National Academies Press: OpenBook

Guidebook for Developing Ramp Control Facilities (2017)

Chapter: Appendix E - Airports with Ramp Control

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Suggested Citation:"Appendix E - Airports with Ramp Control." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Guidebook for Developing Ramp Control Facilities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24668.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix E - Airports with Ramp Control." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Guidebook for Developing Ramp Control Facilities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24668.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix E - Airports with Ramp Control." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Guidebook for Developing Ramp Control Facilities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24668.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix E - Airports with Ramp Control." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Guidebook for Developing Ramp Control Facilities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24668.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix E - Airports with Ramp Control." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Guidebook for Developing Ramp Control Facilities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24668.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix E - Airports with Ramp Control." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Guidebook for Developing Ramp Control Facilities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24668.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix E - Airports with Ramp Control." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Guidebook for Developing Ramp Control Facilities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24668.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix E - Airports with Ramp Control." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Guidebook for Developing Ramp Control Facilities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24668.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix E - Airports with Ramp Control." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Guidebook for Developing Ramp Control Facilities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24668.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix E - Airports with Ramp Control." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Guidebook for Developing Ramp Control Facilities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24668.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix E - Airports with Ramp Control." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Guidebook for Developing Ramp Control Facilities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24668.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix E - Airports with Ramp Control." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Guidebook for Developing Ramp Control Facilities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24668.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix E - Airports with Ramp Control." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Guidebook for Developing Ramp Control Facilities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24668.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix E - Airports with Ramp Control." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Guidebook for Developing Ramp Control Facilities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24668.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix E - Airports with Ramp Control." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Guidebook for Developing Ramp Control Facilities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24668.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix E - Airports with Ramp Control." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Guidebook for Developing Ramp Control Facilities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24668.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix E - Airports with Ramp Control." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Guidebook for Developing Ramp Control Facilities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24668.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix E - Airports with Ramp Control." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Guidebook for Developing Ramp Control Facilities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24668.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix E - Airports with Ramp Control." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Guidebook for Developing Ramp Control Facilities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24668.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix E - Airports with Ramp Control." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Guidebook for Developing Ramp Control Facilities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24668.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix E - Airports with Ramp Control." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Guidebook for Developing Ramp Control Facilities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24668.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix E - Airports with Ramp Control." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Guidebook for Developing Ramp Control Facilities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24668.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix E - Airports with Ramp Control." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Guidebook for Developing Ramp Control Facilities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24668.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix E - Airports with Ramp Control." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Guidebook for Developing Ramp Control Facilities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24668.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix E - Airports with Ramp Control." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Guidebook for Developing Ramp Control Facilities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24668.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix E - Airports with Ramp Control." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Guidebook for Developing Ramp Control Facilities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24668.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix E - Airports with Ramp Control." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Guidebook for Developing Ramp Control Facilities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24668.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix E - Airports with Ramp Control." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Guidebook for Developing Ramp Control Facilities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24668.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix E - Airports with Ramp Control." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Guidebook for Developing Ramp Control Facilities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24668.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix E - Airports with Ramp Control." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Guidebook for Developing Ramp Control Facilities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24668.
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Below is the uncorrected machine-read text of this chapter, intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text of each book. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

E-10 Guidebook for developing Ramp Control Facilities Figure E-8. (EWR) Newark Liberty International Airport. Newark, NJ (Eastern Region—Large Hub)

Airports with Ramp Control E-11 Figure E-9. (FLL) Fort Lauderdale-Hollywood International Airport. Fort Lauderdale, FL (Southern Region—Large Hub)

E-12 Guidebook for developing Ramp Control Facilities Figure E-10. (IAD) Washington Dulles International Airport. Dulles, VA (Eastern Region—Large Hub)

Airports with Ramp Control E-13 Figure E-11. (IAH) Bush Intercontinental Airport (Houston). Houston, TX (Southwest Region—Large Hub)

E-14 Guidebook for developing Ramp Control Facilities Figure E-12. (IND) Indianapolis International Airport. Indianapolis, IN (Great Lakes Region—Medium Hub)

Airports with Ramp Control E-15 Figure E-13. (JFK) John F. Kennedy International Airport. New York, NY (Eastern Region—Large Hub)

E-16 Guidebook for developing Ramp Control Facilities Figure E-14. (LAS) McCarran International Airport (Las Vegas). Las Vegas, NV (Western Pacific Region—Large Hub)

Airports with Ramp Control E-17 Figure E-15. (LAX) Los Angeles International Airport. Los Angeles, CA (Western Pacific Region—Large Hub)

E-18 Guidebook for developing Ramp Control Facilities Figure E-16. (LGA) LaGuardia Airport. New York, NY (Eastern Region—Large Hub)

Airports with Ramp Control E-19 Figure E-17. (MCO) Orlando International Airport. Orlando, FL (Southern Region—Large Hub)

E-20 Guidebook for Developing Ramp Control Facilities Figure E-18. (MEM) Memphis International Airport. Memphis, TN (Southern Region—Medium Hub)

Airports with Ramp Control E-21 Figure E-19. (MIA) Miami International Airport. Miami, FL (Southern Region—Large Hub)

E-22 Guidebook for developing Ramp Control Facilities Figure E-20. (MSP) Minneapolis/St. Paul International Airport. Minneapolis, MN (Great Lakes Region—Large Hub)

Airports with Ramp Control E-23 Figure E-21. (ORD) Chicago O’Hare International Airport. Chicago, IL (Great Lakes Region—Large Hub)

E-24 Guidebook for developing Ramp Control Facilities Figure E-22. (PHL) Philadelphia International Airport. Philadelphia, PA (Eastern Region—Large Hub)

Airports with Ramp Control E-25 Figure E-23. (PHX) Phoenix Sky Harbor International Airport. Phoenix, AZ (Western Pacific Region—Large Hub)

E-26 Guidebook for developing Ramp Control Facilities Figure E-24. (RDU) Raleigh-Durham International Airport. Raleigh / Durham, NC (Southern Region—Medium Hub)

Airports with Ramp Control E-27 Figure E-25. (SAN) San Diego International Airport. San Diego, CA (Western Pacific Region—Large Hub)

E-28 Guidebook for developing Ramp Control Facilities Figure E-26. (SEA) Seattle/Tacoma International Airport. Seattle, WA (Northwest Mountain Region—Large Hub)

Airports with Ramp Control E-29 Figure E-27. (SFO) San Francisco International Airport. San Francisco, CA (Western Pacific Region—Large Hub)

E-30 Guidebook for developing Ramp Control Facilities Figure E-28. (SLC) Salt Lake City International Airport. Salt Lake City, UT (Northwest Mountain Region—Large Hub)

F-1 Technology Considerations Traditionally, ramp control operations have not required the use of advanced technolo- gies. Standard ATC support technologies such as radios, telephones, closed-circuit television (CCTV), audio/video recording equipment, and commercially available gate management soft- ware are mentioned elsewhere in this guidebook and are normally sufficient to conduct ramp control. However, new technologies are being developed and introduced that may provide advanced capabilities to organizations contemplating ramp control. Some of these include the following: Virtual Air Traffic Control Towers The development of fully capable virtual air traffic control towers is well underway, with dem- onstration projects in Europe and the United States. A typical installation includes 360 degree coverage of the airfield with high-definition video, radar feeds, integration with air navigation service provider data streams, weather and air carrier gate and schedule information, as shown in Figure F-1. These systems can support multiple controller positions at multiple airports, all being operated from remote sites. While such an extensive system of virtual towers is probably more capability than is needed for ramp control, the basic technologies can be sized to meet the requirement of controlling gates at multiple concourses from a single, remote location. Some air carriers already employ surveillance of all their gates at given airports with high-definition video and stereo audio monitoring. Surface Management Most ramp control functions depend on data feeds to provide scheduled operating times for flights. They depend on aircrews to announce when they are ready for pushback. At air- ports employing some form of departure metering, the aircrew request for pushback may not be well-coordinated with FAA’s departure sequence goals. Technologies, such as the NextGen SWIM program or commercially available data feeds, can help better coordinate both the arrival and pushback of an airplane with that of other airplanes and with FAA’s departure sequencing scheme. The additional data can permit smoother ramp operations by reducing uncertainties in arrival times, improving gate assignments, and sequencing departures. The Surface Collab- orative Decision Making concept of operations developed by the FAA in conjunction with the aviation community describes a vision for data exchange and a process for metering departure traffic that will reduce airport departure queues. Additionally, the FAA has made a commit- ment to implement Surface Departure Management through the use of the Airspace Technol- ogy Demonstration (ATD-2) tool developed by the FAA and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). The first site for this technology is Charlotte Airport, which is due to A p p e n d i x F

F-2 Guidebook for developing Ramp Control Facilities implement it in 2017. This technology will improve the flow of aircraft from pushback from the gate to the runway and into the overhead stream of air traffic. Another emerging technology that has the potential to assist in Surface Management is auto- matic dependent surveillance-broadcast (ADS-B). This technology will allow users to precisely identify the location of aircraft and equipped vehicles moving on the ground in poor visibility situations such as during heavy rainfall and fog. As these technologies are expanded throughout the NAS and as the SWIM infrastructure evolves with more and more efficient data sharing among the aviation partners, the role of ramp control may very well change from maintaining an orderly airport ramp to assisting the FAA with maintaining airspace orderliness. This evolution could become the overriding reason for airports where no ramp control is established to consider establishing ramp control. Surface Surveillance FAA has deployed airport surface detection equipment—Model X (ASDE-X) radar with multi- lateration allowing precise tracking of airplanes on the airport surface at 35 airports. This capa- bility can provide ramp controllers with graphic information about an airplane’s position on the surface and progress toward the ramp. Coupled with a feed from airport surveillance FAA radar showing arriving airplanes, these surveillance tools can supplement schedule data and improve ramp operations and gate assignments. Commercial tracking systems are available offering similar data feeds on a contract basis for additional airports in addition to the 35 ASDE-X installations. Advanced Gate Servicing Air carriers have been increasingly outsourcing ground handling services, especially at smaller stations. For decades, non-U.S. airports conducting ramp control operations have provided advanced capabilities, such as coordinating ground handling, jet bridge operation, fueling, Figure F-1. Virtual air traffic control tower at Leesburg Airport in Leesburg, Va.

Technology Considerations F-3 passenger handling, and other aspects of aircraft turnarounds. While airports in the U.S. do not currently engage in those tasks, some consideration of long-term trends in that direction may be warranted. Further Information Information on the technologies mentioned here and other NextGen aviation advancements can be found on numerous public web sites such as www.faa.gov. All users of this guidebook are encouraged to research these subjects as they will assist those planning to develop ramp control duties at the airport.

G-1 Staffing Considerations When considering introducing ramp control to the airport, staffing is one of the most impor- tant considerations for those who will provide the service. What follows are some things to consider when determining staffing options for the ramp control facility. How many people it takes to provide ramp control services is one of the biggest cost driv- ers for ramp control. Before the amount of staffing can be determined the following must be determined: • The specific responsibilities of the tasks to be performed, and from those • How the tasks will be apportioned among those who will provide the services. Determining the Number of Positions The specific tasks and how they will be divided will determine how many positions need to be staffed. Some of the things to consider when determining the number of positions include the span or area of control. Span of control refers to the size and physical layout of the ramp area to be controlled, the number of gates, the number of ramp entrances and exits, the complexities in the ability to maneuver aircraft on the ramp, and any holding areas on the ramp that contribute to span of control. Equally important when determining the number of ramp control positions is the amount of hourly activity. If the services will be provided from a traditional tower where the ramp controller is expected to actually see the ramp activity with the naked eye, the span of control coupled with high activity becomes a driving issue for staffing. It may take two or three sets of eyes (two or three positions) to accomplish the job. If ramp control services will be provided from a virtual facility where there is reliance on cameras instead of windows to see the ramp area, it is possible that scanning the ramp via monitors will result in less workload and therefore fewer positions and people. Determine When the Positions Will Be Opened After determining the number of positions to be staffed, the next thing to do is to determine the number of days per week and number of hours per day the positions will be opened. This will vary with every airport because the hours the position is opened will be primarily based on the flow of traffic into and out of the airport. Once the airport has established the hours of operation for ramp control, the number of people needed can be computed. A p p e n d i x G

G-2 Guidebook for developing Ramp Control Facilities Determine How Many People It Takes Things to consider when determining the number of employees must include: • How many hours per day will ramp control operate? Will the facility be full time or part time? • What scheduling policies will the employer offer? – Flex scheduling such as a compressed work week where employees work 40 hours in four days. – Core hours schedules. – 8-, 10-, or 12-hour shifts. – How much overlap is needed for shift change/transfer of responsibility? • Will employees rotate between day and night shifts or work the same shift? • How will the schedule rotate to allow 7 day coverage? • What are the existing or expected work rules that will apply to ramp control personnel? – Are employees covered by a collective bargaining agreement? – What are the required breaks throughout the day, including lunch? Is lunch part of the workday? – Are there a maximum number of hours that employees can work per day? (This is important during irregular operations, e.g., winter operations or thunderstorms when ramp control- lers may be required to work beyond their normal schedule? – What are the vacation and leave policies? • How will the training plan for ramp controllers be administered? Will training be conducted by one of the ramp controllers? How much time away from the ramp positions will be required to conduct the training? How many hours per week, day, and month will each ramp controller be unavailable to work positions in order to receive training? • Will the work staff be dedicated or flexible? – Dedicated—individuals only perform ramp control duties. – Flexible—individuals may be required to perform other duties in addition to ramp control. Determine How Many Hours a Ramp Controller Is Available From all of the factors above determine the actual number of hours a full-time or part-time employee (FTE/PTE) is available to work. For example: • One FTE works = 40 hours per week times 52 weeks = 2,080 hours. • FTE’s receive vacation totaling ...................................... - 120 hours • FTE’s receive personal time totaling ............................... - 48 hours • FTE’s will receive Training Hours totaling ................... - 104 hours • Net Available Work Hours ......................................... = 1,808 hours Note: This is not an all-inclusive list of hours an employee is not available for work. Each employer must determine the other factors specific to their organization that will reduce the hours available to work (i.e., the amount of time per day for meal and other breaks). Estimate the total number of work hours needed to operate the ramp control facility. For exam- ple if the facility will staff two positions, for 12 hours a day, for 7 days a week for 52 weeks that equals 2 positions × 12 hours = 24 hours × 7 days = 168 hours per week × 52 weeks = 8,736 hours per year divided by 1,808 available hours per person = 5 people needed to staff 2 positions for 12 hours per day every day for one year. This simplistic example is only meant to demonstrate how to determine the number of people to work a specific number of hours that a position will be opened. To estimate the number of staff- ing needed for ramp control, the service provider must determine as closely as possible the actual number of hours a position will be opened throughout the year by factoring in every nuance of

Staffing Considerations G-3 the particular airport. For example, because of IROPS, winter and summer at some airports may require positions to be opened for longer hours than during the spring and fall. Additionally, activity may not be the same throughout the week or throughout the year. Summer air traffic activity may not be as heavy at some Florida airports as it is during the winter. Positions may need to be opened longer during the week than they are on the weekends. The deeper the analy- sis is on the activity the better the estimate will be as to the number of hours a position will be opened in a year. This information is by no means everything one needs to know about the subject of staffing. Guidebook users are encouraged to contact facilities that are engaged in ramp control to learn about staffing scheduling practices currently in use.

Abbreviations and acronyms used without definitions in TRB publications: A4A Airlines for America AAAE American Association of Airport Executives AASHO American Association of State Highway Officials AASHTO American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials ACI–NA Airports Council International–North America ACRP Airport Cooperative Research Program ADA Americans with Disabilities Act APTA American Public Transportation Association ASCE American Society of Civil Engineers ASME American Society of Mechanical Engineers ASTM American Society for Testing and Materials ATA American Trucking Associations CTAA Community Transportation Association of America CTBSSP Commercial Truck and Bus Safety Synthesis Program DHS Department of Homeland Security DOE Department of Energy EPA Environmental Protection Agency FAA Federal Aviation Administration FAST Fixing America’s Surface Transportation Act (2015) FHWA Federal Highway Administration FMCSA Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration FRA Federal Railroad Administration FTA Federal Transit Administration HMCRP Hazardous Materials Cooperative Research Program IEEE Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers ISTEA Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991 ITE Institute of Transportation Engineers MAP-21 Moving Ahead for Progress in the 21st Century Act (2012) NASA National Aeronautics and Space Administration NASAO National Association of State Aviation Officials NCFRP National Cooperative Freight Research Program NCHRP National Cooperative Highway Research Program NHTSA National Highway Traffic Safety Administration NTSB National Transportation Safety Board PHMSA Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration RITA Research and Innovative Technology Administration SAE Society of Automotive Engineers SAFETEA-LU Safe, Accountable, Flexible, Efficient Transportation Equity Act: A Legacy for Users (2005) TCRP Transit Cooperative Research Program TDC Transit Development Corporation TEA-21 Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century (1998) TRB Transportation Research Board TSA Transportation Security Administration U.S.DOT United States Department of Transportation

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TRB's Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Research Report 167: Guidebook for Developing Ramp Control Facilities provides guidance to airport operators considering providing ramp control services. An accompanying

Ramp Control Decision Support Tool

assists users through most considerations before providing ramp control services, including facility requirements, staffing, training, and technology and other factors, allowing the user to determine the best way to move forward.

The Ramp Control Decision Support Tool is implemented in a sequence of HTML files and Javascript libraries that can be navigated using a web browser. The current version of the tool supports Google Chrome and Mozilla Firefox browsers.

In order to use the install and start the tool please use the following steps:

1. Copy the provided zip file with the tool to a local directory.

2. Unzip the contents of the zip file to this directory.

3. Open index.html file using either Google Chrome or Mozilla Firefox.

4. The welcome page provides a general overview of the tool.

5. Click on the Get Started button to start uisng the tool. This will lead to Step 1 questions.

6. Provide responses to questions included in Step 1 and when done click on the Next button.

7. Repeat for Steps 2 and 3.

8. When done answering the questions for all three steps click on Report to automatically generate a report with all provided answers.

9. The report can be printed by clicking on Print button.

Disclaimer: This software is offered as is, without warranty or promise of support of any kind either expressed or implied. Under no circumstance will the National Academy of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine or the Transportation Research Board (collectively "TRB") be liable for any loss or damage caused by the installation or operation of this product. TRB makes no representation or warranty of any kind, expressed or implied, in fact or in law, including without limitation, the warranty of merchantability or the warranty of fitness for a particular purpose, and shall not in any case be liable for any consequential or special damages.

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