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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Big Data and Analytics for Infectious Disease Research, Operations, and Policy: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23654.
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BIG DATA AND ANALYTICS FOR
INFECTIOUS DISEASE RESEARCH,
OPERATIONS, AND POLICY

Proceedings of a Workshop

Joe Alper, Rapporteur

Forum on Microbial Threats

Board on Global Health

Health and Medicine Division

image

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS
Washington, DC
www.nap.edu

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Big Data and Analytics for Infectious Disease Research, Operations, and Policy: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23654.
×

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS500 Fifth Street, NWWashington, DC 20001

This project was supported by Contract No. 200-2011-38807 (Task Order No. 38), Contract No. DJF-16-1200-P-0002127, Contract No. 1R13FD005335-01, Contract No. ICD_620644, Contract No. APA-2015-6885, Contract No. HHSN26300055, Contract No. HT9404-12-1-0009, Contract No. GHN-G-00-07-00001-00, Contract No. W81XWH-14-P-0339, Contract No. HSHQDC-15-C-00043, and Contract No. VA250-16-P-1998 between the National Academy of Sciences and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the Federal Bureau of Investigation, the Food and Drug Administration, Johnson & Johnson, Merck Company Foundation, the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases/National Institutes of Health, the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, the U.S. Agency for International Development, the U.S. Army Medical Research and Materiel Command, the U.S. Department of Homeland Security, and the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs, respectively, and by the American Society for Microbiology, the Infectious Diseases Society of America, Sanofi Pasteur, and the Skoll Global Threats Fund. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of any organization or agency that provided support for the project.

International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-45011-9
International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-45011-X
Digital Object Identifier: 10.17226/23654

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Suggested citation: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Big data and analytics for infectious disease research, operations, and policy: Proceedings of a workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23654.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Big Data and Analytics for Infectious Disease Research, Operations, and Policy: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23654.
×

image

The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, nongovernmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Marcia McNutt is president.

The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to bring the practices of engineering to advising the nation. Members are elected by their peers for extraordinary contributions to engineering. Dr. C. D. Mote, Jr., is president.

The National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine) was established in 1970 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to advise the nation on medical and health issues. Members are elected by their peers for distinguished contributions to medicine and health. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president.

The three Academies work together as the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to provide independent, objective analysis and advice to the nation and conduct other activities to solve complex problems and inform public policy decisions. The National Academies also encourage education and research, recognize outstanding contributions to knowledge, and increase public understanding in matters of science, engineering, and medicine.

Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine at www.national-academies.org.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Big Data and Analytics for Infectious Disease Research, Operations, and Policy: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23654.
×

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Reports document the evidence-based consensus of an authoring committee of experts. Reports typically include findings, conclusions, and recommendations based on information gathered by the committee and committee deliberations. Reports are peer reviewed and are approved by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine.

Proceedings chronicle the presentations and discussions at a workshop, symposium, or other convening event. The statements and opinions contained in proceedings are those of the participants and have not been endorsed by other participants, the planning committee, or the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine.

For information about other products and activities of the National Academies, please visit nationalacademies.org/whatwedo.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Big Data and Analytics for Infectious Disease Research, Operations, and Policy: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23654.
×

PLANNING COMMITTEE FOR THE WORKSHOP ON BIG DATA AND ANALYTICS FOR INFECTIOUS DISEASE RESEARCH, OPERATIONS, AND POLICY1

LONNIE KING (Chair), Acting Dean and Vice President for Agricultural Administration, College of Food, Agricultural, and Environmental Sciences, The Ohio State University

SCOTT DOWELL, Deputy Director for Surveillance and Epidemiology, Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.

JENNIFER GARDY, Assistant Professor, School of Population and Public Health, University of British Columbia

MARGARET HAMBURG, Foreign Secretary, National Academy of Medicine; Former Commissioner, Food and Drug Administration

KENT KESTER, Vice President and Head, Translational Science and Biomarkers, Sanofi Pasteur

GEORGE POSTE, Chief Scientist, Complex Adaptive Systems Institute, and Del E. Webb Professor of Health Innovation, Arizona State University

MARTIN SEPÚLVEDA, Retired Vice President, Integrated Health Services and IBM Fellow, IBM Corporation

JAY SIEGEL, Chief Biotechnology Officer and Head of Scientific Strategy and Policy, Johnson & Johnson Corporation

LANCE WALLER, Rollins Professor and Chair, Department of Biostatistics and Bioinformatics, Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University

Staff

GURU MADHAVAN, Project Director

V. AYANO OGAWA, Associate Program Officer

MARIA LUND DAHLBERG, Associate Program Officer, Office of Communications

PRIYANKA NALAMADA, Senior Program Assistant

ALLISON BERGER, Senior Program Assistant

FAYE HILLMAN, Financial Officer

CARMEN MUNDACA-SHAH, Director, Forum on Microbial Threats

PATRICK KELLEY, Senior Director, Board on Global Health

RACHEL TAYLOR, Director, Forum on Public–Private Partnerships for Global Health and Safety, Health and Medicine Division

___________________

1 The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine’s planning committees are solely responsible for organizing the workshop, identifying topics, and choosing speakers. The responsibility for the published Proceedings of a Workshop rests with the workshop rapporteur and the institution.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Big Data and Analytics for Infectious Disease Research, Operations, and Policy: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23654.
×

ROSE MARIE MARTINEZ, Senior Director, Board on Population Health and Public Health Practice, Health and Medicine Division

MICHELLE SCHWALBE, Director, Committee on Applied and Theoretical Statistics, Board on Mathematical Sciences and Their Applications, Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences

MARILEE DAVENPORT-SHELTON, Senior Program Officer, Board on Life Sciences, Division on Earth and Life Studies

KEVIN FINNERAN, Director, Committee on Science, Engineering, and Public Policy, Policy and Global Affairs Division

PROCTOR REID, Director, National Academy of Engineering Program Office

Consultant

JOE ALPER, Science Writer

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Big Data and Analytics for Infectious Disease Research, Operations, and Policy: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23654.
×

Reviewers

This Proceedings of a Workshop has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published Proceedings of a Workshop as sound as possible and to ensure that the Proceedings of a Workshop meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their review of this Proceedings of a Workshop:

Jonathan M. Carlson, Microsoft Research

Joseph M. Jasinski, Smarter Healthcare and Life Sciences at IBM Research

Catherine Ordun, Booz Allen Hamilton

Thomas Schenk, City of Chicago

Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they did not see the final draft of the Proceedings of a Workshop before its release. The review of this Proceedings of a Workshop was overseen by Linda A. McCauley, Nell Hodgson Woodruff School of Nursing at Emory University. She was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this Proceedings of a Workshop was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this Proceedings of a Workshop rests entirely with the rapporteur and the institution.

Page viii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Big Data and Analytics for Infectious Disease Research, Operations, and Policy: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23654.
×

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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Big Data and Analytics for Infectious Disease Research, Operations, and Policy: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23654.
×

Acknowledgments

The Forum on Microbial Threats staff and planning committee deeply appreciate the many valuable contributions from individuals who assisted us with this project.

First, we offer our profound thanks to all of the presenters and discussants at the workshop who gave so generously of their time and expertise. The symposium presentations were both interesting and stimulating. Speakers, in alphabetical order, were Assaf Anyamba, David Frost Attaway, Francisco Becerra, Luciana Borio, Guillaume Chabot-Couture, Scott F. Dowell, William DuMouchel, Victor J. Dzau, Michael Edelstein, Jennifer Gardy, Dale Griffin, Simon I. Hay, James M. Hughes, Kent Kester, Lonnie J. King, Emil Lesho, Jonna Mazet, Catherine Ordun, George Poste, David A. Relman, Alton D. Romig, Jr., Adam Sadilek, Tom Schenk, Martin J. Sepúlveda, Jay P. Siegel, William So, and Lance A. Waller. Their biographical sketches are provided in Appendix B.

We are also grateful to Carissa Etienne and her staff, including Fredy Aviles, Sofía Benegas, Alex Romero, and Lourdes Withrow for graciously hosting the workshop at the Pan American Health Organization’s headquarters building.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Big Data and Analytics for Infectious Disease Research, Operations, and Policy: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23654.
×

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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Big Data and Analytics for Infectious Disease Research, Operations, and Policy: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23654.
×
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Big Data and Analytics for Infectious Disease Research, Operations, and Policy: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23654.
×
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Big Data and Analytics for Infectious Disease Research, Operations, and Policy: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23654.
×

Acronyms and Abbreviations

ABRAID Atlas of Baseline Risk Assessment for Infectious Disease
API application program interface
CDC Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
cPCR consensus polymerase chain reaction
DALY disability-adjusted life-year
DoD U.S. Department of Defense
FBI Federal Bureau of Investigation
FDA Food and Drug Administration
GIS geographical information system
HAP-VAP hospital-acquired and ventilator-associated pneumonia
HIV human immunodeficiency virus
MERS Middle East respiratory syndrome
MVP minimal viable product
NASA National Aeronautics and Space Administration
PCR polymerase chain reaction
SARS severe acute respiratory syndrome
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Big Data and Analytics for Infectious Disease Research, Operations, and Policy: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23654.
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USAID U.S. Agency for International Development
USDA U.S. Department of Agriculture
USGS U.S. Geological Survey
WHO World Health Organization
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Big Data and Analytics for Infectious Disease Research, Operations, and Policy: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23654.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Big Data and Analytics for Infectious Disease Research, Operations, and Policy: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23654.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Big Data and Analytics for Infectious Disease Research, Operations, and Policy: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23654.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Big Data and Analytics for Infectious Disease Research, Operations, and Policy: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23654.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Big Data and Analytics for Infectious Disease Research, Operations, and Policy: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23654.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Big Data and Analytics for Infectious Disease Research, Operations, and Policy: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23654.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Big Data and Analytics for Infectious Disease Research, Operations, and Policy: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23654.
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Page viii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Big Data and Analytics for Infectious Disease Research, Operations, and Policy: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23654.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Big Data and Analytics for Infectious Disease Research, Operations, and Policy: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23654.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Big Data and Analytics for Infectious Disease Research, Operations, and Policy: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23654.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Big Data and Analytics for Infectious Disease Research, Operations, and Policy: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23654.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Big Data and Analytics for Infectious Disease Research, Operations, and Policy: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23654.
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Page xiii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Big Data and Analytics for Infectious Disease Research, Operations, and Policy: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23654.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Big Data and Analytics for Infectious Disease Research, Operations, and Policy: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23654.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Big Data and Analytics for Infectious Disease Research, Operations, and Policy: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23654.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Big Data and Analytics for Infectious Disease Research, Operations, and Policy: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23654.
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With the amount of data in the world exploding, big data could generate significant value in the field of infectious disease. The increased use of social media provides an opportunity to improve public health surveillance systems and to develop predictive models. Advances in machine learning and crowdsourcing may also offer the possibility to gather information about disease dynamics, such as contact patterns and the impact of the social environment. New, rapid, point-of-care diagnostics may make it possible to capture not only diagnostic information but also other potentially epidemiologically relevant information in real time. With a wide range of data available for analysis, decision-making and policy-making processes could be improved.

While there are many opportunities for big data to be used for infectious disease research, operations, and policy, many challenges remain before it is possible to capture the full potential of big data. In order to explore some of the opportunities and issues associated with the scientific, policy, and operational aspects of big data in relation to microbial threats and public health, the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine convened a workshop in May 2016. Participants discussed a range of topics including preventing, detecting, and responding to infectious disease threats using big data and related analytics; varieties of data (including demographic, geospatial, behavioral, syndromic, and laboratory) and their broader applications; means to improve their collection, processing, utility, and validation; and approaches that can be learned from other sectors to inform big data strategies for infectious disease research, operations, and policy. This publication summarizes the presentations and discussions from the workshop.

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