National Academies Press: OpenBook
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2003. Traveler Response to Transportation System Changes Handbook, Third Edition: Chapter 15, Land Use and Site Design. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24727.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2003. Traveler Response to Transportation System Changes Handbook, Third Edition: Chapter 15, Land Use and Site Design. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24727.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2003. Traveler Response to Transportation System Changes Handbook, Third Edition: Chapter 15, Land Use and Site Design. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24727.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2003. Traveler Response to Transportation System Changes Handbook, Third Edition: Chapter 15, Land Use and Site Design. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24727.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2003. Traveler Response to Transportation System Changes Handbook, Third Edition: Chapter 15, Land Use and Site Design. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24727.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2003. Traveler Response to Transportation System Changes Handbook, Third Edition: Chapter 15, Land Use and Site Design. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24727.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2003. Traveler Response to Transportation System Changes Handbook, Third Edition: Chapter 15, Land Use and Site Design. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24727.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2003. Traveler Response to Transportation System Changes Handbook, Third Edition: Chapter 15, Land Use and Site Design. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24727.
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T R A N S P O R T A T I O N R E S E A R C H B O A R D WASHINGTON, D.C. 2003 www.TRB.org T R A N S I T C O O P E R A T I V E R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M TCRP REPORT 95 Research Sponsored by the Federal Transit Administration in Cooperation with the Transit Development Corporation SUBJECT AREAS Planning and Administration • Public Transit • Highway Operations, Capacity and Traffic Control Traveler Response to Transportation System Changes Chapter 15—Land Use and Site Design J. RICHARD KUZMYAK RICHARD H. PRATT and G. BRUCE DOUGLAS Lead Chapter Authors FRANK SPIELBERG Contributing Chapter Author RICHARD H. PRATT, CONSULTANT, INC. Garrett Park, MD TEXAS TRANSPORTATION INSTITUTE College Station, TX JAY EVANS CONSULTING LLC Washington, DC PARSONS BRINCKERHOFF QUADE & DOUGLAS, INC. Baltimore, MD and San Francisco, CA CAMBRIDGE SYSTEMATICS, INC. Chevy Chase, MD J. RICHARD KUZMYAK, L.L.C. Silver Spring, MD SG ASSOCIATES, INC. Annandale, VA GALLOP CORPORATION Rockville, MD MCCOLLOM MANAGEMENT CONSULTING, INC. Darnestown, MD HERBERT S. LEVINSON, TRANSPORTATION CONSULTANT New Haven, CT K.T. ANALYTICS, INC. Bethesda, MD

TRANSIT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM The nation’s growth and the need to meet mobility, environmental, and energy objectives place demands on public transit systems. Current systems, some of which are old and in need of upgrading, must expand service area, increase service frequency, and improve efficiency to serve these demands. Research is necessary to solve operating problems, to adapt appropriate new technologies from other industries, and to introduce innovations into the transit industry. The Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP) serves as one of the principal means by which the transit industry can develop innovative near-term solutions to meet demands placed on it. The need for TCRP was originally identified in TRB Special Report 213—Research for Public Transit: New Directions, published in 1987 and based on a study sponsored by the Urban Mass Transportation Administration—now the Federal Transit Admin- istration (FTA). A report by the American Public Transportation Association (APTA), Transportation 2000, also recognized the need for local, problem-solving research. TCRP, modeled after the longstanding and successful National Cooperative Highway Research Program, undertakes research and other technical activities in response to the needs of transit service providers. The scope of TCRP includes a variety of transit research fields including plan- ning, service configuration, equipment, facilities, operations, human resources, maintenance, policy, and administrative practices. TCRP was established under FTA sponsorship in July 1992. Proposed by the U.S. Department of Transportation, TCRP was authorized as part of the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991 (ISTEA). On May 13, 1992, a memorandum agreement outlining TCRP operating procedures was executed by the three cooperating organizations: FTA; the National Academies, acting through the Transportation Research Board (TRB); and the Transit Development Corporation, Inc. (TDC), a nonprofit educational and research organization established by APTA. TDC is responsible for forming the independent governing board, designated as the TCRP Oversight and Project Selection (TOPS) Committee. Research problem statements for TCRP are solicited periodically but may be submitted to TRB by anyone at any time. It is the responsibility of the TOPS Committee to formulate the research program by identifying the highest priority projects. As part of the evaluation, the TOPS Committee defines funding levels and expected products. Once selected, each project is assigned to an expert panel, appointed by the Transportation Research Board. The panels prepare project statements (requests for proposals), select contractors, and provide technical guidance and counsel throughout the life of the project. The process for developing research problem statements and selecting research agencies has been used by TRB in managing cooperative research programs since 1962. As in other TRB activ- ities, TCRP project panels serve voluntarily without compensation. Because research cannot have the desired impact if products fail to reach the intended audience, special emphasis is placed on disseminating TCRP results to the intended end users of the research: transit agencies, service providers, and suppliers. TRB provides a series of research reports, syntheses of transit practice, and other supporting material developed by TCRP research. APTA will arrange for workshops, training aids, field visits, and other activities to ensure that results are implemented by urban and rural transit industry practitioners. The TCRP provides a forum where transit agencies can cooperatively address common operational problems. The TCRP results support and complement other ongoing transit research and training programs. TCRP REPORT 95: Chapter 15 Project B-12A FY’99 ISSN 1073-4872 ISBN 0-309-08763-5 Library of Congress Control Number 2003108813 © 2003 Transportation Research Board Price $20.00 NOTICE The project that is the subject of this report was a part of the Transit Cooperative Research Program conducted by the Transportation Research Board with the approval of the Governing Board of the National Research Council. Such approval reflects the Governing Board’s judgment that the project concerned is appropriate with respect to both the purposes and resources of the National Research Council. The members of the technical advisory panel selected to monitor this project and to review this report were chosen for recognized scholarly competence and with due consideration for the balance of disciplines appropriate to the project. The opinions and conclusions expressed or implied are those of the research agency that performed the research, and while they have been accepted as appropriate by the technical panel, they are not necessarily those of the Transportation Research Board, the National Research Council, the Transit Development Corporation, or the Federal Transit Administration of the U.S. Department of Transportation. Each report is reviewed and accepted for publication by the technical panel according to procedures established and monitored by the Transportation Research Board Executive Committee and the Governing Board of the National Research Council. Special Notice The Transportation Research Board, the National Research Council, the Transit Development Corporation, and the Federal Transit Administration (sponsor of the Transit Cooperative Research Program) do not endorse products or manufacturers. Trade or manufacturers’ names appear herein solely because they are considered essential to the clarity and completeness of the project reporting. Published reports of the TRANSIT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM are available from: Transportation Research Board Business Office 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 and can be ordered through the Internet at http://www.national-academies.org/trb/bookstore Printed in the United States of America

The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished schol- ars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. On the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and techni- cal matters. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Acad- emy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achieve- ments of engineers. Dr. William A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, on its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Acad- emy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both the Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts and Dr. William A. Wulf are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. The Transportation Research Board is a division of the National Research Council, which serves the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering. The Board’s mission is to promote innovation and progress in transportation through research. In an objective and interdisciplinary setting, the Board facilitates the sharing of information on transportation practice and policy by researchers and practitioners; stimulates research and offers research management services that promote technical excellence; provides expert advice on transportation policy and programs; and disseminates research results broadly and encourages their implementation. The Board’s varied activities annually engage more than 4,000 engineers, scientists, and other transportation researchers and practitioners from the public and private sectors and academia, all of whom contribute their expertise in the public interest. The program is supported by state transportation departments, federal agencies including the component administrations of the U.S. Department of Transportation, and other organizations and individuals interested in the development of transportation. www.TRB.org www.national-academies.org

COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAMS STAFF FOR TCRP REPORT 95 ROBERT J. REILLY, Director, Cooperative Research Programs CHRISTOPHER W. JENKS, TCRP Manager STEPHAN A. PARKER, Senior Program Officer EILEEN P. DELANEY, Managing Editor NATASSJA LINZAU, Associate Editor TCRP PROJECT B-12A PANEL Field of Service Configuration PAUL J. LARROUSSE, National Transit Institute, Rutgers University, NJ (Chair) PATRICK T. DeCORLA-SOUZA, Federal Highway Administration KEITH L. KILLOUGH, KLK Consulting, Los Angeles, CA REZA NAVAI, California DOT CYNTHIA ANN NORDT, Houston, TX NEIL J. PEDERSEN, Maryland State Highway Administration G. SCOTT RUTHERFORD, University of Washington, Seattle, WA DARWIN G. STUART, Skokie, IL RON FISHER, FTA Liaison Representative RICHARD WEAVER, APTA Liaison Representative KIM FISHER, TRB Liaison Representative

FOREWORD By Stephan A. Parker Staff Officer Transportation Research Board While transportation is a long-acknowledged factor in shaping cities and deter- mining land development potential, as the result of enhanced accessibility, the recip- rocal impact of land use decisions on transportation outcomes has only gradually achieved recognition. It is these reciprocal impacts, of interest in treating land use or site design options as “transportation” strategies, that provide the impetus for this chap- ter. Presented here is information on the relationships between land use/site design and travel behavior, drawn primarily from research studies that have attempted to measure and explain the effects. TCRP Report 95: Chapter 15, Land Use and Site Design will be of interest to tran- sit, transportation, and land use planning practitioners; educators and researchers; and professionals across a broad spectrum of transportation and planning agencies, MPOs, and local, state, and federal government agencies. The overarching objective of the Traveler Response to Transportation System Changes Handbook is to equip members of the transportation profession with a com- prehensive, readily accessible, interpretive documentation of results and experience obtained across the United States and elsewhere from (1) different types of transporta- tion system changes and policy actions and (2) alternative land use and site develop- ment design approaches. While the focus is on contemporary observations and assess- ments of traveler responses as expressed in travel demand changes, the presentation is seasoned with earlier experiences and findings to identify trends or stability, and to fill information gaps that would otherwise exist. Comprehensive referencing of additional reference materials is provided to facilitate and encourage in-depth exploration of top- ics of interest. Travel demand and related impacts are expressed using such measures as usage of transportation facilities and services, before-and-after market shares and percentage changes, and elasticity. The findings in the Handbook are intended to aid — as a general guide — in pre- liminary screening activities and quick turn-around assessments. The Handbook is not intended for use as a substitute for regional or project-specific travel demand evalua- tions and model applications, or other independent surveys and analyses. The Second Edition of the handbook Traveler Response to Transportation System Changes was published by USDOT in July 1981, and it has been a valuable tool for transportation professionals, providing documentation of results from different types of transportation actions. This Third Edition of the Handbook covers 18 topic areas, including essentially all of the nine topic areas in the 1981 edition, modified slightly in scope, plus nine new topic areas. Each topic is published as a chapter of TCRP Report 95. To access the chapters, select “TCRP, All Projects, B-12” from the TCRP website: http://www4.national-academies.org/trb/crp.nsf.

A team led by Richard H. Pratt, Consultant, Inc. is responsible for the Traveler Response to Transportation System Changes Handbook, Third Edition, through work conducted under TCRP Projects B-12, B-12A, and B-12B. REPORT ORGANIZATION The Handbook, organized for simultaneous print and electronic chapter-by-chap- ter publication, treats each chapter essentially as a stand-alone document. Each chap- ter includes text and self-contained references and sources on that topic. For example, the references cited in the text of Chapter 6, “Demand Responsive/ADA,” refer to the Reference List at the end of that chapter. The Handbook user should, however, be con- versant with the background and guidance provided in TCRP Report 95: Chapter 1, Introduction. Upon completion of the Report 95 series, the final Chapter 1 publication will include a CD-ROM of all 19 chapters. The complete outline of chapters is provided below.

Handbook Outline Showing Publication and Source-Data-Cutoff Dates U.S. DOT Publication TCRP Report 95 Estimated General Sections and Topic Area Chapters First Second Source Data Publication (TCRP Report 95 Nomenclature) Edition Edition Cutoff Date Date Ch. 1 – Introduction (with Appendices A, B) Multimodal/Intermodal Facilities Ch. 2 – HOV Facilities Ch. 3 – Park-and-Ride and Park-and-Pool Transit Facilities and Services Ch. 4 – Busways, BRT and Express Bus Ch. 5 – Vanpools and Buspools Ch. 6 – Demand Responsive/ADA Ch. 7 – Light Rail Transit Ch. 8 – Commuter Rail Public Transit Operations Ch. 9 – Transit Scheduling and Frequency Ch. 10 – Bus Routing and Coverage Ch. 11 – Transit Information and Promotion Transportation Pricing Ch. 12 – Transit Pricing and Fares Ch. 13 – Parking Pricing and Fees Ch. 14 – Road Value Pricing Land Use and Non-Motorized Travel Ch. 15 – Land Use and Site Design Ch. 16 – Pedestrian and Bicycle Facilities Ch. 17 – Transit Oriented Design Transportation Demand Management Ch. 18 – Parking Management and Supply Ch. 19 – Employer and Institutional TDM Strategies NOTES: a Published in TCRP Web Document 12, Interim Handbook (March 2000), without Appendix B. The “Interim Introduction” (2003) is a replacement. Publication of the final version of Chapter 1, “Introduction,” as part of the TCRP Report 95 series, is anticipated for 2004. b Published in TCRP Web Document 12, Interim Handbook, in March 2000. Available now at http://www4.nas.edu/trb/crp.nsf/ All+Projects/TCRP+B-12. Publication as part of the TCRP Report 95 series is anticipated for the second half of 2004. c The source data cutoff date for certain components of this chapter was 1999. d Estimated. e The edition in question addressed only certain aspects of later edition topical coverage. f Primary cutoff was first year listed, but with selected information from second year listed. 1977 1977 — 1977e 1977 — — — 1977 1977 1977 1977 1977e 1977e — — — — 1977e 1981 1981 1981 1981 1981 — — — 1981 1981 1981 1981 — — — — — — 1981e 2003a 1999 2003c 2003 c 1999 1999 2003 2003 1999 1999 2002 1999 1999 2002–03f 2001–02f 2003 2003d 2000–02f 2003 2000/03/04a 2000/04b 2004d 2004d 2000/04b 2000/04b 2004d 2004d 2000/04b 2000/04b 2003 2000/04b 2000/04b 2003 2003 2004d 2004d 2003 2004d

TCRP Report 95, in essence the Third Edition of the “Trav- eler Response to Transportation System Changes” Handbook, is being prepared under Transit Cooperative Research Program Projects B12, B12A, and B12B by Richard H. Pratt, Consultant, Inc. in association with the Texas Transportation Institute; Jay Evans Consulting LLC; Parsons Brinckerhoff Quade & Douglas, Inc.; Cambridge Systematics, Inc.; J. Richard Kuzmyak, L.L.C.; SG Associates, Inc.; Gallop Corporation; McCollom Manage- ment Consulting, Inc.; Herbert S. Levinson, Transportation Consultant; and K.T. Analytics, Inc. Richard H. Pratt is the Principal Investigator. Dr. Katherine F. Turnbull of the Texas Transportation Institute assisted as co- Principal Investigator during initial Project B12 phases, lead- ing up to the Phase I Interim Report and the Phase II Draft Interim Handbook. Lead Handbook chapter authors and co- authors, in addition to Mr. Pratt, are John E. (Jay) Evans, IV, initially of Parsons Brinckerhoff and now of Jay Evans Con- sulting LLC; Dr. Turnbull; Frank Spielberg of SG Associates, Inc.; Brian E. McCollom of McCollom Management Consult- ing, Inc.; Erin Vaca of Cambridge Systematics, Inc.; J. Richard Kuzmyak, initially of Cambridge Systematics and now of J. Richard Kuzmyak, L.L.C.; and Dr. G. Bruce Douglas, Par- sons Brinckerhoff Quade & Douglas, Inc. Contributing authors include Herbert S. Levinson, Transportation Consultant; Dr. Kiran U. Bhatt, K.T. Analytics, Inc.; Shawn M. Turner, Texas Transportation Institute; Dr. Rachel Weinberger, Cambridge Systematics and now of URS Corporation; and Dr. C. Y. Jeng, Gallop Corporation. Other Research Agency team members contributing to the preparatory research, synthesis of information, and development of this Handbook have been Stephen Farnsworth, Laura Higgins and Rachel Donovan of the Texas Transportation Institute; Nick Vlahos, Vicki Ruiter and Karen Higgins of Cambridge System- atics, Inc.; Lydia Wong, Gordon Schultz and Bill Davidson of Parsons Brinckerhoff Quade & Douglas, Inc.; and Laura C. (Peggy) Pratt of Richard H. Pratt, Consultant, Inc. As Principal Investigator, Mr. Pratt has participated iteratively and substan- tively in the development of each chapter. Dr. C. Y. Jeng of Gal- lop Corporation has provided pre-publication numerical quality control review. By special arrangement, Dr. Daniel B. Rathbone of The Urban Transportation Monitor searched past issues. Assistance in word processing, graphics and other essential sup- port has been provided by Bonnie Duke and Pam Rowe of the Texas Transportation Institute; Karen Applegate, Laura Reseigh, and Stephen Bozik of Parsons Brinckerhoff; others too numerous to name but fully appreciated; and lastly the warmly remembered late Susan Spielberg of SG Associates. Special thanks go to all involved for supporting the coopera- tive process adopted for topic area chapter development. Mem- bers of the TCRP Project B12/B12A/B12B Project Panel, named elsewhere, are providing review and comments for what will total over 20 individual publication documents/chapters. They have gone the extra mile in providing support on call including leads, reports, documentation, advice and direction over what will be the eight-year duration of the project. Four consecutive appointed or acting TCRP Senior Program Officers have given their support: Stephanie N. Robinson, who took the project through scope development and contract negotiation; Stephen J. Andrle, who led the work during the Project B-12 Phase and on into the TCRP B-12A Project Continuation; Harvey Berlin, who saw the Interim Handbook through to Website publication; and Stephan A. Parker, who is guiding the entire project to its com- plete fruition. The efforts of all are greatly appreciated. Continued recognition is due to the participants in the devel- opment of the First and Second Editions, key elements of which are retained. Co-authors to Mr. Pratt were Neil J. Pedersen and Joseph J. Mather for the First Edition, and John N. Copple for the Second Edition. Crucial support and guidance for both edi- tions was provided by the Federal Highway Administration’s Technical Representative (COTR), Louise E. Skinner. In the TCRP Report 95 edition, J. Richard Kuzmyak, Richard H. Pratt and Dr. G. Bruce Douglas are co-lead authors for this volume: Chapter 15, “Land Use and Site Design.” Contributing author for Chapter 15 is Frank Spielberg. Participation by the profession at large has been absolutely essential to the development of the Handbook and this chapter. Members of volunteer Review Groups, established for each chapter, reviewed outlines, provided leads, and in many cases undertook substantive reviews. Though all Review Group mem- bers who assisted are not listed here in the interests of brevity, their contribution is truly valued. Those who have undertaken reviews of Chapter 15 are Jeff Becker, Elizabeth Deakin and Andrew Farkas. In addition, Uri Avin, Carsten Gertz, Susan Herre, Kara Kockelman, Connie Kozlak, and Effie Stallsmith stepped in to provide needed chapter reviews. Finally, sincere thanks are due to the many practitioners and researchers who were contacted for information and unstintingly supplied both that and all manner of statistics, data compilations, and reports. Though not feasible to list here, many appear in the “References” section entries of this and other chapters. CHAPTER 15 AUTHOR AND CONTRIBUTOR ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

CHAPTER 15—LAND USE AND SITE DESIGN Overview and Summary, 15-1 Response by Type of Strategy, 15-13 Underlying Traveler Response Factors, 15-90 Related Information and Impacts, 15-101 Additional Resources, 15-122 Case Studies, 15-123 References, 15-127 How to Order TCRP Report 95, 15-134 CONTENTS

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TRB’s Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP) Report 95: Chapter 15 – Land Use and Site Design provides information on the relationships between land use/site design and travel behavior. Information in the report is drawn primarily from research studies that have attempted to measure and explain the effects.

The Traveler Response to Transportation System Changes Handbook consists of these Chapter 1 introductory materials and 15 stand-alone published topic area chapters. Each topic area chapter provides traveler response findings including supportive information and interpretation, and also includes case studies and a bibliography consisting of the references utilized as sources.

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