Below is the uncorrected machine-read text of this chapter, intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text of each book. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.
Committee on Offshore Oil and Gas Industry Safety Culture Transportation Research Board Marine Board Board on Human-Systems Integration Division of Human Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education Transportation Research Board Washington, D.C. 2016 www.TRB.org Beyond Compliance Strengthening the Safety Culture of the Offshore Oil and Gas Industry
Transportation Research Board Miscellaneous Publication Transportation Research Board publications are available by ordering individual publica- tions directly from the TRB Business Office, through the Internet at www.TRB.org or nationalacademies.org/trb, or by annual subscription through organizational or indi- vidual affiliation with TRB. Affiliates and library subscribers are eligible for substantial discounts. For further information, contact the Transportation Research Board Business Office, 500 Fifth Street, NW, Washington, DC 20001 (telephone 202-334-3213; fax 202-334-2519; or e-mail TRBsales@nas.edu). Copyright 2016 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America. NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the National Academy of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competencies and with regard for appropriate balance. This report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to the pro- cedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the National Academy of Medicine. TRB Publications Staff: Rona Briere, Editor; Javy Awan, Production Editor; Juanita Green, Production Manager; Mary McLaughlin, Proofreader; Jennifer J. Weeks, Manu- script Preparation; Alisa Decatur, Word Processing Support Design and page composition by Beth Schlenoff, Beth Schlenoff Design Cover photograph: Larry Lee/Getty ISBN 978-0-309-44129-2
The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, nongovernmental institution to advise the na- tion on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Marcia McNutt is president. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to bring the practices of engineering to advising the nation. Members are elected by their peers for extraordinary contributions to engineering. Dr. C. D. Mote, Jr., is president. The National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine) was established in 1970 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to advise the nation on medical and health issues. Members are elected by their peers for distinguished contribu- tions to medicine and health. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president. The three Academies work together as the National Academies of Sciences, Engineer- ing, and Medicine to provide independent, objective analysis and advice to the nation and conduct other activities to solve complex problems and inform public policy decisions. The Academies also encourage education and research, recognize outstanding contributions to knowledge, and increase public understanding in matters of science, engineering, and medicine. Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine at www.national-academies.org. The Transportation Research Board is one of seven major programs of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The mission of the Transportation Research Board is to increase the benefits that transportation contributes to society by providing leadership in transportation innovation and progress through research and information exchange, conducted within a setting that is objective, interdisciplinary, and multimodal. The Boardâs varied committees, task forces, and panels annually engage about 7,000 engineers, scientists, and other transportation researchers and practitioners from the public and private sectors and academia, all of whom contribute their expertise in the public interest. The program is supported by state transportation departments, federal agencies including the component administrations of the U.S. Department of Transportation, and other organizations and individuals interested in the development of transportation. Learn more about the Transportation Research Board at www.TRB.org.
marine Board James C. Card (Vice Admiral, U.S. Coast Guard, retired), Independent Consultant, Chair Mary R. Brooks, Dalhousie University, Vice Chair Edward N. Comstock, Independent Consultant (retired from Raytheon and Naval Sea Systems Command) Elmer P. Danenberger III, Independent Consultant Samuel P. De Bow, Jr. (Rear Admiral, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, retired), Lynker Technologies Thomas J. Eccles (Rear Admiral, U.S. Navy, retired), USJ-IMECO Holding Company Martha R. Grabowski, LeMoyne College Jeanne M. Grasso, Blank Rome, LLP Stephan T. Grilli, University of Rhode Island John M. Holmes (Captain, U.S. Coast Guard, retired), Independent Consultant Thomas A. Jacobsen (Captain), Jacobsen Pilot Service, Inc. Donald Liu, NAE, American Bureau of Shipping (retired) Richard S. Mercier, Texas A&M University Edmond (Ned) J. Moran, Jr., Moran Towing Corporation Ali Mosleh, NAE, University of California, Los Angeles John W. Murray (Captain), Hapag-Lloyd USA, LLC Karlene H. Roberts, University of California, Berkeley Richard D. Steinke, Moffatt & Nichol Engineers Peter K. Velez, Peter Velez Engineering, LLC Richard D. West (Rear Admiral, U.S. Navy, retired) Transportation Research Board 2016 executive Committee officers James M. Crites, Executive Vice President of Operations, DallasâFort Worth International Airport, Texas, Chair Paul Trombino III, Director, Iowa Department of Transportation, Ames, Vice Chair Susan Hanson, Distinguished University Professor Emerita, Graduate School of Geography, Clark University, Worcester, Massachusetts, Division Chair for NRC Oversight Neil J. Pedersen, Transportation Research Board, Executive Director
Board on Human-Systems integration Nancy Cooke, Cognitive Engineering Research Institute, Arizona State University, Chair Ellen J. Bass, Department of Systems and Information Engineering, Drexel University Sara J. Czaja, Departments of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences and Industrial Engineering, University of Miami Francis T. Durso, Department of Psychology, Georgia Institute of Technology Andrew S. Imada, Principal, A. S. Imada & Associates, Carmichael, California Edmond Israelski, Human Factors Program, AbbVie, Abbott Park, Illinois Elizabeth Loftus, Criminology, Law and Society; Cognitive Sciences; School of Law, University of California, Irvine Frederick L. Oswald, Department of Psychology, Rice University Karl S. Pister, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of California, Santa Cruz David Rempel, Division of Occupational Medicine, University of California, San Francisco Emilie M. Roth, Principal, Roth Cognitive Engineering, Menlo Park, California Barbara Silverstein, Safety and Health Assessment and Research for Prevention Program, Washington State Department of Labor and Industries David H. Wegman, School of Health and Environment, University of Massachusetts, Lowell Poornima Madhavan, Director
Committee on offshore oil and Gas industry Safety Culture Nancy T. Tippins, CEB, Greenville, South Carolina, Chair Deborah A. Boehm-Davis, George Mason University, Fairfax, Virginia John S. Carroll, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge Elmer P. Danenberger III, Independent Consultant, Reston, Virginia David A. Hofmann, The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill William C. Hoyle, U.S. Chemical Safety and Hazard Investigation Board (retired) Robert Krzywicki, DuPont (retired), Independent Consultant, Ocean Isle Beach, North Carolina Todd R. LaPorte, University of California, Berkeley (emeritus) Karlene H. Roberts, University of California, Berkeley (emerita) Peter K. Velez, Peter Velez Engineering, LLC, Houston, Texas Timothy Vogus, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee James A. Watson IV (Rear Admiral, U.S. Coast Guard, retired), American Bureau of Shipping, Houston, Texas Warner Williams, Chevron Corporation (retired), Warner M. Williams, LLC, Covington, Louisiana Marine Board Liaison James C. Card, U.S. Coast Guard (retired), Independent Consultant, Houston, Texas Transportation Research Board Staff Stephen Godwin, Director, Studies and Special Programs Camilla Y. Ables, Study Director Beverly Huey, Senior Program Officer Amelia Mathis, Administrative Assistant