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Guidebook for Developing Ramp Control Facilities (2017)

Chapter: Appendix A - Questions Associated with Steps 1 3

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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A - Questions Associated with Steps 1 3." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Guidebook for Developing Ramp Control Facilities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24668.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A - Questions Associated with Steps 1 3." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Guidebook for Developing Ramp Control Facilities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24668.
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Page 46
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A - Questions Associated with Steps 1 3." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Guidebook for Developing Ramp Control Facilities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24668.
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Page 47
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A - Questions Associated with Steps 1 3." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Guidebook for Developing Ramp Control Facilities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24668.
×
Page 47
Page 48
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A - Questions Associated with Steps 1 3." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Guidebook for Developing Ramp Control Facilities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24668.
×
Page 48
Page 49
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A - Questions Associated with Steps 1 3." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Guidebook for Developing Ramp Control Facilities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24668.
×
Page 49
Page 50
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A - Questions Associated with Steps 1 3." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Guidebook for Developing Ramp Control Facilities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24668.
×
Page 50
Page 51
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A - Questions Associated with Steps 1 3." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Guidebook for Developing Ramp Control Facilities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24668.
×
Page 51
Page 52
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A - Questions Associated with Steps 1 3." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Guidebook for Developing Ramp Control Facilities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24668.
×
Page 52
Page 53
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A - Questions Associated with Steps 1 3." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Guidebook for Developing Ramp Control Facilities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24668.
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Page 53

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A-10 Guidebook for developing Ramp Control Facilities SUMMARY 17. A virtual facility the desired/most appropriate option, is workspace available to support the projected number of ramp control positions? Yes No If yes, determine costs associated with modifying or creating new lease agreements and procuring equipment and furniture If no, determine costs associated with modifying workspace and procuring equipment and furniture Annual maintenance costs a) Is workspace available to support a virtual ramp control facility? Yes No If yes, determine costs associated with modifying or creating new lease agreements and procuring equipment and furniture If no, determine costs associated with modifying workspace and procuring equipment and furniture Annual maintenance costs Administrative/Budget 18. List any administrative concerns (e.g., hiring freeze, cost-reduction effort) that may influence the decision whether to have airport operator personnel perform ramp control or to contract the service with a third party. 19. List any stakeholders who have expressed a desire or willingness to accept ramp control responsibility. RAMP CONTROL CONSIDERATION INITIAL COST RECURRING COST Table A-3. (Continued).

B-1 Initial and Recurring Costs A p p e n d i x B Ramp Control Considerations Responsible Organization Airport Operator Third-Party Operator Air Carrier Recurring One-time Recurring One-time Recurring One-time Roles and Responsibilities Specific tasks to be performed by ramp control personnel Wages and salary may be affected by the required recurring training Initial cost of hiring personnel may be affected by required job qualifications Oversight if contracted by the airport operator Expectations are specified in the contract If contracted by the airport operator, expectations will be specified in the contract Training costs are the air carrier’s responsibility Address quality of service issues Hiring and technology costs are the air carrier’s responsibility Gate management Training costs Initial cost training personnel Cost of technology Oversight if contracted by the airport operator Expectations are specified in the contract If contracted by the airport operator, expectations will be specified in the contract Training costs are the air carrier’s responsibility Technology costs are the air carrier’s responsibility Other duties— tracking engine start times Training costs Initial cost training personnel Cost of technology Oversight if contracted by the airport operator Expectations are specified in the contract If contracted by the airport operator, expectations will be specified in the contract Training costs are the air carrier’s responsibility Technology costs are the air carrier’s responsibility FAA and other flight operators N/A—no cost attributed to coordination Training and necessary technology costs Oversight if contracted by the airport operator Expectations are specified in the contract If contracted by the airport operator, expectations will be specified in the contract Training costs Technology costs are the air carrier’s responsibility

B-2 Guidebook for developing Ramp Control Facilities No Ramp Tower is desired— virtual option Maintenance of existing space May have less cost than a physical location but still some cost in technology N/A—typically the responsibility of airport operator or air carrier contracted with N/A—typically the responsibility of airport operator or air carrier contracted with If spaced already leased by the air carrier, should not have additional fees If space not already leased by the air carrier, will likely require increased cost May have less cost than a physical location but still some cost in technology Staffing Non- management/non- supervisory personnel will likely be based on the number of positions and the hours of operation Wages and benefits should remain constant but may be affected by IROPS, qualification requirements for personnel, or collective bargaining agreement Initial hiring costs Determined by the vendor or specified in the contract Determined by the vendor or specified in the contract Wages and benefits should remain constant but may be affected by IROPS, qualification requirements for personnel, or collective bargaining agreement Dedicated personnel may have a higher cost in wages; but likely lower training costs Need for management or supervisory personnel Wages, benefits, as well as cost to hire personnel Initial cost to hire and train personnel Determined by the vendor or specified in the contract Initial cost to hire and train personnel Depending on turnover some hiring and training costs will be recurring Initial cost to hire and train personnel Management or supervisory personnel Wages and benefits should remain constant but may be affected by irregular operations Initial hiring costs Determined by the vendor or specified in the contract Determined by the vendor or specified in the contract Wages and benefits should remain constant but may be affected by irregular operations Initial hiring costs Facility and Infrastructure Physical location (ramp tower) is desired and a facility is available Facility maintenance Create or modify existing facility for use as a ramp tower, to include installation of desired technology Modify facility when needed N/A—typically the responsibility of airport operator or air carrier contracted with N/A—typically the responsibility of airport operator or air carrier contracted with If already leased by the air carrier, should incur no additional fees If not already leased by the air carrier, will likely require lease agreement Create or modify existing facility for use as a ramp tower, to include installation of desired technology Modify facility when needed Physical location (ramp tower) is desired but not available Facility maintenance Facility planning and construction N/A—typically the responsibility of airport operator or air carrier contracted with N/A—typically the responsibility of airport operator or air carrier contracted with Will likely affect existing lease agreement Facility maintenance Facility planning and construction Ramp Control Considerations Responsible Organization Airport Operator Third-Party Operator Air Carrier Recurring One-time Recurring One-time Recurring One-time

initial and Recurring Costs B-3 Virtual ramp tower (e.g., cameras, surface surveillance, web-based, departure metering technology) Cost of maintaining, replacing, or updating technology (e.g., cameras, surface surveillance system, including applicable licenses costs) Initial installation, includes planning N/A—typically the responsibility of airport operator or air carrier contracted with N/A—typically the responsibility of airport operator or air carrier contracted with Cost of maintaining, replacing, or updating technology (e.g., cameras, surface surveillance system, including applicable licenses costs) Initial installation, includes planning Training Qualification training (e.g., classroom, computer-based) N/A OJT and classroom training will vary based on qualifications of personnel, complexity of the operation being trained, amount of turnover N/A— Personnel performing ramp control must meet the terms of the contract N/A— Personnel performing ramp control must meet the terms of the contract N/A OJT and classroom training will vary based on qualifications of personnel, complexity of the operation being trained, amount of turnover, etc. Recurring training (e.g., safety or other required training) Training required by the airport operator N/A N/A—unless specified in the contract N/A – unless specified in the contract Training required by the air carrier N/A Management Option Which stakeholder is expected to perform ramp control? Wages, benefits, as well as cost to hire personnel Depending on turnover some hiring and training costs will be recurring Initial cost to hire and train personnel Should be specified in the contract Turnover costs will likely be contractor responsibility Should be specified in the contract Wages, benefits, as well as cost to hire personnel Depending on turnover some hiring and training costs will be recurring Initial cost to hire and train personnel Technology Ramp tower, (e.g., cameras, surface surveillance, web-based, departure metering technology) Cost of maintaining, replacing, or updating technology (e.g., cameras, surface surveillance system, including applicable licenses costs) Initial installation, includes planning N/A—cost of maintaining, replacing, or updating technology will likely depend on agreement with the airport operator N/A—cost of maintaining, replacing, or updating technology will likely depend on agreement with the airport operator Cost of maintaining, replacing, or updating technology (e.g., cameras, surface surveillance system, including applicable licenses costs) Initial installation, includes planning Ramp Control Considerations Responsible Organization Airport Operator Third-Party Operator Air Carrier Recurring One-time Recurring One-time Recurring One-time

C-1 Advantages and Disadvantages A p p e n d i x C Ramp Control Considerations Responsible Organization Airport Operator Third-Party Operator Air Carrier Disadvantages Advantages(Benefit) Disadvantages Advantages (Benefit) Disadvantages Advantages (Benefit) Roles and Responsibilities Taking on new responsibilities Additional finance, operations, and staffing obligations Greater control of response to future changes Challenges of establishing new team at new location New business Additional finance, operations, and staffing obligations Greater direct control of ramp operations Impact of collective bargaining agreement Depending on collective bargaining agreements with airport personnel, any changes may take time to implement Typically, roles and responsibilities are determined in advance Process to obtain a third- party vendor to perform ramp control N/A—Roles and responsibilities can be deter- mined in advance by the airport operator and specified in the contract N/A—airport operator is not involved in air carrier collective bargaining agreements N/A—airport operator is not involved in air carrier collective bargaining agreements Ramp controllers will perform other ramp-related duties Potential issue with proficiency especially at airport with complex ramp control operations Versatility in personnel If contracted by the air carrier, the airport operator typically has little or no influence in the duties performed by the third party If contracted with the airport operator, additional duties determined by the airport operator and specified in the contract N/A—airport operator is unaffected by air carrier decision to perform other ramp-related duties N/A—airport operator is unaffected by air carrier decision to perform other ramp-related duties Gate management May require additional staffing to manage gates Provides flexibility and control in assigning gates when needed, especially for “common-use” gates If contracted by the air carrier, airport operator will have little or no influence in the decision to perform additional duties If contracted with the airport operator, expectations will be specified in the contract N/A—airport operator is unaffected by air carrier decision to have ramp control personnel perform gate management duties N/A—airport operator is unaffected by air carrier decision to have ramp control personnel perform gate management duties

C-2 Guidebook for developing Ramp Control Facilities Facility and Infrastructure Physical location (ramp tower) is desired and a facility is available Potential cost to install necessary equipment and technology No additional cost to build facility N/A N/A N/A N/A Physical location (ramp tower) is desired but not available Cost associated with developing and building facility. Need to address line-of- sight issues to extent possible, use technology to address line- of-sight issues Costs for the space to establish a virtual tower will generally be lower than cost to build a traditional tower facility N/A N/A N/A N/A No ramp tower is desired—virtual option Cost of installing or obtaining necessary technology (e.g., cameras, surface surveillance) Lower cost of performing ramp control from virtual location; line of sight may be augmented by technology (e.g., cameras, surface surveillance) N/A N/A N/A N/A Management or supervisory personnel required May require additional staff May need to be involved when fairness or equity is an issue Will ensure ramp controllers perform as desired Ensure all stakeholders are treated fairly If contracted by the air carrier, the airport operator may have no influence on the selection of management or supervisory personnel If contracted with the airport operator, the requirement for management or supervisory personnel can be required by contract N/A—airport operator is unaffected by air carrier decision to utilize management personnel N/A—airport operator is unaffected by air carrier decision to utilize management personnel Ramp Control Considerations Responsible Organization Airport Operator Third-Party Operator Air Carrier Disadvantages Advantages(Benefit) Disadvantages Advantages (Benefit) Disadvantages Advantages (Benefit) Other duties – tracking engine start times Requires personnel or technology to do it Tracking engine start time—single source tracking data If contracted by the air carrier, airport operator will have little or no influence in the decision to perform additional duties If contracted with the airport, expectations will be specified in the contract N/A—airport operator is unaffected by air carrier decision to have ramp control personnel perform other duties N/A—airport operator is unaffected by air carrier decision to have ramp control personnel perform other duties FAA and other flight operators N/A – coordination is part of the ramp control job N/A— coordination is part of the ramp control job N/A—if contracted by the air carrier; the airport operator will have little or no influence in any coordination specified in the contract If contracted by the airport operator, must meet the terms of the contract N/A Should be involved in required coordination that affects the airport or other stakeholders; may be addressed in a letter of agreement

Advantages and disadvantages C-3 Decision to utilize part-time or flexible staffing option (ramp controllers perform other airport operations duties) Personnel may be less proficient and may have a high turnover Seasonal changes may negatively affect morale Flexibility in scheduling personnel; greater coverage with less people N/A—if contracted by the air carrier; the airport operator will likely have little or no influence in staffing option N/A—if contracted by the airport operator; staffing requirements will be specified in the contract, but at the vendor’s discretion N/A—airport operator is not involved in the air carrier decision of which staffing option to use N/A—airport operator is not involved in the air carrier decision of which staffing option to use Technology Ramp tower and virtual tower Cost of technology including installation Provide equal service to all stakeholders If contracted by the air carrier; the airport operator will likely not be impacted by technology If contracted by airport operator, will need to provide technology If contracted by the airport operator; requirements will be specified in the contract If contracted by the air carrier, technology will be provided by the air carrier Airport operator not likely involved in technology decision Airport operator not likely involved in technology decision Technology costs absorbed by air carrier Training Qualification training (e.g., classroom, computer-based) May require more personnel Lack of experience with providing training Highly qualified personnel; proficient with specific tasks Versatile or part-time staff—flexibility in scheduling personnel; greater coverage with less people Must meet the terms of the contract Must meet the terms of the contract May require more personnel Lack of experience with providing training Highly qualified personnel; proficient with specific tasks Versatile or part-time staff— flexibility in scheduling personnel; greater coverage with less people Decision to utilize dedicated, full- time staffing option Wages and benefits may depend on qualifications of personnel and any related ramp activities expected to be performed Use of part- time or seasonal staffing option may negatively impact proficiency Personnel are normally highly qualified; proficient with specific tasks; lower training costs Option may offer increased flexibility in use of personnel N/A—if contracted by the air carrier; the airport operator will likely have little or no influence in staffing requirements If contracted by the airport operator; staffing requirements, including qualifications will be specified in the contract N/A—airport operator is not involved in the air carrier decision of which staffing option to use N/A—airport operator is not involved in the air carrier decision of which staffing option to use Staffing Ramp Control Considerations Responsible Organization Airport Operator Third-Party Operator Air Carrier Disadvantages Advantages(Benefit) Disadvantages Advantages (Benefit) Disadvantages Advantages (Benefit)

C-4 Guidebook for developing Ramp Control Facilities Management Option Which stakeholder is expected to perform ramp control? May require additional staff and cost Responsible for activities at the airport, represents all stakeholders Fairness is rarely in question Process to obtain a third- party vendor to perform ramp control If contracted with an air carrier, airport operator typically involved if fairness and equity are a concern Represents the airport operator or air carrier If contracted with airport operator fairness and equity should not be an issue Airport operator typically involved when fairness or equity concerns are expressed by stakeholders Airport operator not typically involved in day to day operation Ramp control activities ensure business model of air carrier is achieved Expected benefits may differ between stakeholders Benefits determined by an airport operator may differ from other stakeholders th Airport operator must deal more intimately wi operational issues of fairness Will ensure airport operator benefits are achieved Typically strives to achieve benefit (equity) for all airport stakeholders; perception of fairness If contracted by the air carrier, the airport operator has little or no influence in achieving benefits If contracted with the airport, expected benefits will be specified in the contract Airport operation may need to address situations when perception of equity is a concern N/A—airport operator has little or no influence on air carrier benefit Recurring training (e.g., safety or other required training) Seasonal changes in personnel may require more training Have positive effect on morale; typically lower cost in wages N/A N/A Seasonal changes in personnel may require more training Have positive effect on morale; typically lower cost in wages Ramp Control Considerations Responsible Organization Airport Operator Third-Party Operator Air Carrier Disadvantages Advantages(Benefit) Disadvantages Advantages (Benefit) Disadvantages Advantages (Benefit)

D-1 Lessons Learned Airport operators and airline representatives were interviewed at facilities currently engaged in ramp control to understand why ramp control was implemented, what topics were considered when determining whether or not to implement ramp control, and any other factors that should be considered (e.g., staffing roles and responsibilities). The interview responses highlighted four major areas of concern that were used to develop the questions used in Step 3—people, technol- ogy, facility and supporting infrastructure, and administrative/budget. A common theme among those that contributed to “lessons learned” is the need for early and frequent collaboration among all interested stakeholders. Collaboration up-front will prevent missteps later. A p p e n d i x d People Table D-1. Lessons learned—people. People Lessons Learned Roles and Responsibilities The variation in ramp control operations at airports across the country negatively impacts pilots through lack of consistency. Conduct a needs assessment for front line ramp service operators in order to address safety concerns. There are a number of tasks performed by ramp control that are common to many ramp control operations, but there is no single ramp control solution that works at all airports. Processes and procedures for ramp control are typically driven by operational needs. Multiple organizations providing ramp control services at a single airport has highlighted the absence of standardization in ramp control processes. Staffing Use gate management along with ramp control to optimize benefit from ramp control. There are different ways of staffing ramp control (direct hires vs. contract employees) that affect the cost of ramp control. Need to determine if ramp control staff is subject to frequent changes (seasonal or bid process). There is a cost of having qualified individuals able to multi-task, and have good decision-making skills. (continued on next page)

D-2 Guidebook for developing Ramp Control Facilities Facility and Supporting Infrastructure Facility and Supporting Infrastructure Lessons Learned Traditional Ramp Tower Document current siting and facility situation including any related issues. Confirm considerations by using a site study that includes line-of-sight requirements, height requirements, cost estimations, and best location. Virtual Ramp Control Facility Consider virtual ramp control option when there are line-of-sight issues. Mixed Facility Line-of-sight issues existing in a traditional ramp tower may be addressed by technology, cameras, and surface surveillance technology. Table D-3. Lessons learned—facility and supporting infrastructure. People Technology People Lessons Learned Training Training is typically designed to meet specific roles and responsibilities from basic ramp control to ground control-like activities where sequencing occurs in the ramp prior to contacting ATC. Airports and airlines use a variety of training processes for ramp control personnel (e.g., classroom, in-position or OJT, web-based). All are not equal in effectiveness. Consider joint training activities. Training impacts additional ramp management responsibilities for each key stakeholder. Understand the pros and cons (including cost/benefit) of alternative training methods. QA/QC QA/QC may be needed to address potential perception of equity or fairness. Table D-1. (Continued). Technology Lessons Learned Gate/Terminal Management Processes and procedures, and technology for ramp control are typically driven by operational needs. Ground handling is not a major influence in an airport’s decision to implement ramp control. Technology for ramp control is typically driven by operational needs. Surface Surveillance Surface surveillance aids ramp control personnel in decision making. May mitigate or resolve line-of-sight issues. Interoperability Technology does not stand alone—it is an integrated model. Table D-2. Lessons learned—technology.

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TRB's Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Research Report 167: Guidebook for Developing Ramp Control Facilities provides guidance to airport operators considering providing ramp control services. An accompanying

Ramp Control Decision Support Tool

assists users through most considerations before providing ramp control services, including facility requirements, staffing, training, and technology and other factors, allowing the user to determine the best way to move forward.

The Ramp Control Decision Support Tool is implemented in a sequence of HTML files and Javascript libraries that can be navigated using a web browser. The current version of the tool supports Google Chrome and Mozilla Firefox browsers.

In order to use the install and start the tool please use the following steps:

1. Copy the provided zip file with the tool to a local directory.

2. Unzip the contents of the zip file to this directory.

3. Open index.html file using either Google Chrome or Mozilla Firefox.

4. The welcome page provides a general overview of the tool.

5. Click on the Get Started button to start uisng the tool. This will lead to Step 1 questions.

6. Provide responses to questions included in Step 1 and when done click on the Next button.

7. Repeat for Steps 2 and 3.

8. When done answering the questions for all three steps click on Report to automatically generate a report with all provided answers.

9. The report can be printed by clicking on Print button.

Disclaimer: This software is offered as is, without warranty or promise of support of any kind either expressed or implied. Under no circumstance will the National Academy of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine or the Transportation Research Board (collectively "TRB") be liable for any loss or damage caused by the installation or operation of this product. TRB makes no representation or warranty of any kind, expressed or implied, in fact or in law, including without limitation, the warranty of merchantability or the warranty of fitness for a particular purpose, and shall not in any case be liable for any consequential or special damages.

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