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Guidebook for Developing Ramp Control Facilities (2017)

Chapter: Chapter 2 - Decision Process and Decision Support Tool

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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 2 - Decision Process and Decision Support Tool." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Guidebook for Developing Ramp Control Facilities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24668.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 2 - Decision Process and Decision Support Tool." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Guidebook for Developing Ramp Control Facilities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24668.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 2 - Decision Process and Decision Support Tool." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Guidebook for Developing Ramp Control Facilities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24668.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 2 - Decision Process and Decision Support Tool." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Guidebook for Developing Ramp Control Facilities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24668.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 2 - Decision Process and Decision Support Tool." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Guidebook for Developing Ramp Control Facilities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24668.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 2 - Decision Process and Decision Support Tool." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Guidebook for Developing Ramp Control Facilities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24668.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 2 - Decision Process and Decision Support Tool." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Guidebook for Developing Ramp Control Facilities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24668.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 2 - Decision Process and Decision Support Tool." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Guidebook for Developing Ramp Control Facilities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24668.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 2 - Decision Process and Decision Support Tool." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Guidebook for Developing Ramp Control Facilities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24668.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 2 - Decision Process and Decision Support Tool." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Guidebook for Developing Ramp Control Facilities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24668.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 2 - Decision Process and Decision Support Tool." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Guidebook for Developing Ramp Control Facilities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24668.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 2 - Decision Process and Decision Support Tool." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Guidebook for Developing Ramp Control Facilities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24668.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 2 - Decision Process and Decision Support Tool." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Guidebook for Developing Ramp Control Facilities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24668.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 2 - Decision Process and Decision Support Tool." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Guidebook for Developing Ramp Control Facilities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24668.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 2 - Decision Process and Decision Support Tool." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Guidebook for Developing Ramp Control Facilities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24668.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 2 - Decision Process and Decision Support Tool." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Guidebook for Developing Ramp Control Facilities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24668.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 2 - Decision Process and Decision Support Tool." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Guidebook for Developing Ramp Control Facilities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24668.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 2 - Decision Process and Decision Support Tool." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Guidebook for Developing Ramp Control Facilities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24668.
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Decision process and Decision Support tool 15 level of effort of and workload expected from ramp control personnel. The number of person- nel required will be determined by the complexity of the responsibilities to be performed, the number of positions needed to divide the work so that it can be performed by a single individual, and the number of hours per day the position must be staffed. This will influence the initial and recurring costs, depending on which management option is selected. The scenario in Figure 10 illustrates the type of information the user may be able to provide when evaluating ramp personnel, including the specific tasks expected to be performed by ramp control personnel and any known initial or recurring costs. If specific costs are not avail- able, the user can enter the information at a later time. Initial and recurring costs are discussed in Chapter 3. Figure 9. Step 3—Evaluate ramp control considerations. Figure 10. Evaluate roles and responsibilities. Example: Evaluate Ramp Control Consideration Scenario: It was determined that ramp control personnel would be expected to perform the following tasks: Authorize pushback and control movement into, out of, and on the ramp. Apply local safety directives (e.g., gate adjacency/wingtip clearances, engine start, disconnect, tow-in). Coordinate with ATC or other stakeholders as necessary. To accomplish the ramp control tasks above, a portion of the movement area has been designated as a non-movement area. Specific initial and recurring costs were not known at this time.

16 Guidebook for Developing ramp Control Facilities Staffing Staffing is the number of individuals necessary to operate the ramp control facility. This num- ber of staff is normally based on the number of positions, the number of hours that ramp control is expected to operate, and whether all positions are necessary during all hours of operation. After determining the responsibility of the tasks to be performed, as discussed above in Roles and Responsibilities, determine how many positions are needed. Consider the physical layout of the terminal area to be controlled (e.g., number of gates, number of ramp entrances/exits, the ability to maneuver aircraft on the ramp, and any holding areas on the ramp) when determin- ing the area of jurisdiction/responsibility for each position. Typically, the area of jurisdiction is designed along the natural boundaries of the terminal. However, in cases where the natural boundary may cause one position to control a significantly larger number of gates, adjustments may be necessary. The number of hours ramp control is expected to operate is normally based on the need of the specific operation. However, there may be times when ramp control positions may be combined; thereby reducing the amount of time coverage is needed. It is also important to consider whether ramp control personnel will be full time or part time, whether they will be dedicated staff, and whether they will perform other duties in addition to ramp control (flexible). Appendix B may provide some high-level insight into the initial and recurring costs associated with staffing for each type of ramp control management option (e.g., airport operator, air carrier, or third party). Given that there is no formal guidance on ramp control staffing available, airports should consider conferring with their peers or airlines that have implemented ramp control in order to gain insight about the proper level of staffing. (For more information on staffing considerations see Appendix G.) An additional area of consideration is whether supervisory/managerial personnel are needed to provide oversight for ramp control personnel. Staff at this level can significantly impact an airport’s budget. Training Ramp-related training can be accomplished in a variety of ways (e.g., classroom, in-position, computer-based). Some ramp control operations use a formal training process where trainers provide guidance and direction to trainees until the trainee has progressed to a point that they Decision Support Tool Tip: In ramp decisions involving multiple manage- ment options where more than one operator (airport, airline, or third party) is being considered, it is recommended that separate records be completed for each of these organizations in the Decision Support Tool in order to understand the costs and benefits associated with each choice so that the following can be assessed: • Cost of solution alternative, • Value of expected benefits for solution alternative, and • Determination of return on investment. For example, if a user wants to analyze the differences between an airport operator and an air carrier managing ramp control, the tool should be used to populate one record for the airport operator option and another record for the air carrier option.

Decision process and Decision Support tool 17 can work unmonitored. Other airports rely more heavily upon on-the-job training. To deter- mine how best to conduct training, it is important to understand the roles and responsibilities expected of ramp control personnel, the complexity of the operations, and the qualification of newly hired or current personnel. Appendix B may provide some high-level insight into the initial and recurring costs associated with training personnel for each type of ramp control management option (e.g., airport operator, air carrier, or third party). To gain insights into the training procedures used in other operations, airports are encouraged to confer with peers or airlines that operated successful ramp control. Quality Assurance/Quality Control (QA/QC) Research indicated that some airports that performed ramp control had some form of QA/QC programs. These programs often track personnel performance as well the effectiveness or lack of effectiveness of operating procedures put in place to ensure safety. Formal programs may include development of target levels of safety as well as metrics to measure both personnel performance, stakeholder feedback and/or the overall effectiveness of ramp control at the airport. An informal QA/QC program may simply include an informal process for investigating and responding to issues brought to ramp tower management. As ramp control operations evolve, it may become more important to include performing quality assessments when operating procedures are devel- oped and prior to their implementation. Since the airport operator generally authorizes the activity of all tenants and sub-tenants through leases, operating agreements, or licenses, the airport opera- tor may want to ensure that QA/QC processes and procedures are available to address concerns that may arise from personnel or equipment performance or from an operating procedure. 2.3.2 Technology Research indicated that the technology needed to support the ramp control function is depen- dent on two main considerations: the type of facility from which it is operated (traditional ramp tower or virtual ramp control facility) and the tasks ramp controllers are expected to perform, including other ramp-related duties. For example, if a traditional ramp control tower is planned from a site that has good visibility of its area of jurisdiction, the need for cameras or surface surveil- lance technology to control its ramp may not be necessary. However, a similar facility that has a partially or fully obstructed view of the ramp may need cameras or surface surveillance technology to better assist ramp controllers with managing aircraft on the ramp. Additionally, a ramp control facility that only authorizes pushback or entrance into the ramp may need less technology than a similar facility that sequences departures leaving the ramp based on departure fix restrictions. It is important to assess the airport’s existing equipment capabilities and investigate tech- nologies that may support ramp control tasks, including technologies currently under devel- opment by the FAA NextGen program. For example, line-of-sight issues may be mitigated by the use of high-definition cameras, while an ATC request for ramp controllers to sequence departures exiting the ramp based on departure fix, queue length, or other factors may be miti- gated by an information display system. Some tools available today have the added benefit of providing post-event data that can be analyzed and used in a QA/QC program. Some questions related to understanding necessary technology include: • What technology is required to perform the ramp control function or will serve to enhance the ability to provide a ramp control function? • Is the required technology available and sufficient for the desired operation? – If insufficient, what is needed? – What are the initial and recurring costs of obtaining and maintaining the technology? • Does the technology under review support future enhancements to the ramp control function?

18 Guidebook for Developing ramp Control Facilities Surface Surveillance The airport operator will likely be aware of surface surveillance technology available at the airport, as well as have the knowledge of which stakeholders have access to surface surveillance technology. It is important to determine if surface surveillance technology is needed to sup- port ramp control. This will require looking into the initial and recurring costs associated with obtaining surface surveillance technology, such as licensing fees, maintenance, etc. Interoperability Responses by airport operators with ramp control facilities noted that adding technology often creates space issues; therefore, to the extent possible, it is important to consider the inter- operability of the technology when determining technology needs. The airport operator may want to determine whether automation can support multiple tools, rather than having to pur- chase and support multiple pieces of technology. Appendix F provides examples of technology that may be considered when identifying whether to utilize virtual technology to implement ramp control. 2.3.3 Facility and Supporting Infrastructure This consideration topic explores the physical location where ramp control is expected to be performed, which can sometimes involve mitigating existing siting issues or determining a loca- tion from which to operate virtual ramp control. It is important to understand which type of ramp control facility is desired or best suited for the airport. The three major types of location considerations include: • Traditional ramp tower—This is typically a structure above the terminal area that provides line of sight to the controlled ramp area. Some gates may be partially obscured by a building or equipment on top of a building, but the bulk of the area is viewed by the ramp controller. • Virtual ramp control facility—This could be a room with or without windows and does not necessarily need to be at the airport. Automation is used to provide ramp controllers visibility of the ramp area. Figure 11 illustrates how cameras can provide visibility for the gates and access to the gates, and how surface surveillance may provide location information for aircraft moving on the airport, and in some cases, within the ramp area as well. Virtual facilities have the advantage of being able to make use of the existing infrastructure—saving cost and space. • Mixed facility—This operation combines a traditional ramp tower that offers good line of sight to some of the controlled ramp areas with automation that enables virtual control over parts of the ramp that cannot physically be seen by tower personnel. Figure 11. Virtual configuration.

Decision process and Decision Support tool 19 In order to analyze which type of facility and supporting infrastructure is best, the airport operator needs to consider a number of questions, including: • Is there an existing facility available from which to conduct ramp control activities? – Is the existing facility sufficient to meet the projected need for the ramp control positions? – Are there any siting issues that need to be resolved or mitigated? • If a facility is not currently available, what are the facility requirements for a traditional ramp tower or virtual ramp control facility? Requirements may include: – A site that allows an unencumbered view of the area under control by the ramp controllers; or – A site that may not allow an optimum view but can be enhanced by camera technology; – A facility of sufficient square footage that can support the number of positions and all associated equipment needed now and in the future; – Consideration could be given to multi-purposing the facility such as by creating a contin- gency site for ATC use. – Is a virtual facility the most appropriate option? (i.e., no location for a traditional tower exists; the cost of building a structure cannot be justified by the expected benefits of ramp control; locations that allow a good view of the area to be controlled do not support a tra- ditional tower but do offer good sites for cameras that can be fed to monitors at a location away from the ramp.) Appendix B identifies some of the initial and recurring costs associated with the facility and supporting infrastructure for each type of ramp control management option. Decision Support Tool Tip: In ramp decisions involving multiple facility options (tower vs. virtual), it is recommended that separate records be completed for each of these facility types in the Decision Support Tool in order to understand the costs and benefits associated with each choice so that the following can be assessed: • Cost of solution alternative, • Value of expected benefits for solution alternative, and • Determination of return on investment. Caution! The more complex the decision-making process, the more complex the tool inputs. If a user is considering more than one management option and more than one facility type, then each management option record will need to be populated for each type of facility being evaluated in order to complete a full analysis using the tool. 2.3.4 Administrative/Budget It is important to know any administrative or budget considerations that may influence the decision to implement ramp control or which management option is selected, for example: • Are there any administrative concerns that may influence which management option is best suited to perform ramp control?

20 Guidebook for Developing ramp Control Facilities • Are there any administrative concerns (e.g., hiring freeze, cost-reduction effort) that may influence the decision whether to have airport operator personnel perform ramp control or whether to contract the service with a third party? • Is the airport operator willing to accept the liability of performing ramp control? • What are the start-up costs in terms of personnel, equipment, maintenance, and training? • What, if any, are the long-term costs in terms of personnel, equipment, and equipment maintenance? Appendix B can be used to help the airport operators understand the initial and recurring costs for each of the consideration topics. 2.3.5 Step 3 Summary The summary in Appendix A, at the bottom of Table A-3, can be used to document information that may need further clarification or may also be used to record the advantages and disadvantages related to the management option being evaluated. Also refer to Appendix C, Advantages and Disadvantages which contains the advantages and disadvantages related to each management option based on responses from interviews with ramp management personnel. An advantage to the airport operator may be a disadvantage to another stakeholder; therefore, the table describes the advantages and disadvantages from the perspective of the airport operator. For example: • Airport operator—The advantage is that the airport operator may have greater control of the response to future changes and have less of an issue regarding fairness and equity with other stakeholders. However, the disadvantage is that the airport operator may not have personnel with the desired expertise to perform ramp control and would incur additional costs to oper- ate and perform the ramp control service. • Third party—The advantage is that individuals with the desired expertise can be contracted to perform ramp control, even if the third party is contracted by an airline. However, the dis- advantage may arise in that the third party must establish relationships with stakeholders and, if contracted by an airline, the airport operator will need to go through the airline to affect changes with the third party. • Air carrier—In the event an air carrier will perform ramp control, the advantage is that the costs associated with ramp control will be the responsibility of the air carrier; however, the disadvantage may be that the airport operator has less direct control of ramp operations, and there may be some perception of inequity by other air carriers. 2.4 Deciding the Best Alternative (Step 4) Having completed Step 3, the user should have a firm grasp of the ramp-related operational challenges, the considerations associated with the initial and recurring costs, and any advantages and disadvantages of the management option being evaluated. Step 4 is the review of all of the information that was documented in order to determine which management option is best suited for the airport. The Decision Support Tool is available for download from the report summary page at http://www.trb.org/Main/Blurbs/175172.aspx and may be accessed by opening the index.html file in a web-browser.

Decision process and Decision Support tool 21 Figure 12 is a copy of a notional ramp control consideration summary report from the Decision Support Tool for use in Step 4 of the decision process. The user will enter the appropriate information into the Decision Support Tool, which will be presented in a printed report, as shown in Figure 13. This review may occur either internally by the airport operator or in a group by sharing the report with and obtaining feedback from local stakeholders that have a vested interest in the decision. If the second option is chosen, stakeholders should be brought together for a discus- sion of the pros and cons related to each ramp control alternative. The purpose of this joint discussion is to determine if a consensus can be reached on how best to proceed. During this meeting, two questions should be discussed: who is going to perform ramp control and where will ramp control be performed. The print feature of the Decision Support Tool can provide a report that contains the information needed for this type of meeting. Who is going to perform ramp control? Evaluate which organization (airport, airline, or third party) is best suited to manage ramp control. Of all the considerations related to providing ramp control, the most important factor to consider is the willingness of the organization chosen to accept the responsibility to do what is required to successfully implement new ramp control operational procedures. Some general pros and cons of different options include: • Airport management consideration: ramp control provided by the airport can provide greater flexibility for the airport to adapt to future changes driven by increased traffic or revisions in Figure 12. Ramp control consideration sample summary report.

22 Guidebook for Developing Ramp Control Facilities Figure 13. Sample printed report.

Decision process and Decision Support tool 23 airline service. However, additional staffing, ramp control location, and associated technology may have considerable cost implications. • Airline consideration: An airline that also provides ramp control at another airport may pro- vide more cost-effective ramp control due to greater experience and economy of scale. How- ever, airline control could raise equity and coordination issues. In other words, a fear of lack of fairness for all users. This must be addressed and the appropriate agreements reached through consensus in order to eliminate these fears. • Third party consideration: A third party has the potential to (a) be almost as flexible as the air- port through management of their contract structure and (b) have almost as much experience and economy of scale as an airline. However, if a third party is an option, be sure to discuss which entity (airline or airport operator) will contract with and oversee the third party. • Combination of management options: Considering one or more airlines or third-party opera- tors may have economy of scale benefits, but it also may require more coordination on the part of the airport. Regardless of who performs ramp control, any possible liability concerns should be fully investigated by all parties involved. Where will ramp control be performed? Identify the location from which the ramp will be controlled. Options may range from building a new facility (e.g., a tower) or rehabbing an old one (e.g., a former FAA ATC Tower), to utilizing equipment that will allow ramp control activi- ties to be conducted from a remote location. Some pros and cons of different options include: • Traditional ramp tower—Towers may be the most cost-effective, but may not be possible due to line-of-sight issues. • Virtual ramp control facility—Virtual facilities ensure adequate line of sight and may be con- ducted from a room anywhere. However, technology associated with this option may be costly. • Mixed facility—Utilizing cameras or other technology to control a ramp in a traditional ramp tower. This operation may offer cost-effective solutions for airports, but may require additional coordination efforts. In addition, various location factors may influence other airport operator’s decisions, including: • What are the initial and recurring costs associated with ramp control? • What are the facility requirements? – Which is desired, a traditional ramp tower or a virtual facility? – Are there any siting issues that need to be resolved or mitigated? – Are there engineering and/or infrastructure issues? • What will be the responsibility of ramp control? • What would be the staffing requirements? – Are there requirements for management or supervisory personnel? • What technology is needed?

24 C h a p t e r 3 After reviewing each potentially responsible organization and location for ramp control, the airport operator should conduct a formal cost analysis. Appendix B provides some high-level insight into the initial and recurring costs associated with ramp control decisions, including guidance associated with each type of management option, such as: • Airport operator – Initial costs may include hiring and training of personnel, workspace costs (e.g., facility or workspace, furniture, equipment). – Recurring costs may include wages and benefits, maintenance and upkeep of the work- space, upgrade/replacement of equipment, furniture, technology, etc. • Air carrier – From the airport operator’s perspective, most of the initial and recurring costs are the responsibility of the air carrier and the airport operator may not be aware of them. How- ever, changes in lease agreements or other contracts will likely involve the airport operator. • Third party—The cost of a third-party provider may vary depending on who the contract is with: – Contracted with the airport operator—the airport operator will know all initial and recur- ring costs as they will likely be part of any request for proposals. – Contracted with an air carrier—most of the initial or recurring costs will be unknown to the airport operator. However, changes in lease agreements or other contracts will likely involve the airport operator. Note: The costs of airport operators contracting with a third party are often passed on to the airlines, generally through lease agreements. Potential costs may be documented by entering answers into the Decision Support Tool or by answering the questions in Appendix A. Figure 14 illustrates an example response to the Appendix A, Table A-3 questions and details the high-level initial and recurring costs that may apply if an airport operator is being considered to manage the ramp control facility. Appendix A questions and the Decision Support Tool can also be used to assess: • Initial costs, such as: – Facility (traditional or virtual) including equipment and furniture; – Selection and training of personnel; and – Initial contract obligations (e.g., lease agreements, licensing fees, liability insurance). • Recurring costs such as: – Maintenance and upkeep of the facility; – Wage and benefit of personnel; – Upgrade or replacement of the equipment and furniture, and technology required to per- form ramp control; and – Changes to contracts (e.g., lease agreements, licensing fees). Initial and Recurring Costs

Initial and recurring Costs 25 Once costs have been outlined, it is time to consider the benefits of ramp control. While costs are somewhat straightforward to understand and calculate, benefits are often harder to quantify and can be arbitrary. Some benefits to consider include: • Improving ramp safety, • Mitigating ramp congestion, and • Linking surface operations to the NAS. How an airport operator decides to compare costs to benefits is going to be his/her decision. However, some guidance exists that might be useful to help in this process. ACRP Report 106: Being Prepared for IROPS: A Business Planning and Decision-Making Approach includes a Business Case Analysis Primer that can be used to help in conducting cost estimating and benefit analysis for airport business initiatives, such as a ramp tower. There is also a document entitled, FAA Airport Benefit-Cost Analysis Guidance, originally published in 1999 and recently updated in 2010, that also may be consulted. An important note about ramp tower costs: Eligibility for Airport Improvement Plan (AIP) funding is normally limited to public-use facilities. Tower construction is limited to contract towers only. Airports considering constructing ramp control facilities on common-use aprons should contact their FAA Regional Office of Airport Planning and Programming for guidance on their specific project eligibility. Figure 14. Example: Step 3 worksheet.

26 Implementation After obtaining executive management understanding and approval of the recommended approach to implement ramp control, consider assigning the implementation of the solution to a specific project manager within the airport organization. Giving the responsibility and the authority to implement the decision to a single, focal point-of-contact will prove valuable because of the technical and organizational complexity of adapting this new capability at the airport. 4.1 Steps Going Forward Listed below are a number of steps that should be considered as airport operators develop a ramp control implementation plan: • Develop processes and procedures that optimize operations on the ramp. • Develop and publish an implementation plan and schedule. • Negotiate required contracts (e.g., airline lease amendments, stakeholder license amend- ments, collective bargaining agreements, as appropriate). • In considering establishing or modifying a ramp control operation, airports should remain aware of technology developments that may enable or enhance achievement of their goals. • Create or modify an existing SOP/letter of agreement (LOA) that denotes the area of jurisdic- tion including specification of the transfer points with ATC, and the roles and responsibilities of ATC and ramp control personnel. Although airports with ramp control have a number of common practices, they vary in how ramp control is staffed, their ramp terminology, required knowledge, how training is accomplished, etc. • Ensure flight operators are aware of ramp control processes and procedures (e.g., pilot bul- letins, letters to airmen). • Identify funding options, including the potential for grants. • Share lessons learned from the evaluation and decision process: – With airport management and stakeholders—This may include pilot bulletins, letters to airmen, aeronautical charts, pilot briefings, etc. Be sure to communicate with all stake- holders affected by the decision. C h a p t e r 4 Decision Support Tool Tip: Throughout the decision process, users can save updated information entered into the Decision Support Tool. This allows the user to change or add information as it is obtained.

Implementation 27 – With other airports—Sharing the positive as well as the negative lessons learned will help others avoid similar pitfalls. • Monitor how well ramp control addresses your concerns. Keep in mind that the process and Decision Support Tool can be used again in the future as airport conditions or stakeholders change. The research in this document can continue to ben- efit airport operators in making complex ramp decisions. In addition, because of the Decision Support Tool’s robust, flexible, and easy-to-use format that produces well thought out support for current or future ramp decisions, users can continue to input new scenarios.

28 C h a p t e r 5 This guidebook, in conjunction with the associated Decision Support Tool, can assist an airport operator, in collaboration with its stakeholders, in recognizing whether an airport has ramp-related operational challenges that ramp control could resolve or mitigate. Because of the costs and possible liability, the decision to implement ramp control is an activity that should not be entered into lightly; however, it is also important to not overlook the benefits of safety and efficiency that this function may provide. Additionally, as demand increases throughout the NAS, the need for surface management is also increasing, and ramp control may be one avenue that can be used to implement NextGen surface operations tools. The research team suggests that ramp control service providers: • Develop a template for SOPs to document the processes and procedures performed by ramp controllers, including areas of jurisdiction, transfer points, standardized terminology, and other procedures unique to the airport (e.g., de-icing). SOPs can be used to describe specific ramp control activity responsibilities in the form of position descriptions. • Create training documents for those who perform ramp control, detailing minimum training requirements, training goals and methods of achieving the training goal. Ideally, this docu- ment should be editable, so that it can be tailored to an individual ramp facility. • Consider a certification process for those who perform ramp control. This guidance is only the first step in helping airports determine how to manage the non- movement area. If the decision is made to go forward with ramp control, it is recommended that contact with other airports with established ramp control services be made to learn more about best practices and lessons learned. While recognizing that no two airports are the same, the challenges experienced by other airports may be similar. Summary

29 AC 150/5210-20A, Ground Vehicle Operations to include Taxiing or Towing an Aircraft on Airports, 9/1/2015. AC 150/5300-13, Airport Design, 9/29/1989. Belliotti, R., F. Barich, J. Ply, P. Reed, and R. Agnew, 2010. ACRP Report 30: Reference Guide on Understanding Common Use at Airports. Transportation Research Board of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, Washington, D.C. Federal Aviation Administration Letter of Agreement, 2015, Las Vegas Airport Traffic Control Tower (LAS ATCT) and Clark County Department of Aviation (DOA). Federal Aviation Administration Order 7110.65—Air Traffic Control; November 2015. Federal Aviation Administration Order 8020.16—Air Traffic Organization Aircraft Accident and Incident Notifi- cation, Investigation and Reporting, 12/18/2014. Nash, M., R. Agnew, S. A. D. Ward, R. A. Massey, T. Callister, R. McNeill, F. Barich, and J. Ply, 2012. ACRP Report 65: Guidebook for Airport Irregular Operations (IROPS) Contingency Planning. Transportation Research Board of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, Washington, D.C. References

30 Bibliography Doble, Nathan A., John Timmerman, Ted Carniol, and Mark Klopfenstein, Metron Aviation and Midori Tanino and Ved Sud, Federal Aviation Administration. 2009. “Linking Traffic Management to the Airport Surface— Departure Flow Management and Beyond.” Howell, Dan, and Ritchey, Steve. 2005. “Airline Operational Benefits of Surface Surveillance.” Goñi Modrego, Eduardo; Mihai-George Iagaru, Marc Dalichampt, and Roger Lane, Eurocontrol Experimental Center. 2009. “Airport CDM Network Impact Assessment.” Johnson, Bart. 2014. USA Today “Congested Airport Ramps Risky Before and After Flights.” Landry, Joanne, and Ingolia, Shane. 2011. ACRP Synthesis 29: Ramp Safety Practices. Transportation Research Board of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, Washington, D.C. Ricondo & Associates, Inc.; Kimley-Horn and Associates, Inc.; Airport Development Group, Inc.; Aviation Safety and Security Education Training, LLC; and Two Hundred, Inc. 2013. ACRP Report 96: Apron Planning and Design Guidebook. Transportation Research Board of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, Washington, D.C. Ricondo & Associates, Inc., Planport GmbH, Two Hundred, Inc., and Unique (Zurich Airport, Ltd.). 2012. ACRP Report 62: Airport Apron Management and Control Programs. Transportation Research Board of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, Washington, D.C. Sandberg, Melanie, and Tom G. Reynolds, Weather Sensing Group MIT Lincoln Laboratory and Khadilkar, Harshad and Hamsa Balakrishnan, Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology. 2013. “Airport Characterization for the Adaptation of Surface Congestion Management Approaches.” United States Government Federal Aviation Administration Order 7110.65—Air Traffic Control. November 2015. United States Government Federal Aviation Administration Order 7210.3—Facility Operation and Administration, November 2015. United States Government Accountability Office—Report to Congressional Requesters. 2007. “Aviation Runway and Ramp Safety—Sustained Efforts to Address Leadership, Technology, and Other Challenges Needed to Reduce Accidents and Incidents.” Vail, Steve, Churchill, Andrew, Karlsson, Joakim, Domitrovich, Jessica, and Phillips, Tim. 2015. ACRP Report 137: Guidebook for Advancing Collaborative Decision Making (CDM) at Airports. Transportation Research Board of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, Washington, D.C.

31 Glossary of Terms Accident An occurrence associated with the operation of an aircraft which takes place between the time any person boards the aircraft with the inten- tion of flight and until such time as all such persons have disembarked, and in which any person suffers death or serious injury, or in which the aircraft receives substantial damage. (FAA Order 8020.16) Airport Operators The operator (public or private) or sponsor of a public-use airport. Airport Traffic The structure from which services are provided by an appropriate Control Tower authority to promote the safe, orderly, and expeditious flow of air traffic. Apron or Ramp A defined area on an airport or heliport intended to accommodate air- craft for purposes of loading or unloading passengers or cargo, refuel- ing, parking, or maintenance. With regard to seaplanes, a ramp is used for access to the apron from the water. [See International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) term APRON.] APRON (ICAO)—A defined area, on a land aerodrome, intended to accommodate aircraft for purposes of loading or unloading passengers, mail or cargo, refueling, parking or maintenance. (FAA Order 7110.65) Common Use A facility allocation and management approach intended to maximize airport facility access and allocation through non-dedicated resources. It is an alternative to the traditional approach that used proprietary/ exclusive-use models. Construction The presence and movement of construction-related personnel, equip- ment, and materials in any location that could infringe on the movement of aircraft Fixed-Base A person, firm, or organization engaged in a business that provides a range Operator of basic services to general aviation (GA). Services may include the sale and dispensing of fuel, line services, aircraft parking and tie-down, pilot and passenger facilities, airframe and power plant maintenance, aircraft sales and rental, and pilot instruction. Gate Adjacency Refers to the ability of aircraft to operate from gates that are next to one another. General Aviation That portion of civil aviation that encompasses all facets of aviation except air carriers holding a certificate of public convenience and necessity. Incident An occurrence other than an accident associated with the operation of an aircraft, which affects or could affect the safety of operations. (FAA Order 8020.16)

32 Guidebook for Developing Ramp Control Facilities Infrastructure Encompassing term to include the physical location, facility, equipment and technology, or facility where work is being performed (e.g., ramp tower, office space for a virtual ramp control operation). Infrastructure also includes any line-of-sight issues or constraints for the physical building. Initial Training Training that normally takes place where the job is to be performed, some- times referred to as on-the-job training (OJT). Initial training is normally accomplished under the supervision of an experienced person and may take place in a classroom, while performing the task, or through web-based application and prepares the trainee to perform the job unsupervised. Large Hub An airport that accounts for at least 1.00 percent of the total enplane- ments in the United States. [United States Department of Transportation (DOT) definition] Medium Hub An airport accounting for at least 0.25 percent but less than 1.00 percent of the total enplanements in the United States. (United States DOT definition) Movement Area The runways, taxiways, and other areas of an airport/heliport that are used for taxiing/hover taxiing, air taxiing, takeoff, and landing of aircraft, exclusive of loading ramps and parking areas. At those airports/heliports with an operating airport traffic control tower (ATCT), specific approval for entry onto the movement area must be obtained from ATC. Non-movement The area, other than that described as the movement area, used for the Areas loading, unloading, parking of aircraft. This may include the apron areas and on-airport fuel farms. Ramp Congestion When the movement of an aircraft (pushback, tow, taxi, etc.) is restricted by other aircraft moving in the ramp. Ramp Control Provides guidance and direction to all aircraft moving within their area of jurisdiction. •   For departing aircraft, typical instructions include pushback, dis- connect point, and contact ATC (Ground Control). • For arriving aircraft, instructions include gate and ramp entrance information, if appropriate. • Sequences departures to the designated transition point (spot) and issues traffic advisories as necessary. • Resolves conflicts with aircraft that are arriving, departing, or under tow within their area of jurisdiction: – Ramp control personnel do not resolve conflicts with vehicles or personnel moving in the ramp. Ramp controllers normally issue advi- sories to aircraft taxiing in the ramp (apron) area. Ramp Management Refers to the four options for performing ramp control—airport operators, Options air carrier or airline, third party, or combination of the previous options. Recurring Training Training required for individuals to remain proficient at the job; however, may include training that is unrelated to the job the individual was hired to perform, but is required by the employer (e.g., human relations training). Taxilane The portion of the aircraft parking area in the non-movement area used for access between taxiways and aircraft parking positions. Taxiway Those parts of the movement and safety areas designated for the surface maneuvering of aircraft to and from the runways and aircraft parking areas. Tie-Down Area An area used for securing aircraft to the ground.

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TRB's Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Research Report 167: Guidebook for Developing Ramp Control Facilities provides guidance to airport operators considering providing ramp control services. An accompanying

Ramp Control Decision Support Tool

assists users through most considerations before providing ramp control services, including facility requirements, staffing, training, and technology and other factors, allowing the user to determine the best way to move forward.

The Ramp Control Decision Support Tool is implemented in a sequence of HTML files and Javascript libraries that can be navigated using a web browser. The current version of the tool supports Google Chrome and Mozilla Firefox browsers.

In order to use the install and start the tool please use the following steps:

1. Copy the provided zip file with the tool to a local directory.

2. Unzip the contents of the zip file to this directory.

3. Open index.html file using either Google Chrome or Mozilla Firefox.

4. The welcome page provides a general overview of the tool.

5. Click on the Get Started button to start uisng the tool. This will lead to Step 1 questions.

6. Provide responses to questions included in Step 1 and when done click on the Next button.

7. Repeat for Steps 2 and 3.

8. When done answering the questions for all three steps click on Report to automatically generate a report with all provided answers.

9. The report can be printed by clicking on Print button.

Disclaimer: This software is offered as is, without warranty or promise of support of any kind either expressed or implied. Under no circumstance will the National Academy of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine or the Transportation Research Board (collectively "TRB") be liable for any loss or damage caused by the installation or operation of this product. TRB makes no representation or warranty of any kind, expressed or implied, in fact or in law, including without limitation, the warranty of merchantability or the warranty of fitness for a particular purpose, and shall not in any case be liable for any consequential or special damages.

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