego State University. CRP STAFF FOR TCRP RESEARCH REPORT 187 Christopher Hedges, Director, Cooperative Research Programs (Interim) Dianne S. Schwager, Senior Program Officer Daniel J. Magnolia, Senior Program Assistant Eileen P. Delaney, Director of Publications Scott E. Hitchcock, Editor TCRP PROJECT H-45 PANEL Field of Policy and Planning Samuel N. Seskin, Portland, OR (Chair) Vivian E. Baker, New Jersey Transit, Newark, NJ Margaret E. Banyan, Florida Gulf Coast University, Fort Myers, FL Nat Bottigheimer, Princeton, NJ Joseph Hacker, Georgia State UniversityâPMAP, Atlanta, GA Laurence V. Lewis, Kittelson & Associates, Inc., Oakland, CA Val Menotti, Bay Area Rapid Transit District, Oakland, CA Jeffrey R. Riegner, Whitman, Requardt & Associates, LLP, Wilmington, DE Karla E. Weaver, North Central Texas Council of Governments, Arlington, TX David E. Wohlwill, Port Authority of Allegheny County, Pittsburgh, PA Christopher M. Yake, City of Seattle, Seattle, WA Mariia Zimmerman, MZ Strategies, LLC, Richmond, VA Anthony Loui, FTA Liaison Robert Carlson, CTAA Liaison Darnell Grisby, APTA Liaison Matthew Hardy, AASHTO Liaison Alicia Mariscal, EPA Office of the Inspector General Liaison Stephen J. Andrle, TRB Liaison
TCRP Research Report 187: Livable Transit Corridors: Methods, Metrics, and Strategies presents practical planning and implementation strategies to enhance livability in transit corridors. This Handbook provides a resource for planning practitioners, policy makers, and other stakeholders to measure, understand, and improve transit corridor livability. This Handbook provides a definition of transit corridor livability and a set of methods, met- rics, and strategiesâframed within a five-step visioning and improvement processâthat com- munities can use to improve livability in their transit corridors. This process provides transit corridor stakeholders with a set of tools and techniques that can help in planning and building support for corridor improvements, screening alternatives in preparation for environmental review, identifying a corridorâs livability needs, and developing an action-oriented set of strat- egies for improving transit corridor livability and quality of life. To assist Handbook users in this process, a spreadsheet-based Transit Corridor Livability Calculator tool is also available for download from the TRB website (trb.org) by searching âTCRP Research Report 187.â The Handbook presents five steps for planning livable corridors: Step 1: Initiate Project; Step 2: Assess the Corridor; Step 3: Identify Goals; Step 4: Develop a Vision; and Step 5: Implement Strategies. Much of the project research is presented in the eight appendices that accompany this Handbook: â¢ Appendix A: Goals and Related Strategies. â¢ Appendix B: Description of Implementation Strategies. â¢ Appendix C: Coordination and Collaboration Strategies. â¢ Appendix D: Livable Transit Corridor Typology. â¢ Appendix E: People and Place Livability Combinations. â¢ Appendix F: Metrics, Methods, and Data. â¢ Appendix G: Statistical Analysis of Metrics and Typology Categories. â¢ Appendix H: Calculator User Manual. The research was performed by CFA Consultants, with Christopher E. Ferrell, Principal Investigator, and Bruce S. Appleyard, Deputy Principal Investigator. The research methods included quantitative, statistical measurement and modeling of over 350 transit corridors in the United States as well as focused qualitative data collection and analysis of 17 case study cor- ridors. Quantitative analysis was primarily used to identify the metrics that worked best to char- acterize the livability and quality of life outcomes of transit corridors, while qualitative analysis served to identify and evaluate the state of the practice of livability improvement strategies. F O R E W O R D By Dianne S. Schwager Staff Officer Transportation Research Board
1 Handbook Introduction 1 What This Handbook Is (and Is Not) Designed to Do 2 Why Plan for Livability? 2 Why Plan Transit Corridors? 2 Defining Transit Corridor Livability 3 Transit Corridor Livability Visioning 7 Section 1 Initiate Project (Step 1) 7 Introduction 7 Step 1.1: Organize Stakeholders and Develop Collaborative Process 10 Step 1.2: Develop Stakeholder Transit Corridor Livability Definition 20 Step 1.3: Organize and Establish Focus Groups 23 Section 2 Assess the Corridor (Step 2) 23 Introduction 23 Step 2.1: Select Livability Metrics 23 Step 2.2: Define and Select Study Corridor(s) 24 Step 2.3: Apply Metrics to Corridor(s) 27 Section 3 Identify Goals (Step 3) 27 Introduction 27 Step 3.1: Identify Relevant Goals 27 Step 3.2: Identify Corridor Strengths and Needs 36 Section 4 Develop a Vision (Step 4) 36 Introduction 36 Step 4.1: Develop Corridor Improvement Scenarios 37 Step 4.2: Analyze Corridor Improvement Scenarios 37 Step 4.3: Select Vision 41 Section 5 Implement Strategies (Step 5) 41 Introduction 41 Step 5.1: Examine Menu of Possible Strategies 47 Step 5.2: Link Goals to Strategies 50 Step 5.3: Develop and Adopt Corridor Recommendations 52 Appendix A Goals and Related Strategies 52 Introduction 52 Goals Associated with Livability Principles 60 Appendix B Description of Implementation Strategies 60 Introduction 60 Government Frameworks 65 Livability Strategies 86 Strategies for Corridor Types C O N T E N T S
88 Appendix C Coordination and Collaboration Strategies 89 Interjurisdictional Coordination 92 Community Engagement 96 Appendix D Livable Transit Corridor Typology 98 Emerging Corridors 100 Transitioning Corridors 102 Integrated Corridors 105 Appendix E People and Place Livability Combinations 105 Mixed-Income Housing Near Transit 105 Transit-Accessible Economic Opportunities 106 Accessible Social and Government Services 107 Vibrant and Accessible Community, Cultural, and Recreational Opportunities 107 Healthy, Safe, Walkable Transit Corridor Neighborhoods 109 Appendix F Metrics, Methods, and Data 109 High-Quality Transit, Walking, and Bicycling Opportunities 110 Mixed-Income Housing Near Transit 111 Transit-Accessible Economic Opportunities 111 Accessible Social and Government Services 113 Vibrant and Accessible Community, Cultural, and Recreational Opportunities 114 Healthy, Safe, Walkable Transit Corridor Neighborhoods 114 Data Availability 117 Appendix G Statistical Analysis of Metrics and Typology Categories 120 Appendix H Calculator User Manual 128 References