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Volcanic Eruptions and Their Repose, Unrest, Precursors, and Timing (2017)

Chapter:Appendix C: Biographical Sketches of Committee Members

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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Biographical Sketches of Committee Members." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Volcanic Eruptions and Their Repose, Unrest, Precursors, and Timing. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24650.
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Appendix C

Biographical Sketches of Committee Members

Michael Manga (Chair) is a professor in the Department of Earth and Planetary Science at the University of California, Berkeley. His research focuses on processes involving fluids in natural systems, including problems in physical volcanology, geodynamics, and hydro-geology using combinations of theoretical, numerical, and experimental approaches and field observations. Dr. Manga has served on advisory committees, including the National Research Council (NRC) Committee on New Research Opportunities in the Earth Sciences at the National Science Foundation (NSF), the Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics, and Physics Today. He was named a MacArthur Foundation Fellow in 2005, and is a fellow of the Geological Society of America (GSA) and the American Geophysical Union (AGU). He is also a recipient of several awards, including the European Geoscience Union’s Bunsen Medal for distinguished research in geochemistry, mineralogy, petrology, and volcanology; and GSA’s Donath Medal and AGU’s James B. Macelwane Medal, both for significant contributions by an outstanding early career scientist. Dr. Manga received a B.Sc. in geophysics from McGill University, and an M.S. in engineering sciences and a Ph.D. in earth and planetary sciences from Harvard University.

Simon A. Carn is an associate professor in the Department of Geological and Mining Engineering and Sciences at Michigan Technological University. His research focuses on the application of remote sensing data to studies of volcanic degassing, volcanic eruption clouds, and anthropogenic pollution, with a particular emphasis on SO2, which plays an important role in climate. Dr. Carn has participated in several advisory activities, including a technical advisory committee for a United Nations Project on volcano risk reduction in Goma, Democratic Republic of the Congo, and as secretary of the International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth’s Interior (IAVCEI) Remote Sensing Commission. His participation on science teams for satellite measurements of sulfur dioxide, ozone, air quality, and climate earned him the William T. Pecora Award (National Aeronautics and Space Administration [NASA]/U.S. Department of the Interior) and the NASA Group Achievement Award. Dr. Carn received a B.A. in natural science, geology, from Exeter College, University of Oxford, United Kingdom; a D.E.A. in volcanology and magmatic processes from Université Blaise Pascal, France; and a Ph.D. in volcanology from St. Catharine’s College, University of Cambridge, United Kingdom.

Katharine V. Cashman is the AXA Endowed Chair of Volcanology at the University of Bristol. Before being recruited to Bristol in 2011, she spent 20 years on the faculty of the University of Oregon. One of the top volcanologists in the world, Dr. Cashman’s research focuses on the evolution of magma within the Earth’s crust and how its path to the surface triggers volcanic

Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Biographical Sketches of Committee Members." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Volcanic Eruptions and Their Repose, Unrest, Precursors, and Timing. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24650.
×

eruptions. She uses a combination of field volcanology, igneous petrology, kinetics, microscopy, and fluid dynamics to address the fundamental problem of how volcanoes work. Dr. Cashman is a former member of the scientific advisory committee for the Soufrière Hills Volcano, Montserrat, and a former president of AGU’s Volcanology, Geochemistry, and Petrology Section. She is a recipient of AGU’s Bowen Award for her outstanding contributions to volcanology. Dr. Cashman is a fellow of the AGU, the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, and the Royal Society. She is a member of the Academia Europaea and the National Academy of Sciences. She received a B.A. in geology/biology from Middlebury College, an M.S. from Victoria University, New Zealand, and a Ph.D. in geological sciences from Johns Hopkins University.

Amanda B. Clarke is an associate professor in the School of Earth and Space Exploration at Arizona State University, and an associated researcher at the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia in Pisa, Italy. Her research focuses on the physics of explosive volcanic eruptions, applying fluid mechanics, laboratory experiments, and numerical methods to fundamental questions in volcanology. She has also been involved in volcano monitoring, working at the Montserrat Volcano Observatory during a long sequence of devastating explosive eruptions in 1997, and in assessing eruption impacts, studying the economic and cultural effects of a 1993 eruption of Mayon Volcano on four nearby villages. Dr. Clarke is a recipient of the Wager Medal, awarded by IAVCEI for her contributions to volcanology. She currently chairs IAVCEI’s Commission on Explosive Volcanism. She received a B.S. in aerospace engineering and a B.A. in philosophy from the University of Notre Dame and a Ph.D. in geosciences from The Pennsylvania State University.

Charles B. Connor is a professor in the School of Geosciences at the University of South Florida. His primary research interests are in geophysics and volcanology, particularly the development of volcanic hazard and risk models, and modeling heat and mass transfer in volcanoes to improve volcano monitoring. He has studied volcanoes around the world, using a combination of field work, laboratory studies of geologic processes, and numerical simulation to understand the basic physical controls on these processes. Dr. Connor is a co-founder of the IAVCEI Commission on Statistics in Volcanology, a former member of the U.S. Department of Energy panel to assess volcanic hazards at Yucca Mountain, and a former member of the NRC Committee to Review the Volcano Hazards Program of the U.S. Geological Survey. He received a B.S. in geology and a B.A. in anthropology from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, and an M.S. and a Ph.D. in geology from Dartmouth College.

Kari M. Cooper is a professor in the Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences at the University of California, Davis. Her research is aimed at understanding how magmas evolve and interact with each other and with their surroundings, with a particular focus on dating volcanic crystals to understand the time scales and conditions of magma storage and mobilization prior to eruptions. Dr. Cooper has presented keynote and invited talks and co-convened several special sessions on these topics, most recently on comparing crystallization histories with eruption histories. She is a fellow of the GSA. Dr. Cooper received a B.A. in geology from Carleton College, an M.S. in geology from the University of Washington, and a Ph.D. in geochemistry from the University of California, Los Angeles.

Tobias Fischer is a professor in the Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences at the University of New Mexico. His research focuses on the geochemistry of gases discharging from active volcanoes to help constrain the processes that lead to explosive eruptions and to investigate eruption precursors. He maintains a laboratory for gas analyses and the development of field instrumentation for these purposes. Dr. Fischer chairs the Deep Carbon Degassing project, an international initiative aimed at better constraining carbon degassing from the Earth’s interior, and is a member of the steering committee for the Deep Carbon Observatory’s reservoirs and fluxes program. He received a Vordiplom from Albert-Ludwigs Universiät, Freiburg, Germany, and an M.S. and a Ph.D. from Arizona State University, all in geology.

Bruce Houghton is the Gordon A. MacDonald Professor of Volcanology at the University of Hawaii at Manoa, and the Hawaiian State Volcanologist. He is

Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Biographical Sketches of Committee Members." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Volcanic Eruptions and Their Repose, Unrest, Precursors, and Timing. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24650.
×

also the science director for the Federal Emergency Management Agency–funded National Disaster Preparedness Training Center at the University of Hawaii. Dr. Houghton’s research focuses on understanding the mechanisms of explosive eruptions by constraining the nature of the eruptions and their products in near real time. His natural hazards research examines knowledge, perceptions, and preparedness for volcanic eruptions, tsunamis, flooding, and sea-level rise. Dr. Houghton has served on numerous committees focused on different aspects of volcanism, and is currently an executive member of IAVCEI commissions on tephra hazard modeling and on cities on volcanoes. He is a fellow of the GSA, and a former president of the Geological Society of New Zealand. He is a fellow of the Royal Society of New Zealand. He received a B.Sc. in geology from the University of Auckland, and a Ph.D. in volcanology from the University of Otago, New Zealand.

Jeffrey B. Johnson is an associate professor of geophysics in the Department of Geosciences at Boise State University. Before coming to Boise State in 2012, he was a research professor at the New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology. Dr. Johnson’s research interests focus on multidisciplinary geophysical study of eruptive processes, infrasound science and sensor development, and volcano monitoring. He recently organized an international workshop on interdisciplinary monitoring and integration of new technologies for a volcano in Santiaguito, Guatemala. He is a founding member of the IAVCEI/IASPEI (International Association of Seismology and Physics of the Earth’s Interior) committee for volcano acoustics, and a member of the volcano seismology commission. Dr. Johnson received a B.S. in geological and environmental sciences and an M.S. in geophysics from Stanford, and a Ph.D. in geophysics from the University of Washington.

Terry A. Plank is the Arthur D. Storke Memorial Professor in the Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences at the Lamont Doherty Earth Observatory of Columbia University. She uses a variety of geochemical tracers to study the origin and evolution of magmas and to determine the concentration of water in magma, which drives both melt formation and explosive eruptions. Dr. Plank has served on several recent advisory committees, including the executive committee for the Deep Carbon Observatory, and the National Academies U.S. National Committee for Geodesy and Geophysics. She received the European Association for Geochemistry’s Houtermans Medal and the GSA’s Donath Medal for outstanding contributions from an early career scientist, and was named a MacArthur Foundation Fellow in 2012. Dr. Plank is a fellow of the AGU, the GSA, the Geochemical Society, and the Mineralogical Society of America. She is a member of the National Academy of Sciences. She received a B.A. in earth sciences from Dartmouth College and a Ph.D. in geosciences from Columbia University.

Diana C. Roman is a staff scientist in the Department for Terrestrial Magnetism at the Carnegie Institution for Science. Before joining the staff at Carnegie, she spent 5 years on the faculty of the University of South Florida. Dr. Roman’s research straddles the boundary between volcanology and seismology, and focuses on understanding source processes of volcanic earthquakes, volcano-fault interaction, and the structure and dynamics of magma transport and storage systems. Over the past few years, she has co-convened several special sessions on these topics, including one on outstanding challenges in the seismological study of volcanic processes (AGU, 2014). Dr. Roman is a recipient of IAVCEI’s George Walker Award, which recognizes achievements of a recent outstanding graduate in volcanology. She received a B.S. in applied economics from Cornell University, and an M.S. and a Ph.D. in geological sciences from the University of Oregon.

Paul Segall is a professor in the Department of Geophysics at Stanford University. He studies volcanic processes by measuring surface deformation, determining the geometry of magma chambers and how they change over time, and developing models to understand the physics of magma migration leading to volcanic eruptions. He uses similar approaches to study active faulting. Dr. Segall is a former chair of the Plate Boundary Observatory Steering Committee, member of the UNAVCO Board of Directors, and member of the National Academies Committee to review the Volcano Hazards Program of the U.S. Geological Survey. He is a fellow of the AGU and the GSA, and a recipient of the AGU’s Macelwane Medal (early career award)

Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Biographical Sketches of Committee Members." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Volcanic Eruptions and Their Repose, Unrest, Precursors, and Timing. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24650.
×

and Whitten Medal for outstanding achievement in research on the form and dynamics of the Earth and planets. He is a member of the National Academy of Sciences. He received a B.A. and an M.S. in earth sciences from Case Western Reserve University and a Ph.D. in geology from Stanford University.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Biographical Sketches of Committee Members." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Volcanic Eruptions and Their Repose, Unrest, Precursors, and Timing. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24650.
×
Page117
Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Biographical Sketches of Committee Members." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Volcanic Eruptions and Their Repose, Unrest, Precursors, and Timing. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24650.
×
Page118
Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Biographical Sketches of Committee Members." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Volcanic Eruptions and Their Repose, Unrest, Precursors, and Timing. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24650.
×
Page119
Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Biographical Sketches of Committee Members." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Volcanic Eruptions and Their Repose, Unrest, Precursors, and Timing. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24650.
×
Page120
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Volcanic eruptions are common, with more than 50 volcanic eruptions in the United States alone in the past 31 years. These eruptions can have devastating economic and social consequences, even at great distances from the volcano. Fortunately many eruptions are preceded by unrest that can be detected using ground, airborne, and spaceborne instruments. Data from these instruments, combined with basic understanding of how volcanoes work, form the basis for forecasting eruptions—where, when, how big, how long, and the consequences.

Accurate forecasts of the likelihood and magnitude of an eruption in a specified timeframe are rooted in a scientific understanding of the processes that govern the storage, ascent, and eruption of magma. Yet our understanding of volcanic systems is incomplete and biased by the limited number of volcanoes and eruption styles observed with advanced instrumentation. Volcanic Eruptions and Their Repose, Unrest, Precursors, and Timing identifies key science questions, research and observation priorities, and approaches for building a volcano science community capable of tackling them. This report presents goals for making major advances in volcano science.

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