National Academies Press: OpenBook

Tracking Alternative Jet Fuel (2016)

Chapter:Front Matter

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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Tracking Alternative Jet Fuel. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23696.
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A I R P O R T C O O P E R A T I V E R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M ACRP RESEARCH REPORT 165 2016 Research sponsored by the Federal Aviation Administration Subscriber Categories Aviation • Energy • Environment Tracking Alternative Jet Fuel Bruno Miller Charles M. Murphy Donovan Johnson Michael Johnson Metron AviAtion, inc. Dulles, VA Frank Rosenberg AcA AssociAtes, inc. New York, NY Sandy Webb environMentAl consulting group, inc. Annapolis, MD John Shideler Drew Veysey FuturepAst: inc. Arlington, VA Jeremey Alcorn Stuart Funk Virginia Stouffer Terence Thompson lMi Tysons, VA

AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM Airports are vital national resources. They serve a key role in trans- portation of people and goods and in regional, national, and interna- tional commerce. They are where the nation’s aviation system connects with other modes of transportation and where federal responsibility for managing and regulating air traffic operations intersects with the role of state and local governments that own and operate most airports. Research is necessary to solve common operating problems, to adapt appropriate new technologies from other industries, and to introduce innovations into the airport industry. The Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) serves as one of the principal means by which the airport industry can develop innovative near-term solutions to meet demands placed on it. The need for ACRP was identified in TRB Special Report 272: Airport Research Needs: Cooperative Solutions in 2003, based on a study spon- sored by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). ACRP carries out applied research on problems that are shared by airport operating agen- cies and not being adequately addressed by existing federal research programs. ACRP is modeled after the successful National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP) and Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP). ACRP undertakes research and other technical activi- ties in various airport subject areas, including design, construction, legal, maintenance, operations, safety, policy, planning, human resources, and administration. ACRP provides a forum where airport operators can cooperatively address common operational problems. ACRP was authorized in December 2003 as part of the Vision 100— Century of Aviation Reauthorization Act. The primary participants in the ACRP are (1) an independent governing board, the ACRP Oversight Committee (AOC), appointed by the Secretary of the U.S. Department of Transportation with representation from airport operating agencies, other stakeholders, and relevant industry organizations such as the Airports Council International-North America (ACI-NA), the American Associa- tion of Airport Executives (AAAE), the National Association of State Aviation Officials (NASAO), Airlines for America (A4A), and the Airport Consultants Council (ACC) as vital links to the airport community; (2) TRB as program manager and secretariat for the governing board; and (3) the FAA as program sponsor. In October 2005, the FAA executed a contract with the National Academy of Sciences formally initiating the program. ACRP benefits from the cooperation and participation of airport professionals, air carriers, shippers, state and local government officials, equipment and service suppliers, other airport users, and research organi- zations. Each of these participants has different interests and responsibili- ties, and each is an integral part of this cooperative research effort. Research problem statements for ACRP are solicited periodically but may be submitted to TRB by anyone at any time. It is the responsibility of the AOC to formulate the research program by identifying the highest priority projects and defining funding levels and expected products. Once selected, each ACRP project is assigned to an expert panel appointed by TRB. Panels include experienced practitioners and research specialists; heavy emphasis is placed on including airport professionals, the intended users of the research products. The panels prepare project statements (requests for proposals), select contractors, and provide technical guidance and counsel throughout the life of the project. The process for developing research problem statements and selecting research agencies has been used by TRB in managing coop- erative research programs since 1962. As in other TRB activities, ACRP project panels serve voluntarily without compensation. Primary emphasis is placed on disseminating ACRP results to the intended users of the research: airport operating agencies, service pro- viders, and academic institutions. ACRP produces a series of research reports for use by airport operators, local agencies, the FAA, and other interested parties; industry associations may arrange for workshops, training aids, field visits, webinars, and other activities to ensure that results are implemented by airport industry practitioners. ACRP RESEARCH REPORT 165 Project 02-65 ISSN 1935-9802 ISBN 978-0-309-44597-9 Library of Congress Control Number 2016955563 © 2016 National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. COPYRIGHT INFORMATION Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously published or copyrighted material used herein. Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permission is given with the understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB, AASHTO, FAA, FHWA, FMCSA, FRA, FTA, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Research and Technology, PHMSA, or TDC endorsement of a particular product, method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the material in this document for educational and not-for-profit uses will give appropriate acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of the material, request permission from CRP. NOTICE The research report was reviewed by the technical panel and accepted for publication according to procedures established and overseen by the Transportation Research Board and approved by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The opinions and conclusions expressed or implied in this report are those of the researchers who performed the research and are not necessarily those of the Transportation Research Board; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; or the program sponsors. The Transportation Research Board; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; and the sponsors of the Airport Cooperative Research Program do not endorse products or manufacturers. Trade or manufacturers’ names appear herein solely because they are considered essential to the object of the report. Published research reports of the AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM are available from Transportation Research Board Business Office 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 and can be ordered through the Internet by going to http://www.national-academies.org and then searching for TRB Printed in the United States of America

The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, non- governmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Marcia McNutt is president. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to bring the practices of engineering to advising the nation. Members are elected by their peers for extraordinary contributions to engineering. Dr. C. D. Mote, Jr., is president. The National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine) was established in 1970 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to advise the nation on medical and health issues. Members are elected by their peers for distinguished contributions to medicine and health. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president. The three Academies work together as the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to provide independent, objective analysis and advice to the nation and conduct other activities to solve complex problems and inform public policy decisions. The Academies also encourage education and research, recognize outstanding contributions to knowledge, and increase public understanding in matters of science, engineering, and medicine. Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine at www.national-academies.org. The Transportation Research Board is one of seven major programs of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The mission of the Transportation Research Board is to increase the benefits that transportation contributes to society by providing leadership in transportation innovation and progress through research and information exchange, conducted within a setting that is objective, interdisciplinary, and multimodal. The Board’s varied committees, task forces, and panels annually engage about 7,000 engineers, scientists, and other transportation researchers and practitioners from the public and private sectors and academia, all of whom contribute their expertise in the public interest. The program is supported by state transportation departments, federal agencies including the component administrations of the U.S. Department of Transportation, and other organizations and individuals interested in the development of transportation. Learn more about the Transportation Research Board at www.TRB.org.

C O O P E R A T I V E R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M S CRP STAFF FOR ACRP RESEARCH REPORT 165 Christopher W. Jenks, Director, Cooperative Research Programs Michael R. Salamone, ACRP Manager Theresia H. Schatz, Senior Program Officer Hana Vagnerova, Senior Program Assistant Eileen P. Delaney, Director of Publications Doug English, Editor ACRP PROJECT 02-65 PANEL Field of Environment Kevin A. Gurchak, Allegheny County (PA) Airport Authority – Pittsburgh International Airport, Pittsburgh, PA (Chair) David Barrett, Washington–Dulles International Airport, Dulles, VA William “Buck” Buchanan, Hartsfield-Jackson International Airport, College Park, GA Steven J. Csonka, Csonka Aviation Consultancy, LLC, Lebanon, OH Alan Stolzer, Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University, Daytona Beach, FL Mihir Thakkar, Gogo Aviation, formerly of United Airlines, Chicago, IL Mary L. Vigilante, Synergy Consultants, Inc., Seattle, WA Aniel Jardines, FAA Liaison Rob Myrben, Airlines for America Liaison Gretchen L. Snoey, U.S. Government Accountability Office Liaison Christine Gerencher, TRB Liaison

ACRP Research Report 165: Tracking Alternative Jet Fuel provides guidance to help air- ports and other interested stakeholders identify the potential needs for effectively and effi- ciently tracking alternative jet fuel into the airport. This guidance, along with a companion decision-support tool, compares different types of tracking mechanisms and evaluates their advantages and disadvantages, impediments to implementation, and potential impacts. The aviation industry strongly supports the introduction of alternative jet fuels that have the potential to provide environmental, economic, and security-of-supply benefits com- pared to conventional fuels. These fuels are expected to be drop-in fuels, meaning that they can be used in existing aircraft and supporting infrastructure. Some airlines have started taking delivery of alternative jet fuel at Los Angeles International Airport (LAX), and other similar commercial arrangements are expected in the near future. As alternative jet fuels start to enter the supply chain, there may be a need to keep track of such fuels for technical (e.g., quality control, fuel efficiency); regulatory (e.g., tracking reductions in local air quality pollutants or greenhouse gases); and commercial (e.g., con- tract verification, corporate social responsibility marketing/sustainability reporting) rea- sons. A logical point to institute fuel-tracking mechanisms may be at the airport because the supply chains for conventional and alternative jet fuels converge before the fuel gets loaded into the aircraft. Airports can play a key role to incentivize the commercialization of alternative jet fuels by helping to facilitate some of the logistics associated with using these drop-in fuels, in particular fuel tracking. Under ACRP Project 02-65, research was conducted by Metron Aviation, Inc., in asso- ciation with ACA Associates, Inc., Environmental Consulting Group, Inc., Futurepast: Inc., and LMI. As part of the research, the team explored different alternative fuel-tracking mechanisms, including physical segregation, mass-balance, book-and-chain, and hybrid approaches that included advantages, disadvantages, impediments to implementation, and potential impacts. The decision-support tool is available on the TRB website (www.TRB.org) by searching “ACRP Research Report 165.” Appendix A provides a summary of sustainability frameworks and chain-of-custody requirements. F O R E W O R D By Theresia H. Schatz Staff Officer Transportation Research Board

ix Preamble: How to Use This Guidebook 1 Chapter 1 Introduction and Motivation 1 1.1 Introduction 2 1.2 Objective 2 1.3 Reasons for Tracking Alternative Jet Fuels 3 1.4 Conventional and Alternative Jet Fuel Tracking 3 1.5 Tracking Alternative Jet Fuel Along the Supply Chain 6 Chapter 2 Current and Potential Tracking Mechanisms 6 2.1 Introduction to Jet Fuel Logistics and Procurement 6 2.1.1 Physical Supply of Jet Fuel to the Wing of the Aircraft 8 2.1.2 Jet Fuel Purchasing Mechanisms 9 2.1.3 Inventory Tracking at the Fuel Farm 10 2.2 Introduction to Alternative Fuel Tracking Mechanisms 11 2.2.1 Overview of Sustainability Certification Frameworks for Alternative Jet Fuel 11 2.2.2 Chain-of-Custody Approaches for Alternative Fuels 14 2.2.3 Chain-of-Custody Examples 15 2.3 Tying It All Together 18 Chapter 3 Detailed Discussion of Tracking Mechanisms 18 3.1 Introduction 18 3.2 Detailed Presentation of Tracking Mechanisms 18 3.2.1 Physical Segregation 23 3.2.2 Mass-Balance 28 3.2.3 Book-and-Claim 30 3.2.4 Hybrid of Mass-Balance and Book-and-Claim 37 Chapter 4 Comparing the Requirements of the Different Mechanisms for Tracking Alternative Jet Fuel 37 4.1 Main Considerations for Comparing Tracking Mechanisms 37 4.1.1 Infrastructure Requirements 37 4.1.2 Data Requirements 39 4.2 Choosing the Right Tracking Mechanism 40 4.2.1 Physical Segregation 40 4.2.2 Mass-Balance 41 4.2.3 Book-and-Claim 41 4.2.4 Hybrid Mass-Balance and Book-and-Claim C O N T E N T S

42 Chapter 5 Alternative Fuels Tracking and Greenhouse Gas Tracking Toolkit 42 5.1 Inventory Tracking Spreadsheet 42 5.2 GHG Calculator 46 Chapter 6 Conclusion 47 Appendix A Summary of Sustainability Frameworks and Chain-of-Custody Requirements 52 Acronyms and Abbreviations 54 Endnotes

The aviation industry supports the introduction of alternative jet fuels that have the potential to provide environmental, economic, and security-of-supply benefits not found with conventional fuels. These fuels are expected to be drop-in fuels, which means that they can be used in existing aircraft and their supporting infrastructure. As alternative jet fuels start to enter the supply chain, there may be a need to keep track of such fuel for technical (e.g., quality control, fuel efficiency), regulatory [e.g., tracking reductions in local air qual- ity pollutants or greenhouse gases (GHGs)], and commercial [e.g., contract verification, corporate social responsibility (CSR) marketing/sustainability reporting] reasons. In the United States, there is not yet a regulatory need to track the use of alternative jet fuels or any attributes associated with such fuel batches. Furthermore, there is still no universally agreed sustainability framework that could define which sustainability attributes have a high potential for being required for tracking purposes. Until such time as additional policy mechanisms either require or incentivize the use of tracking, tracking will probably only be done on a voluntary basis by the airlines using the fuel. As tracking requirements are considered, proposed, or promulgated, either to satisfy regulatory or voluntary initiatives, this guidebook and associated toolkit are intended to help airport managers, airline fuel purchasers, fuel handlers, producers of alternative fuel, government officials, nongovernmental organizations, and other stakeholders along the alternative fuel supply chain understand the fundamentals of alternative jet fuel tracking, taking into account current jet fuel supply chain practices and available tracking mecha- nisms. The purpose is to provide sufficient information to understand different options for tracking these fuels and to provide tools to facilitate their implementation. The guidance materials are structured as follows: • Chapter 1 provides a brief introduction to alternative jet fuels, the objectives of this guide- book and toolkit, and the reasons for tracking alternative jet fuel. It also discusses the major stakeholders along the supply chain and their interests in tracking alternative jet fuel. • Chapter 2 presents an introduction to tracking mechanisms currently used in the indus- try for conventional jet fuel and for alternative fuels used in road transportation. This chapter also discusses potential new tracking mechanisms for alternative jet fuel. • Chapter 3 includes a detailed discussion of the different tracking mechanisms, including descriptions of their main elements. • Chapter 4 provides guidance with respect to comparing the attributes of the different track- ing mechanisms and choosing the most appropriate approach for particular circumstances. • Chapter 5 presents an overview of the toolkit that has been developed as part of this work to facilitate the introduction of tracking mechanisms for alternative jet fuel. • Chapter 6 is the conclusion of this guidebook. Preamble: How to Use This Guidebook ix

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TRB’s Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Research Report 165: Tracking Alternative Jet Fuel provides guidance to airports on ways to track alternative jet fuels. As alternative jet fuels start to enter the supply chain, there may be a need to keep track of such fuel for technical, regulatory, and commercial reasons. In addition to the guidance, a greenhouse gas calculator and an alternative fuels inventory tracking spreadsheet compare different types of tracking mechanisms and evaluate their advantages and disadvantages, impediments to implementation, and potential impacts.

Spreadsheet disclaimer: This software is offered as is, without warranty or promise of support of any kind either expressed or implied. Under no circumstance will the National Academy of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine or the Transportation Research Board (collectively "TRB") be liable for any loss or damage caused by the installation or operation of this product. TRB makes no representation or warranty of any kind, expressed or implied, in fact or in law, including without limitation, the warranty of merchantability or the warranty of fitness for a particular purpose, and shall not in any case be liable for any consequential or special damages.

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