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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Guidebook for Developing Ramp Control Facilities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24668.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Guidebook for Developing Ramp Control Facilities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24668.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Guidebook for Developing Ramp Control Facilities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24668.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Guidebook for Developing Ramp Control Facilities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24668.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Guidebook for Developing Ramp Control Facilities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24668.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Guidebook for Developing Ramp Control Facilities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24668.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Guidebook for Developing Ramp Control Facilities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24668.
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A I R P O R T C O O P E R A T I V E R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M ACRP RESEARCH REPORT 167 2017 Research sponsored by the Federal Aviation Administration Subscriber Categories Aviation Guidebook for Developing Ramp Control Facilities Barbara Cogliandro Rafal Kicinger Rick Klarmann Metron AviAtion, inc. Washington, DC Rose Agnew Christina Coverdell J. Michael Nash George Ingram AviAtion innovAtion, LLc St Paul, MN Richard Marchi rFMArchi AviAtion consuLting, inc. Washington, DC Lee Brown LAndruM & Brown Cincinnati, OH

AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM Airports are vital national resources. They serve a key role in trans- portation of people and goods and in regional, national, and interna- tional commerce. They are where the nation’s aviation system connects with other modes of transportation and where federal responsibility for managing and regulating air traffic operations intersects with the role of state and local governments that own and operate most airports. Research is necessary to solve common operating problems, to adapt appropriate new technologies from other industries, and to introduce innovations into the airport industry. The Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) serves as one of the principal means by which the airport industry can develop innovative near-term solutions to meet demands placed on it. The need for ACRP was identified in TRB Special Report 272: Airport Research Needs: Cooperative Solutions in 2003, based on a study spon- sored by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). ACRP carries out applied research on problems that are shared by airport operating agen- cies and not being adequately addressed by existing federal research programs. ACRP is modeled after the successful National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP) and Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP). ACRP undertakes research and other technical activi- ties in various airport subject areas, including design, construction, legal, maintenance, operations, safety, policy, planning, human resources, and administration. ACRP provides a forum where airport operators can cooperatively address common operational problems. ACRP was authorized in December 2003 as part of the Vision 100— Century of Aviation Reauthorization Act. The primary participants in the ACRP are (1) an independent governing board, the ACRP Oversight Committee (AOC), appointed by the Secretary of the U.S. Department of Transportation with representation from airport operating agencies, other stakeholders, and relevant industry organizations such as the Airports Council International-North America (ACI-NA), the American Associa- tion of Airport Executives (AAAE), the National Association of State Aviation Officials (NASAO), Airlines for America (A4A), and the Airport Consultants Council (ACC) as vital links to the airport community; (2) TRB as program manager and secretariat for the governing board; and (3) the FAA as program sponsor. In October 2005, the FAA executed a contract with the National Academy of Sciences formally initiating the program. ACRP benefits from the cooperation and participation of airport professionals, air carriers, shippers, state and local government officials, equipment and service suppliers, other airport users, and research organi- zations. Each of these participants has different interests and responsibili- ties, and each is an integral part of this cooperative research effort. Research problem statements for ACRP are solicited periodically but may be submitted to TRB by anyone at any time. It is the responsibility of the AOC to formulate the research program by identifying the highest priority projects and defining funding levels and expected products. Once selected, each ACRP project is assigned to an expert panel appointed by TRB. Panels include experienced practitioners and research specialists; heavy emphasis is placed on including airport professionals, the intended users of the research products. The panels prepare project statements (requests for proposals), select contractors, and provide technical guidance and counsel throughout the life of the project. The process for developing research problem statements and selecting research agencies has been used by TRB in managing coop- erative research programs since 1962. As in other TRB activities, ACRP project panels serve voluntarily without compensation. Primary emphasis is placed on disseminating ACRP results to the intended users of the research: airport operating agencies, service pro- viders, and academic institutions. ACRP produces a series of research reports for use by airport operators, local agencies, the FAA, and other interested parties; industry associations may arrange for workshops, training aids, field visits, webinars, and other activities to ensure that results are implemented by airport industry practitioners. ACRP RESEARCH REPORT 167 Project 10-24 ISSN 1935-9802 ISBN 978-0-309-44609-9 Library of Congress Control Number 2016960395 © 2016 National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. COPYRIGHT INFORMATION Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously published or copyrighted material used herein. Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permission is given with the understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB, AASHTO, FAA, FHWA, FMCSA, FRA, FTA, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Research and Technology, PHMSA, or TDC endorsement of a particular product, method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the material in this document for educational and not-for-profit uses will give appropriate acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of the material, request permission from CRP. NOTICE The research report was reviewed by the technical panel and accepted for publication according to procedures established and overseen by the Transportation Research Board and approved by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The opinions and conclusions expressed or implied in this report are those of the researchers who performed the research and are not necessarily those of the Transportation Research Board; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; or the program sponsors. The Transportation Research Board; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; and the sponsors of the Airport Cooperative Research Program do not endorse products or manufacturers. Trade or manufacturers’ names appear herein solely because they are considered essential to the object of the report. Published research reports of the AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM are available from Transportation Research Board Business Office 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 and can be ordered through the Internet by going to http://www.national-academies.org and then searching for TRB Printed in the United States of America

The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, non- governmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Marcia McNutt is president. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to bring the practices of engineering to advising the nation. Members are elected by their peers for extraordinary contributions to engineering. Dr. C. D. Mote, Jr., is president. The National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine) was established in 1970 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to advise the nation on medical and health issues. Members are elected by their peers for distinguished contributions to medicine and health. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president. The three Academies work together as the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to provide independent, objective analysis and advice to the nation and conduct other activities to solve complex problems and inform public policy decisions. The Academies also encourage education and research, recognize outstanding contributions to knowledge, and increase public understanding in matters of science, engineering, and medicine. Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine at www.national-academies.org. The Transportation Research Board is one of seven major programs of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The mission of the Transportation Research Board is to increase the benefits that transportation contributes to society by providing leadership in transportation innovation and progress through research and information exchange, conducted within a setting that is objective, interdisciplinary, and multimodal. The Board’s varied committees, task forces, and panels annually engage about 7,000 engineers, scientists, and other transportation researchers and practitioners from the public and private sectors and academia, all of whom contribute their expertise in the public interest. The program is supported by state transportation departments, federal agencies including the component administrations of the U.S. Department of Transportation, and other organizations and individuals interested in the development of transportation. Learn more about the Transportation Research Board at www.TRB.org.

C O O P E R A T I V E R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M S AUTHOR ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The authors wish to express appreciation to the personnel at the airports currently with and those with- out ramp control services who participated in interviews as part of this study. Airport, airline, contract, and FAA personnel provided valuable information concerning current policies and procedures in use today as well as best practices and lessons learned when establishing ramp control services. We particularly wish to thank the personnel at Washington Dulles International Airport, Ronald Reagan Washington National Airport, Denver International Airport and Fort Lauderdale-Hollywood International Airport for hosting and participating in our efforts to validate this research. CRP STAFF FOR ACRP RESEARCH REPORT 167 Christopher J. Hedges, Director, Cooperative Research Programs Michael R. Salamone, ACRP Manager Marci A. Greenberger, Senior Program Officer Jeffrey L. Oser, Senior Program Assistant Eileen P. Delaney, Director of Publications Scott E. Hitchcock, Editor ACRP PROJECT 10-24 PANEL Field of Operations Colleen E. Quinn, Ricondo & Associates, Inc., Chicago, IL (Chair) Gary W. Broughton, Wilmington International Airport, Wilmington, NC Jonathan DeJesus, Dallas Ft. Worth International Airport, DFW Airport, TX Roger Nakata, IAAC, International Airport and Air Traffic Control Consultants, Aurora, CO Viji Prasad, Los Angeles World Airports, Los Angeles, CA Steve Vail, Mosaic ATM, Inc., Leesburg, VA Freddie James, FAA Liaison Michael Lawrance, FAA Liaison Christine Gerencher, TRB Liaison

There are a number of different ways in which ramp control services can be provided: (1) directly by the airport, (2) contracted, or (3) airline operated or managed. This guidebook will guide those airport operators considering providing ramp control services. The accom- panying Ramp Control Decision Support Tool will assist airport operators in establishing whether to conduct ramp control activities and all the related considerations. The guidebook and the tool will be most helpful to airport operations staff. Ramp control towers that are staffed by non-FAA personnel have been typically operated by airlines to coordinate the movement of aircraft in the non-movement area. Over time, some airports have taken on this responsibility (a) because there wasn’t a willing airline, (b) to avoid conflicts between airlines, (c) due to a common-use environment, or (d) for other reasons. Opportunities may also present themselves to those airport operators who are examining terminal facility requirements; aging infrastructure; and physical, technological and operational changes that are occurring, which will allow consideration of addressing the coordination of aircraft operations in the non-movement area in a different way. Metron Aviation, as part of ACRP Project 10-24, was selected to develop guidance to opti- mize ramp control activities in non-movement areas. The research team interviewed airports that have taken over the responsibility (in one form or another), and those who have consid- ered it but determined that taking on the responsibility wasn’t right for their situation. The Decision Support Tool will walk the user through most considerations that an air- port should consider including facility requirements, staffing, training, and technology and other factors, allowing the user to determine the best way to move forward. The guidance and the tool will be useful to airport operations staff and planners. The tool can be down- loaded from the ACRP Research Report 167 summary page at http://www.trb.org/Main/ Blurbs/175172.aspx. F O R E W O R D By Marci A. Greenberger Staff Officer Transportation Research Board

1 Chapter 1 Introduction 1 1.1 Why Is This Guidebook Needed? 2 1.2 What Is Ramp Control? 2 1.3 Who Is the Guidance For? 3 1.4 How to Use the Guidebook 4 1.5 Collaboration Is a Key to Success 6 Chapter 2 Decision Process and Decision Support Tool 9 2.1 Define Ramp-Related Problems (Step 1) 10 2.1.1 Efficiency 11 2.1.2 Safety 12 2.1.3 Construction 12 2.1.4 Administrative- and Executive-Level Policies 13 2.1.5 Decisions from Step 1 13 2.2 Scope the Problem (Step 2) 14 2.2.1 Decision from Step 2 14 2.3 Evaluate Ramp Control Considerations (Step 3) 14 2.3.1 People 17 2.3.2 Technology 18 2.3.3 Facility and Supporting Infrastructure 19 2.3.4 Administrative/Budget 20 2.3.5 Step 3 Summary 20 2.4 Deciding the Best Alternative (Step 4) 24 Chapter 3 Initial and Recurring Costs 26 Chapter 4 Implementation 26 4.1 Steps Going Forward 28 Chapter 5 Summary 29 References 30 Bibliography 31 Glossary of Terms 33 Acronyms and Airport Identifiers A-1 Appendix A Questions Associated with Steps 1–3 B-1 Appendix B Initial and Recurring Costs C-1 Appendix C Advantages and Disadvantages C O N T E N T S

D-1 Appendix D Lessons Learned E-1 Appendix E Airports with Ramp Control F-1 Appendix F Technology Considerations G-1 Appendix G Staffing Considerations Note: Photographs, figures, and tables in this report may have been converted from color to grayscale for printing. The electronic version of the report (posted on the web at www.trb.org) retains the color versions.

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TRB's Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Research Report 167: Guidebook for Developing Ramp Control Facilities provides guidance to airport operators considering providing ramp control services. An accompanying

Ramp Control Decision Support Tool

assists users through most considerations before providing ramp control services, including facility requirements, staffing, training, and technology and other factors, allowing the user to determine the best way to move forward.

The Ramp Control Decision Support Tool is implemented in a sequence of HTML files and Javascript libraries that can be navigated using a web browser. The current version of the tool supports Google Chrome and Mozilla Firefox browsers.

In order to use the install and start the tool please use the following steps:

1. Copy the provided zip file with the tool to a local directory.

2. Unzip the contents of the zip file to this directory.

3. Open index.html file using either Google Chrome or Mozilla Firefox.

4. The welcome page provides a general overview of the tool.

5. Click on the Get Started button to start uisng the tool. This will lead to Step 1 questions.

6. Provide responses to questions included in Step 1 and when done click on the Next button.

7. Repeat for Steps 2 and 3.

8. When done answering the questions for all three steps click on Report to automatically generate a report with all provided answers.

9. The report can be printed by clicking on Print button.

Disclaimer: This software is offered as is, without warranty or promise of support of any kind either expressed or implied. Under no circumstance will the National Academy of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine or the Transportation Research Board (collectively "TRB") be liable for any loss or damage caused by the installation or operation of this product. TRB makes no representation or warranty of any kind, expressed or implied, in fact or in law, including without limitation, the warranty of merchantability or the warranty of fitness for a particular purpose, and shall not in any case be liable for any consequential or special damages.

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