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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Interpreting the Results of Airport Water Monitoring. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24752.
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A I R P O R T C O O P E R A T I V E R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M ACRP RESEARCH REPORT 166 2017 Research sponsored by the Federal Aviation Administration Subscriber Categories Aviation  •  Environment Interpreting the Results of Airport Water Monitoring A Guidebook Gresham, smith and Partners Columbus, OH i n a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h Geosyntec consultants, inc. Portland, OR northwestern aquatic sciences Newport, OR cwm environmental Cleveland, OH

AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM Airports are vital national resources. They serve a key role in trans- portation of people and goods and in regional, national, and interna- tional commerce. They are where the nation’s aviation system connects with other modes of transportation and where federal responsibility for managing and regulating air traffic operations intersects with the role of state and local governments that own and operate most airports. Research is necessary to solve common operating problems, to adapt appropriate new technologies from other industries, and to introduce innovations into the airport industry. The Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) serves as one of the principal means by which the airport industry can develop innovative near-term solutions to meet demands placed on it. The need for ACRP was identified in TRB Special Report 272: Airport Research Needs: Cooperative Solutions in 2003, based on a study spon- sored by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). ACRP carries out applied research on problems that are shared by airport operating agen- cies and not being adequately addressed by existing federal research programs. ACRP is modeled after the successful National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP) and Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP). ACRP undertakes research and other technical activi- ties in various airport subject areas, including design, construction, legal, maintenance, operations, safety, policy, planning, human resources, and administration. ACRP provides a forum where airport operators can cooperatively address common operational problems. ACRP was authorized in December 2003 as part of the Vision 100— Century of Aviation Reauthorization Act. The primary participants in the ACRP are (1) an independent governing board, the ACRP Oversight Committee (AOC), appointed by the Secretary of the U.S. Department of Transportation with representation from airport operating agencies, other stakeholders, and relevant industry organizations such as the Airports Council International-North America (ACI-NA), the American Associa- tion of Airport Executives (AAAE), the National Association of State Aviation Officials (NASAO), Airlines for America (A4A), and the Airport Consultants Council (ACC) as vital links to the airport community; (2) TRB as program manager and secretariat for the governing board; and (3) the FAA as program sponsor. In October 2005, the FAA executed a contract with the National Academy of Sciences formally initiating the program. ACRP benefits from the cooperation and participation of airport professionals, air carriers, shippers, state and local government officials, equipment and service suppliers, other airport users, and research organi- zations. Each of these participants has different interests and responsibili- ties, and each is an integral part of this cooperative research effort. Research problem statements for ACRP are solicited periodically but may be submitted to TRB by anyone at any time. It is the responsibility of the AOC to formulate the research program by identifying the highest priority projects and defining funding levels and expected products. Once selected, each ACRP project is assigned to an expert panel appointed by TRB. Panels include experienced practitioners and research specialists; heavy emphasis is placed on including airport professionals, the intended users of the research products. The panels prepare project statements (requests for proposals), select contractors, and provide technical guidance and counsel throughout the life of the project. The process for developing research problem statements and selecting research agencies has been used by TRB in managing coop- erative research programs since 1962. As in other TRB activities, ACRP project panels serve voluntarily without compensation. Primary emphasis is placed on disseminating ACRP results to the intended users of the research: airport operating agencies, service pro- viders, and academic institutions. ACRP produces a series of research reports for use by airport operators, local agencies, the FAA, and other interested parties; industry associations may arrange for workshops, training aids, field visits, webinars, and other activities to ensure that results are implemented by airport industry practitioners. ACRP RESEARCH REPORT 166 Project 02-53 ISSN 1935-9802 ISBN 978-0-309-44622-8 Library of Congress Control Number 2017934123 © 2017 National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. COPYRIGHT INFORMATION Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously published or copyrighted material used herein. Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permission is given with the understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB, AASHTO, FAA, FHWA, FMCSA, FRA, FTA, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Research and Technology, PHMSA, or TDC endorsement of a particular product, method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the material in this document for educational and not-for-profit uses will give appropriate acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of the material, request permission from CRP. NOTICE The research report was reviewed by the technical panel and accepted for publication according to procedures established and overseen by the Transportation Research Board and approved by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The opinions and conclusions expressed or implied in this report are those of the researchers who performed the research and are not necessarily those of the Transportation Research Board; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; or the program sponsors. The Transportation Research Board; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; and the sponsors of the Airport Cooperative Research Program do not endorse products or manufacturers. Trade or manufacturers’ names appear herein solely because they are considered essential to the object of the report. Published research reports of the AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM are available from Transportation Research Board Business Office 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 and can be ordered through the Internet by going to http://www.national-academies.org and then searching for TRB Printed in the United States of America

The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, non- governmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Marcia McNutt is president. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to bring the practices of engineering to advising the nation. Members are elected by their peers for extraordinary contributions to engineering. Dr. C. D. Mote, Jr., is president. The National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine) was established in 1970 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to advise the nation on medical and health issues. Members are elected by their peers for distinguished contributions to medicine and health. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president. The three Academies work together as the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to provide independent, objective analysis and advice to the nation and conduct other activities to solve complex problems and inform public policy decisions. The Academies also encourage education and research, recognize outstanding contributions to knowledge, and increase public understanding in matters of science, engineering, and medicine. Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine at www.national-academies.org. The Transportation Research Board is one of seven major programs of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The mission of the Transportation Research Board is to increase the benefits that transportation contributes to society by providing leadership in transportation innovation and progress through research and information exchange, conducted within a setting that is objective, interdisciplinary, and multimodal. The Board’s varied committees, task forces, and panels annually engage about 7,000 engineers, scientists, and other transportation researchers and practitioners from the public and private sectors and academia, all of whom contribute their expertise in the public interest. The program is supported by state transportation departments, federal agencies including the component administrations of the U.S. Department of Transportation, and other organizations and individuals interested in the development of transportation. Learn more about the Transportation Research Board at www.TRB.org.

C O O P E R A T I V E R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M S CRP STAFF FOR ACRP RESEARCH REPORT 166 Christopher J. Hedges, Director, Cooperative Research Programs Lori L. Sundstrom, Deputy Director, Cooperative Research Programs Michael R. Salamone, Manager, Airport Cooperative Research Program Karen Neeley, Program Coordinator Eileen P. Delaney, Director of Publications Natalie Barnes, Senior Editor ACRP PROJECT 02-53 PANEL Field of Environment Kevin A. Gurchak, Allegheny County Airport Authority, Pittsburgh International Airport, Pittsburgh, PA (Chair) Laura Fay, Western Transportation Institute, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT Robert A. Kostinec, Minnesota Pollution Control Agency, Rochester, MN Lyne Michaud, Aéroports de Montréal, Montréal–Pierre Elliott Trudeau International Airport, Dorval, QC Joohi R. Sood, Ninyo & Moore, Irvine, CA Trenecia D. Williams, City of Dallas Aviation Department, Dallas, TX Catherine Pociask, FAA Liaison Marianne Csaky, Airlines for America Liaison (formerly) Katherine B. Preston, Airports Council International–North America Liaison (formerly) Christine Gerencher, TRB Liaison AUTHOR ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The research team for ACRP Project 02-53 was led by Gresham, Smith and Partners (GS&P) in association with Geosyntec Consultants, Inc., Northwestern Aquatic Sciences, and CWM Environmental. Timothy Arendt, principal and senior environmental engineer for GS&P, was the principal investigator. Contributing authors for this guidebook include the following: • Devon Seal, GS&P • Marc Leisenring, Geosyntec Consultants • Donna Bodine, Geosyntec Consultants • Jack Dahl, Geosyntec Consultants • Daniel Pankani, Geosyntec Consultants • Lucas Nguyen, Geosyntec Consultants • Melanie Knecht, GS&P • Tom Dietrich, GS&P • Mark Ervin, GS&P • Adam Wagner, CWM Environmental • Richard Caldwell, Northwestern Aquatic Sciences The research team would like to thank the following airports for providing specific information on their operations to help support the research: • Salt Lake City International Airport (SLC) • Seattle-Tacoma International Airport (SEA) • Victoria International Airport (YYJ) The research team would also like to thank the airports and regulatory agencies that participated in the survey and interviews for this research.

F O R E W O R D By Michael R. Salamone Staff Officer Transportation Research Board ACRP Research Report 166 provides comprehensive guidance and a set of tools that operators of airports of varying sizes can use to understand, diagnose, and interpret air- port water quality. This guidebook addresses water leaving the airport that does not go to an off-site treatment facility. It should help practitioners in field situations interpret the water testing results. This guidebook and electronic tools (water quality data analysis spreadsheet, customizable parameter fact sheet database, and implementation presenta- tion to stakeholders) are available for download and will also assist practitioners in diag- nosing root causes and possible sources of specific problems that may require attention or mitigation. Water-related issues are central to environmental programs at most airports. On a regular basis, airport staff makes water management decisions to support permitting, regulatory compliance, development planning, infrastructure design, asset management, operations, and maintenance efforts. Making appropriate decisions often relies on the acquisition, interpretation, and application of water monitoring data. Typically, airport practitioners with environmental responsibilities have a basic under- standing of the water quality parameters required for routine compliance monitoring, such as biochemical oxygen demand, oil and grease, fecal coliforms, and total suspended solids. Many practitioners would benefit from a greater understanding of water quality parameters that are not so commonly encountered, such as total organic carbon, nitrate, naphthalene, zinc, acetate, and whole effluent toxicity. Faced with the need to interpret and respond to monitoring/analytical results that include unfamiliar or not-well-understood water qual- ity parameters, airport practitioners have, thus far, not had an industry-specific standard reference. Instead, their available options consisted of researching the parameters that may not be specific to the airport context or that they may not fully understand, contacting their peers at other airports who may have relevant experience, or procuring technical assistance. Having a sound fundamental understanding of the parameter(s) of interest in the airport context will lead to better decisions, less reliance on outside expertise, and reduced risk of misinterpretation. Under ACRP Project 02-53, the research team, led by Gresham, Smith and Partners, developed guidance and two downloadable tools to help airport practitioners interpret common and uncommon water quality monitoring results and thereby make better decisions for the airport and the environment. The guidebook addresses the benefits of using monitoring results to make decisions about control measure implementation. The Microsoft® Excel™ spreadsheet produces a basic set of statistical information and graphs from user-entered monitoring data sets. The Microsoft® Access™ database allows printing

of selected fact sheets on individual monitoring parameters (e.g., phosphorus) that may be of interest in specific situations. The fact sheets can be customized to include site-specific effluent criteria for the individual parameters and only the information needed by the user. The fact sheets include information on pollutant forms and sources, general environmental effects, common monitoring laboratory and field methods, detection range, reference con- centrations, monitoring challenges, related parameters, and parameter-specific sampling considerations.

1  Introduction 3 I.1 Quick Reference Guides 7 I.2 Developing a Monitoring Plan to Effectively Coordinate and Implement Monitoring Activities 16 Chapter 1 Acquiring Monitoring Data 16 1.1 Introduction 17 1.2 Terminology Critical to Acquiring Monitoring Data 20 1.3 Identifying Drivers and Objectives for Monitoring 31 1.4 Defining Monitoring Parameters 43 1.5 Identifying Monitoring Locations 50 1.6 Selecting Monitoring Frequency and Extent 53 1.7 Executing Monitoring 61 1.8 Collecting, Reporting, and Maintaining Data 65 Chapter 2 Interpreting Monitoring Data 65 2.1 Introduction 65 2.2 Terminology Critical for Interpreting Monitoring Data 67 2.3 Verifying the Accuracy and Representativeness of Raw Data 78 2.4 Analyzing the Data 97 Chapter 3 Applying and Responding to Monitoring Data 97 3.1 Introduction 97 3.2 Terminology Critical to Applying and Responding to Monitoring Data 99 3.3 Application 1: Responding to Regulatory Compliance Issues 108 3.4 Application 2: Using Data in Establishing Permit Conditions 113 3.5 Application 3: Applying Monitoring Data to Support Operations and Improve Airport Stormwater Quality 118 3.6 Application 4: Stakeholder Communication and Public Outreach 121 References 123 Glossary 126 Acronyms and Abbreviations A-1 Appendix A  Field Data Collection Form B-1 Appendix B  Field Conditions Fact Sheets C-1 Appendix C  Monitoring Case Studies C O N T E N T S

D-1 Appendix D   Quick Start Guide for the Customizable  Parameter Fact Sheet Tool E-1 Appendix E   Quick Start Guide for the Water Quality  Data Analysis Tool Note: Photographs, figures, and tables in this report may have been converted from color to grayscale for printing. The electronic version of the report (posted on the web at www.trb.org) retains the color versions.

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TRB's Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Research Report 166: Interpreting the Results of Airport Water Monitoring provides comprehensive guidance and a set of tools that operators of airports of varying sizes can use to understand, diagnose, and interpret airport water quality. This guidebook addresses water leaving the airport that does not go to an off-site treatment facility. Accompanying the report are the following tools to assist practitioners in diagnosing root causes and possible sources of specific problems that may require attention or mitigation:

Disclaimer - This software is offered as is, without warranty or promise of support of any kind either expressed or implied. Under no circumstance will the National Academy of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine or the Transportation Research Board (collectively "TRB") be liable for any loss or damage caused by the installation or operation of this product. TRB makes no representation or warranty of any kind, expressed or implied, in fact or in law, including without limitation, the warranty of merchantability or the warranty of fitness for a particular purpose, and shall not in any case be liable for any consequential or special damages.

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