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Suggested Citation:"Report Contents." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Transit Capacity and Quality of Service Manual, Third Edition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24766.
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Suggested Citation:"Report Contents." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Transit Capacity and Quality of Service Manual, Third Edition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24766.
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Suggested Citation:"Report Contents." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Transit Capacity and Quality of Service Manual, Third Edition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24766.
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Suggested Citation:"Report Contents." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Transit Capacity and Quality of Service Manual, Third Edition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24766.
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Suggested Citation:"Report Contents." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Transit Capacity and Quality of Service Manual, Third Edition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24766.
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Suggested Citation:"Report Contents." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Transit Capacity and Quality of Service Manual, Third Edition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24766.
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Below is the uncorrected machine-read text of this chapter, intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text of each book. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

TRANSIT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM Sponsored by the Federal Transit Administration TCRP R E P O R T 1 6 5 Transit Capacity and Quality of Service Manual Third Edition

TCRP OVERSIGHT AND PROJECT SELECTION COMMITTEE* CHAIR Keith Parker Metropolitan Atlanta Rapid Transit Authority MEMBERS Michael Allegra Utah Transit Authority John Bartosiewicz McDonald Transit Associates Raul Bravo Raul V. Bravo & Associates Alice Cannon Jacksonville Transportation Authority John Catoe The Catoe Group Grace Crunican San Francisco Bay Area Rapid Transit District Carolyn Flowers Charlotte Area Transit System Angela Iannuzziello AECOM Paul Jablonski San Diego Metropolitan Transit System Ian Jarvis South Coast British Columbia Transportation Authority Ronald Kilcoyne Lane Transit District Ralph Larison HERZOG John Lewis LYNX-Central Florida RTA Sherry Little Spartan Solutions LLC Jonathan H. McDonald Atkins North America E. Susan Meyer Spokane Transit Authority Bradford Miller Pinellas Suncoast Transit Authority Peter Rogoff FTA Richard Sarles Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority James Stem United Transportation Union Gary Thomas Dallas Area Rapid Transit Matthew O. Tucker North County Transit District Phillip Washington Denver Regional Transit District Patricia Weaver University of Kansas EX OFFICIO MEMBERS Michael P. Melaniphy APTA Robert E. Skinner, Jr. TRB Frederick G. (Bud) Wright AASHTO Victor Mendez FHWA TDC EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR Louis Sanders APTA SECRETARY Christopher W. Jenks TRB TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD 2013 EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE* OFFICERS Chair: Deborah H. Butler, Executive Vice President, Planning, and CIO, Norfolk Southern Corporation, Norfolk, VA ViCe Chair: Kirk T. Steudle, Director, Michigan DOT, Lansing exeCutiVe DireCtor: Robert E. Skinner, Jr., Transportation Research Board MEMBERS Victoria A. Arroyo, Executive Director, Georgetown Climate Center, and Visiting Professor, Georgetown University Law Center, Washington, DC Scott E. Bennett, Director, Arkansas State Highway and Transportation Department, Little Rock William A. V. Clark, Professor of Geography (emeritus) and Professor of Statistics (emeritus), Department of Geography, University of California, Los Angeles James M. Crites, Executive Vice President of Operations, Dallas–Fort Worth International Airport, TX Malcolm Dougherty, Director, California Department of Transportation, Sacramento John S. Halikowski, Director, Arizona DOT, Phoenix Michael W. Hancock, Secretary, Kentucky Transportation Cabinet, Frankfort Susan Hanson, Distinguished University Professor Emerita, School of Geography, Clark University, Worcester, MA Steve Heminger, Executive Director, Metropolitan Transportation Commission, Oakland, CA Chris T. Hendrickson, Duquesne Light Professor of Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA Jeffrey D. Holt, Managing Director, Bank of Montreal Capital Markets, and Chairman, Utah Transportation Commission, Huntsville, UT Gary P. LaGrange, President and CEO, Port of New Orleans, LA Michael P. Lewis, Director, Rhode Island DOT, Providence Joan McDonald, Commissioner, New York State DOT, Albany Donald A. Osterberg, Senior Vice President, Safety and Security, Schneider National, Inc., Green Bay, WI Steve Palmer, Vice President of Transportation, Lowe’s Companies, Inc., Mooresville, NC Sandra Rosenbloom, Director, Innovation in Infrastructure, The Urban Institute, Washington, DC Henry G. (Gerry) Schwartz, Jr., Chairman (retired), Jacobs/Sverdrup Civil, Inc., St. Louis, MO Kumares C. Sinha, Olson Distinguished Professor of Civil Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN Daniel Sperling, Professor of Civil Engineering and Environmental Science and Policy; Director, Institute of Transportation Studies; University of California, Davis Gary C. Thomas, President and Executive Director, Dallas Area Rapid Transit, Dallas, TX Phillip A. Washington, General Manager, Regional Transportation District, Denver, CO EX OFFICIO MEMBERS Rebecca M. Brewster, President and COO, American Transportation Research Institute, Marietta, GA Anne S. Ferro, Administrator, Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration, U.S. DOT LeRoy Gishi, Chief, Division of Transportation, Bureau of Indian Affairs, U.S. Department of the Interior, Washington, DC John T. Gray II, Senior Vice President, Policy and Economics, Association of American Railroads, Washington, DC Michael P. Huerta, Administrator, Federal Aviation Administration, U.S. DOT David T. Matsuda, Administrator, Maritime Administration, U.S. DOT Michael P. Melaniphy, President and CEO, American Public Transportation Association, Washington, DC Victor M. Mendez, Administrator, Federal Highway Administration, U.S. DOT Robert J. Papp (Adm., U.S. Coast Guard), Commandant, U.S. Coast Guard, U.S. Department of Homeland Security Lucy Phillips Priddy, Research Civil Engineer, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Vicksburg, MS, and Chair, TRB Young Members Council, Washington, DC Cynthia L. Quarterman, Administrator, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration, U.S. DOT Peter M. Rogoff, Administrator, Federal Transit Administration, U.S. DOT David L. Strickland, Administrator, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, U.S. DOT Joseph C. Szabo, Administrator, Federal Railroad Administration, U.S. DOT Polly Trottenberg, Under Secretary for Policy, U.S. DOT Robert L. Van Antwerp (Lt. General, U.S. Army), Chief of Engineers and Commanding General, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Washington, DC Barry R. Wallerstein, Executive Officer, South Coast Air Quality Management District, Diamond Bar, CA Gregory D. Winfree, Acting Administrator, Research and Innovative Technology Administration, U.S. DOT Frederick G. (Bud) Wright, Executive Director, American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, Washington, DC *Membership as of April 2013.*Membership as of July 2013.

T R A N S I T C O O P E R A T I V E R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M TCRP REPORT 165 TRANSPORTAT ION RESEARCH BOARD WASHINGTON, D.C. 2013 www.TRB.org Research sponsored by the Federal Transit Administration in cooperation with the Transit Development Corporation Subscriber Categories Public Transportation Transit Capacity and Quality of Service Manual Third Edition Kittelson & AssociAtes, inc. Reston, VA PArsons BrincKerhoff Washington, DC Kfh GrouP, inc. Bethesda, MD texAs A&M trAnsPortAtion institute Houston, TX AruP San Francisco, CA

TCRP REPORT 165 Project A-15C ISSN 1073-4872 ISBN 978-0-309-28344-1 Library of Congress Control Number 2013944215 © 2013 National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. COPYRIGHT INFORMATION Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously published or copyrighted material used herein. Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permission is given with the understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB, AASHTO, FAA, FHWA, FMCSA, FTA, or Transit Development Corporation endorsement of a particular product, method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the material in this document for educational and not-for-profit uses will give appropriate acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of the material, request permission from CRP. NOTICE The project that is the subject of this report was a part of the Transit Cooperative Research Program, conducted by the Transportation Research Board with the approval of the Governing Board of the National Research Council. The members of the technical panel selected to monitor this project and to review this report were chosen for their special competencies and with regard for appropriate balance. The report was reviewed by the technical panel and accepted for publication according to procedures established and overseen by the Transportation Research Board and approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council. The opinions and conclusions expressed or implied in this report are those of the researchers who performed the research and are not necessarily those of the Transportation Research Board, the National Research Council, or the program sponsors. The Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, the National Research Council, and the sponsors of the Transit Cooperative Research Program do not endorse products or manufacturers. Trade or manufacturers’ names appear herein solely because they are considered essential to the object of the report. TRANSIT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM The nation’s growth and the need to meet mobility, environmental, and energy objectives place demands on public transit systems. Current systems, some of which are old and in need of upgrading, must expand service area, increase service frequency, and improve efficiency to serve these demands. Research is necessary to solve operating problems, to adapt appropriate new technologies from other industries, and to intro- duce innovations into the transit industry. The Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP) serves as one of the principal means by which the transit industry can develop innovative near-term solutions to meet demands placed on it. The need for TCRP was originally identified in TRB Special Report 213—Research for Public Transit: New Directions, published in 1987 and based on a study sponsored by the Urban Mass Transportation Administration—now the Federal Transit Admin istration (FTA). A report by the American Public Transportation Association (APTA), Transportation 2000, also recognized the need for local, problem- solving research. TCRP, modeled after the longstanding and success- ful National Cooperative Highway Research Program, undertakes research and other technical activities in response to the needs of tran- sit service providers. The scope of TCRP includes a variety of transit research fields including planning, service configuration, equipment, facilities, operations, human resources, maintenance, policy, and administrative practices. TCRP was established under FTA sponsorship in July 1992. Pro- posed by the U.S. Department of Transportation, TCRP was autho- rized as part of the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991 (ISTEA). On May 13, 1992, a memorandum agreement out- lining TCRP operating procedures was executed by the three cooper- ating organizations: FTA, the National Academies, acting through the Transportation Research Board (TRB); and the Transit Development Corporation, Inc. (TDC), a nonprofit educational and research orga- nization established by APTA. TDC is responsible for forming the independent governing board, designated as the TCRP Oversight and Project Selection (TOPS) Committee. Research problem statements for TCRP are solicited periodically but may be submitted to TRB by anyone at any time. It is the responsibility of the TOPS Committee to formulate the research program by identi- fying the highest priority projects. As part of the evaluation, the TOPS Committee defines funding levels and expected products. Once selected, each project is assigned to an expert panel, appointed by the Transportation Research Board. The panels prepare project state- ments (requests for proposals), select contractors, and provide techni- cal guidance and counsel throughout the life of the project. The process for developing research problem statements and selecting research agencies has been used by TRB in managing cooperative research pro- grams since 1962. As in other TRB activ ities, TCRP project panels serve voluntarily without com pensation. Because research cannot have the desired impact if products fail to reach the intended audience, special emphasis is placed on dissemi- nating TCRP results to the intended end users of the research: tran- sit agencies, service providers, and suppliers. TRB provides a series of research reports, syntheses of transit practice, and other support- ing material developed by TCRP research. APTA will arrange for workshops, training aids, field visits, and other activities to ensure that results are implemented by urban and rural transit industry practitioners. The TCRP provides a forum where transit agencies can cooperatively address common operational problems. The TCRP results support and complement other ongoing transit research and training programs. Published reports of the TRANSIT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM are available from: Transportation Research Board Business Office 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 and can be ordered through the Internet at http://www.national-academies.org/trb/bookstore Printed in the United States of America

The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. On the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Charles M. Vest is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, on its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. Charles M. Vest are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. The Transportation Research Board is one of six major divisions of the National Research Council. The mission of the Transporta- tion Research Board is to provide leadership in transportation innovation and progress through research and information exchange, conducted within a setting that is objective, interdisciplinary, and multimodal. The Board’s varied activities annually engage about 7,000 engineers, scientists, and other transportation researchers and practitioners from the public and private sectors and academia, all of whom contribute their expertise in the public interest. The program is supported by state transportation departments, federal agencies including the component administrations of the U.S. Department of Transportation, and other organizations and individu- als interested in the development of transportation. www.TRB.org www.national-academies.org

C O O P E R A T I V E R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M S AUTHOR ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The TCQSM, 3rd edition was developed by TCRP Project A-15C. Paul Ryus of Kittelson & Associates, Inc. (KAI) was the Principal Investigator. Co-investigators were Alan Danaher, Mark Walker, Foster Nich- ols, and William (Bill) Carter of Parsons Brinckerhoff, Inc. (PB); Elizabeth (Buffy) Ellis of KFH Group, Inc.; Linda Cherrington of Texas A&M Transportation Institute (TTI); and Anthony (Tony) Bruzzone of Arup. Each edition of the TCQSM builds on the material developed for previous editions. The full set of contributors to the 1st and 2nd editions is too numerous to list here, but can be viewed in the acknowledg- ments sections of those editions. The original authors of material that has been retained between editions are acknowledged below. The Introduction and Concepts chapters (Chapters 1–4) were written by Paul Ryus, with contributions from Buffy Ellis and Linda Cherrington (demand-response transit, Chapter 2), Daniel Fisher of Arup (value of time, Chapter 4), and Jamie Parks of KAI (bicycle access, Chapter 4). Some rail transit con- cepts material (Chapter 2) originally written for previous editions by Tom Parkinson has been retained, along with ferry transit concepts (Chapter 2) and park-and-ride material (Chapter 4) originally written by Miranda Blogg. Ferry vessel descriptions were updated based on comments provided by William Hock- berger, a member of the TRB Committee on Ferry Transportation. CRP STAFF FOR TCRP REPORT 165 Christopher W. Jenks, Director, Cooperative Research Programs Crawford F. Jencks, Deputy Director, Cooperative Research Programs Dianne S. Schwager, Senior Program Officer Jeffrey L. Oser, Senior Program Assistant Eileen P. Delaney, Director of Publications Scott E. Hitchcock, Editor TCRP PROJECT A-15C PANEL Field of Operations Thomas K. Harrington, Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority, Washington, DC (Chair) Steve Callas, Tri-County Metropolitan Transportation District, Portland, OR Paul F. Hanley, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA Alfred H. Harf, Potomac and Rappahannock Transportation Commission, Woodbridge, VA Barbara K. Ostrom, AMEC E&I, Beltsville, MD Diane Quigley, Florida DOT, Tallahassee, FL Will Rodman, Nelson\Nygaard Consulting Associates, Boston, MA Steven Silkunas, Fernandina Beach, FL Carol G. Smith, Metropolitan Atlanta Rapid Transit Authority, Atlanta, GA Scott A. Wainwright, Chicago Transit Authority, Chicago, IL Tomika Monterville, FTA Liaison Chris Nutakor, FTA Liaison Helen Tann, FTA Liaison Arthur L. Guzzetti, APTA Liaison Richard A. Cunard, TRB Liaison

Chapter 5, Quality of Service Methods, was written by Paul Ryus (fixed-route transit and calculation examples), and Buffy Ellis and Linda Cherrington (demand-responsive transit). Material on quality of service applications is derived from a Florida Department of Transportation guide written by KAI. Some material on transit service coverage originally developed by Peter Haliburton for the 2nd edition has been retained. Chapter 6, Bus Transit Capacity, was written by Paul Ryus, with contributions from Alan Danaher of PB (transit-preferential treatments) and Jamie Parks (calculation example). Appendix B (Dwell Time Data Collection Procedure) was originally authored by Lewis Nowlin for the 1st edition. The core bus capacity and speed methods were originally developed by Kevin St. Jacques and Herbert S. Levinson through TRCP Project A-7, “Operational Analysis of Bus Lanes on Arterials.” Chapter 7, Demand-Responsive Transit, was developed for the 3rd edition by Buffy Ellis and Linda Cherrington. Chapter 8, Rail Transit Capacity, was written by Foster Nichols, updating Tom Parkinson’s work from the 1st edition and adding the section on applications. Ian Hood of Arup and several members of TRB committees related to rail transit provided input during chapter development. The core rail capacity methods were originally developed by Tom Parkinson and Ian Fisher through TCRP Project A-8, “Rail Transit Capacity.” Chapter 9, Ferry Transit Capacity, was written by Bill Carter and Ryan Avery of PB. Tony Bruzzone and several members of the TRB Committee on Ferry Transportation provided input during chapter develop- ment. The core ferry capacity method was originally developed by Miranda Blogg for the 2nd edition. Chapter 10, Station Capacity, was written by Mark Walker. Contributions to the chapter were also made by James Anderson of PB, Daniel Fischer and Eric Rivers of Arup, and Jonathan Brooks of TTI. In addi- tion, David Haase and Jeremy Parnes of New York City Transit contributed data and analysis referenced in the chapter. A major source for Chapter 10 was John Fruin’s Pedestrian Planning and Design. Chapter 11, Glossary, was compiled from a number of sources for the 1st edition by Tom Parkinson. Definitions have been obtained from numerous sources with acknowledgment and thanks to the many individuals and committees involved—in particular, Benita H. Gray, editor of the 1989 TRB Urban Public Transportation Glossary, from which almost one-half of the entries originated. The TRB glossary is out of print. Other major sources are the APTA website glossary (April 1998); National Transportation Statistics Glossary; Washington State DOT Glossary; TCRP A-8 Rail Transit Capacity Glossary; APTA Glossary of Reliability, Availability, and Maintainability Technology for Rail Rapid Transit 1993; draft NCHRP 8-35 ITS Glossary (including material developed by the FHWA, FTA, and U.S. DOT Joint Program Office); ANSI B77.1 aerial ropeway definitions; and a 1985 U.S. Forest Service glossary on aerial tramways, ski lifts, and tows. The contributions of Ian Fisher in compiling and cross-referencing the glossary are acknowl- edged. Additional terms introduced in the 3rd edition have been added to the glossary. Additional contributors to the development of the TCQSM 3rd edition include Kelly Blume (literature review), Kathryn Coffel and Jessica Horning (focus groups and survey), Jamie Parks and Alison Tanaka (spreadsheet tool development), Kyle Meyer (review website development), Matt Broughton (graphics assistance), and Jackie Olsommer and Dorret Oosterhoff (administrative assistance). The project team would like to thank volunteers from TRB public transportation committees who pro- vided comments on one or more individual chapters: John Allen, Tunde Balvanyos, Jeff Becker, Gregory Benz, Martha Bewick, Bob Bourne, John Crocker, Henning Eichler, William Hockberger, Alex Lu, Peter Martin, Paul O’Brien, Robin Russell, Roberta Weisbrod, and Charlene Wilder. The researchers would particularly like to thank Herbert Levinson, who reviewed and provided detailed comments on the entire draft manual. Finally, we would like to thank the 57 focus group participants and 131 survey respondents who took the time to share their feedback on the 2nd edition and thoughts on desired improvements for the 3rd edition. Finally, the project team would like to thank the members of the TCRP Project A-15C panel, listed separately in this front section, whose thoughtful comments were greatly appreciated throughout the TCQSM development process. PHOTO CREDITS Alan Danaher: Exhibit 10-22c; Chris Stanley: Exhibit 2-11d; Dorret Oosterhoff: Exhibit 2-8d; Edmonton Transit System: Exhibit 2-3d; Federal Highway Administration/Parsons Brinckerhoff “HOV Interactive 1.0”: Exhibits 6-26, 6-54i, 10-20d, 10-21b; Houston TranStar: Exhibit 6-25; Jamie Parks: cover—second from

top, left; Justin Jahnke: Exhibit 6-3; Kelly Blume: Exhibits 2-9c, 6-21b, 10-23a; Kevin Lee: Exhibit 2-4d; Lee Rodegerdts: Exhibits 2-18d, 2-19d, 6-50a, 10-12b, 10-19b, 10-22b; Matt Johnson: Exhibit 6-30a; Minnesota Department of Transportation: Exhibit 6-27; North County Transit District (NCTD): Exhibit 2-7f; Parsons Brinckerhoff: Exhibit 8-11; Patrick McMahon: Exhibit 2-18b; Paul Ryus: Exhibits 2-3abcefgh, 2-4bc, 2-5a, 2-6, 2-7abcde, 2-8abc, 2-9bd, 2-10, 2-11abc, 2-12, 2-13, 2-14abcd, 2-15, 2-16, 2-17, 2-18ac, 6-5, 6-20, 6-30b, 6-31ac, 6-32, 6-33, 6-40b, 6-44, 6-45, 6-46, 6-49, 6-50b, 6-51, 6-54abcdefghj, 6-64, 8-4, 8-18, 8-19, 8-20b, 8-21, 8-25, 8-26, 8-47, 9-2, 9-4, 9-6abef, 10-3abdef, 10-6, 10-7, 10-8, 10-9, 10-12a, 10-13, 10-14, 10-17, 10-18, 10-19a, 10-20abc, 10-21a, 10-22a, 10-23bcd, (cover: top, third and fourth from top); Potomac and Rappahannock Transportation Commission (PRTC): Exhibit 2-5b; Peter Koonce: Exhibit 6-29a; Rory Giles/Queensland University of Technology: Exhibits 2-19a, 10-3c; Sean Marshall: Exhibit 6-31b; Sound Transit: Exhibits 2-19b, 6-21; Stephen Rees: Exhibit 2-4a; Tom Parkinson: Exhibits 2-9a, 8-20a; TransLink: Exhibit 9-6cd; and WMTA Photo by Larry Levine: cover—second from top, right.

TCRP Report 165: Transit Capacity and Quality of Service Manual, 3rd edition (TCQSM) is a reference document that provides current research-based guidance on transit capacity and quality of service issues and the factors influencing both. The manual contains back- ground, statistics, and graphics on the various types of public transportation, and it pro- vides a framework for measuring transit availability, comfort, and convenience from the passenger and transit provider points of view. The manual contains quantitative techniques for calculating the capacity and other operational characteristics of bus, rail, demand- responsive, and ferry transit services, as well as transit stops, stations, and terminals. Example calculations are included. The TCQSM and the accompanying CD-ROM are intended for use by a range of practitioners, including transit planners, transportation planners, traffic engineers, transit operations personnel, design engineers, management personnel, teachers, and university students. HISTORY OF THE TCQSM The TCQSM, 3rd edition updates and improves the prior manuals. Much of the new con- tent and revised presentation in the TCQSM, 3rd edition is a result of outreach in which users and potential users of TCQSM manual identified new or updated content that would make the manual more relevant to their work. • The 1st edition, TCRP Web-Only Document 6, was produced in 1999, assembling for the first time in one place a set of methods for evaluating the capacity of bus and rail transit services and facilities, and introducing a framework for evaluating the quality of service from the passenger point of view. A portion of the material in this edition also formed the basis for the transit chapters in the Highway Capacity Manual 2000. • The 2nd edition, TCRP Report 100, was published in late 2003. A major focus of this edition was on filling gaps in knowledge. This edition introduced material on ferry transit capacity, expanded coverage of demand-responsive transit (DRT) and Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) issues, and added guidance on transit preferential treatments and park-and-ride access to transit. This edition tested and enhanced the TCQSM’s transit quality of service framework. • The 3rd edition of the TCQSM incorporates the results of new research on transit capac- ity and quality of service that has occurred in the ten years since the 2nd Edition was developed, including original research conducted as part of the production contract for the manual. F O R E W O R D By Dianne S. Schwager Staff Officer Transportation Research Board

ORGANIzATION OF THE TCQSM 3RD EDITION The TCQSM 3rd edition consists of twelve chapters, divided into four main topic areas: • Introduction. The introductory chapter provides a concise guide to the TCQSM. It describes how to use the manual; presents the manual’s purpose, scope, and intended users; describes the contents of each chapter; highlights the changes made in the 3rd edi- tion; and describes companion documents to the TCQSM. • Concepts Chapters. The three concepts chapters present concepts, define important terms, and provide illustrations of the extent to which various factors inside and outside a transit agency’s control influence transit capacity, speed, reliability, and quality of service. • Methods Chapters. The six methods chapters provide a combination of mode-specific concepts information, computational methods for evaluating a variety of performance measures related to transit operations and quality of service, guidance on potential appli- cations of the methods, and worked examples of performing calculations. These chapters address capacity for bus, DRT, rail transit, ferry transit, and stops and stations. • Reference Chapters and Supporting Material. Two chapters at the end of the manual provide reference material supporting the rest of the manual, including a comprehensive transit glossary, a list of the variables used in the TCQSM’s computational methods, and an index to the manual. The CD-ROM that accompanies the TCQSM provides PDF versions of all the TCQSM chapters for use on tablets and computers; links to all of the TCRP reports referenced in the TCQSM; spreadsheets that help perform the calculations used in the bus, ferry, and rail transit capacity methods; and presentations that introduce the manual and its core material.

1-i Chapter 1 User’s Guide 1-1 1. INTRODUCTION 1-1 How to Use the Manual 1-5 How to Find Material of Interest 1-6 Five Key Concepts 1-9 2. PURPOSE AND SCOPE 1-9 Purpose and Objectives 1-9 Scope 1-9 Intended Users 1-9 Potential Applications 1-11 International Use 1-13 3. WHAT’S NEW IN THE THIRD EDITION 1-13 Organizational Changes 1-14 Content Changes 1-18 4. COMPANION DOCUMENTS 1-18 Highway Capacity Manual 1-18 Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) Standards for Transportation Facilities 1-18 National Fire Prevention Association (NFPA) 130 Standard 1-19 5. REFERENCES 2-i CHAPTER 2 Mode and Service Concepts 2-1 1. INTRODUCTION 2-1 How to Use This Chapter 2-1 Other Resources 2-2 2. TRANSIT MODES 2-2 Bus Transit 2-6 Demand-Responsive Transit 2-13 Vanpool 2-13 Rail Transit 2-27 Ferry Transit 2-31 3. OPERATING ENVIRONMENTS 2-31 Mixed Traffic 2-32 Semi-exclusive 2-34 Exclusive 2-35 Grade Separated 2-36 4. SERVICE PATTERNS 2-36 Fixed Route 2-42 Demand Responsive 2-48 5. REFERENCES C O N T E N T S

3-i CHAPTER 3 Operations Concepts 3-1 1. INTRODUCTION 3-1 How to Use This Chapter 3-2 Other Resources 3-3 2. CAPACITY, SPEED, AND RELIABILITY 3-3 Overview 3-4 Capacity Concepts 3-10 Speed Concepts 3-13 Reliability Concepts 3-15 3. PASSENGER DEMAND CHARACTERISTICS 3-15 Transit Passenger Demand Patterns 3-18 Demand Related to Demographics 3-18 Demand Related to Land Use 3-21 Demand Related to Transportation Demand Management Strategies 3-23 4. DWELL TIME 3-23 Definition 3-23 Dwell Time Components 3-24 Dwell Time Variability 3-24 Illustrative Impacts of Dwell Time on Capacity 3-27 Illustrative Impacts of Dwell Time on Speed 3-28 5. OPERATING ENVIRONMENT 3-28 Guideway Type and Design 3-29 Traffic and Transit Vehicle Effects 3-30 Illustrative Impacts of Operating Environment on Capacity 3-35 Illustrative Impacts of Operating Environment on Speed 3-37 Impact of Operating Environment on Reliability 3-38 6. STOP AND STATION CHARACTERISTICS 3-38 Vehicle–Platform Interface 3-38 Vehicle Characteristics 3-39 Fare Collection 3-39 Stop Spacing 3-39 Illustrative Impacts of Stops and Stations on Capacity 3-41 Illustrative Impacts of Stops and Stations on Speed 3-44 7. REFERENCES 4-i CHAPTER 4 Quality of Service Concepts 4-1 1. INTRODUCTION 4-1 Overview 4-2 Roles of Transit 4-4 Performance Points of View 4-7 2. QUALITY OF SERVICE FACTORS 4-7 Customer Satisfaction Research 4-9 Value of Time Research 4-15 3. QUALITY OF SERVICE FRAMEWORK 4-15 Transit Trip Decision-Making Process 4-17 Framework Outline 4-17 Transit Availability 4-32 Transit Comfort and Convenience 4-37 4. QUALITY OF SERVICE, RIDERSHIP, AND SERVICE COSTS 4-37 Quality of Service and Ridership 4-40 Quality of Service and Service Costs

4-42 5. REFERENCES 4-48 AppENdix A: ExhibitS iN MEtRiC UNitS 5-i CHAPTER 5 Quality of Service Methods 5-1 1. iNtROdUCtiON 5-1 how to Use this Chapter 5-2 Other Resources 5-3 2. FixEd-ROUtE QUALitY OF SERViCE 5-3 Overview 5-3 Measures of Availability 5-22 Measures of Comfort and Convenience 5-39 Multimodal Level of Service 5-47 3. dEMANd-RESpONSiVE QUALitY OF SERViCE 5-47 Overview 5-47 Availability Measures 5-56 Comfort and Convenience Measures 5-71 4. AppLiCAtiONS 5-71 Comprehensive planning 5-71 Long-Range transportation planning 5-75 Statewide transportation planning 5-75 Comprehensive Operational Analysis 5-76 transit development plans 5-77 Service planning 5-77 Corridor planning 5-78 demand-Responsive transit Operations 5-79 5. CALCULAtiON ExAMpLES 5-79 Calculation Example 1: Service Coverage Analysis (planning Level) 5-85 Calculation Example 2: Service Coverage Analysis (detailed) 5-89 Calculation Example 3: Reliability 5-93 Calculation Example 4: Multimodal transit LOS 5-101 6. REFERENCES 6-i CHAPTER 6 Bus Transit Capacity 6-1 1. iNtROdUCtiON 6-2 how to Use this Chapter 6-2 Other Resources 6-3 2. FUNdAMENtALS 6-3 Sources of bus delay 6-15 Factors determining bus Capacity 6-20 planning-Level Capacity Values 6-24 3. pREFERENtiAL tREAtMENtS 6-24 Overview 6-26 busways and Freeway Managed Lanes 6-31 Urban Street bus Lanes 6-40 transit Signal priority (tSp) 6-46 Site-Specific priority treatments 6-51 Summary 6-53 4. OpERAtiONAL tOOLS 6-53 Overview 6-53 bus Stop placement 6-55 bus Stopping patterns

6-57 Route Design 6-58 Yield-to-Bus Laws 6-59 Summary 6-60 5. BUS CAPACITY METHODOLOGY 6-60 Introduction 6-61 Step 1: Define the Facility 6-61 Step 2: Gather Input Data 6-63 Step 3: Set a Design Bus Stop Failure Rate 6-66 Step 4: Determine Dwell Time 6-70 Step 5: Determine Loading Area Capacity 6-77 Step 6: Determine Bus Stop Capacity 6-80 Step 7: Determine Facility Bus Capacity 6-84 Step 8: Determine Facility Person Capacity 6-86 6. BUS SPEED METHODOLOGY 6-87 Step 1: Define the Facility 6-87 Step 2: Gather Input Data 6-87 Step 3: Determine Section Maximum Capacity 6-87 Step 4: Determine Base Bus Running Time Rate 6-91 Step 5: Adjust for Skip-Stop Operation 6-92 Step 6: Adjust for Bus Congestion 6-93 Step 7: Determine Average Section Speed 6-94 Step 8: Determine Average Facility Speed 6-95 7. BUS RELIABILITY 6-95 Factors Influencing Bus Reliability 6-96 Scheduling and Holding Strategies 6-96 Relationships of Service Characteristics to Reliability 6-97 Applications of AVL Data 6-97 Forecasting Reliability 6-98 8. APPLICATIONS 6-98 Alternative Mode, Facility, and Service Comparisons 6-98 Fare Collection Technology Changes 6-99 Assessing the Impact of Transit Preferential Treatments 6-100 Diagnosing and Treating Capacity Issues 6-100 Sizing BRT Facilities for a Given Demand 6-102 9. CALCULATION ExAMPLE 6-102 The Situation 6-102 The Question 6-103 Bus Capacity 6-110 Bus Speed 6-112 Options Assessment 6-119 Comments 6-120 10. REFERENCES 6-125 APPENDIx A: ExHIBITS IN METRIC UNITS 6-126 APPENDIx B: DWELL TIME DATA COLLECTION 6-126 Introduction 6-126 Passenger Service Times 6-127 Dwell Times 6-129 APPENDIx C: BUS BUNCHING AND PERSON CAPACITY 6-130 Reference

7-i CHAPTER 7 Demand-Responsive Transit 7-1 1. INTRODUCTION 7-1 How to Use This Chapter 7-1 Other Resources 7-3 2. DRT CAPACITY 7-3 Capacity Factors 7-6 Capacity Calculation Procedures 7-8 Importance of Ridership Demand for Estimating DRT Capacity 7-10 3. REFERENCES 8-i CHAPTER 8 Rail Transit Capacity 8-1 1. INTRODUCTION 8-1 How to Use This Chapter 8-2 Other Resources 8-3 2. RAIL CAPACITY FUNDAMENTALS 8-3 Overview 8-3 Line Capacity 8-9 Person Capacity 8-13 Design Capacity 8-15 Speed 8-16 Positive Train Control 8-16 Reliability 8-18 3. TRAIN CONTROL AND SIGNALING 8-18 Overview 8-18 Fixed-Block Systems 8-19 Cab Signaling 8-19 Moving-Block Systems 8-20 Hybrid Systems 8-21 Automatic Train Operation 8-21 Automatic Train Supervision 8-21 On-Street Preferential Treatments 8-24 4. TRAIN OPERATIONS 8-24 Overview 8-24 Doorway Flow Rates 8-27 Operating Margins 8-31 Skip-Stop and Express Operation 8-31 Passenger-Actuated Doors 8-32 Train and Platform Screen Doors 8-32 Fare Payment 8-33 Station and Platform Design 8-34 Wheelchair Accommodations 8-40 System Design 8-44 5. RAIL SYSTEM CAPACITY METHODOLOGIES 8-44 Introduction 8-44 General Methodology 8-67 Commuter Rail Capacity 8-75 Automated Guideway Transit Capacity 8-77 Ropeway Capacity 8-81 6. APPLICATIONS 8-81 Designing for Future Growth 8-81 Planning-Level Analysis

8-89 Transit Operations Planning 8-91 Role of Simulation 8-99 Application of Simulation 8-102 Sketch-Planning Tools 8-105 Best Practices for the Use of Simulation Models and Sketch-Planning Tools 8-108 7. CALCULATION ExAMPLES 8-108 Calculation Example 1: High-Capacity Heavy Rail 8-111 Calculation Example 2: Heavy Rail Line with Junction 8-112 Calculation Example 3: Heavy Rail with Long Dwell 8-115 Calculation Example 4: Light Rail with Single-Track Section 8-117 Calculation Example 5: Commuter Rail with Limited Train Paths 8-118 Calculation Example 6: AGT with Short Trains 8-119 Calculation Example 7: AGT with Off-Line Stations 8-120 Calculation Example 8: Aerial Ropeway 8-124 8. REFERENCES 8-126 APPENDIx A: ExHIBITS IN METRIC UNITS 9-i CHAPTER 9 Ferry Transit Capacity 9-1 1. INTRODUCTION 9-1 How to Use This Chapter 9-2 Other Resources 9-3 2. FERRY SERVICE AND FACILITIES 9-3 Ferry Service 9-5 Ferry Terminals 9-14 3. FERRY SCHEDULING AND SERVICE PLANNING 9-14 Port Dwell Time 9-16 Departure Clearance Time 9-16 Transit Time 9-17 Arrival Time 9-17 Operating Margin 9-18 Pedestrian Movements 9-18 Service Planning 9-21 4. VESSEL CAPACITY 9-22 Berth Capacity 9-27 Dock Capacity 9-28 5. PASSENGER AND AUTO CAPACITY 9-30 6. CALCULATION ExAMPLES 9-30 Calculation Example 1: Vessel Service Time (Passengers) 9-32 Calculation Example 2: Vessel Service Time (Automobiles) 9-33 Calculation Example 3: Berth Capacity 9-35 7. REFERENCES 10-i CHAPTER 10 Station Capacity 10-1 1. INTRODUCTION 10-1 Chapter Overview 10-1 How to Use This Chapter 10-2 Other Resources 10-2 Station Design Capacity 10-2 Access for Persons with Disabilities

10-3 Emergency Evacuation 10-4 Security 10-5 2. STATION TYPES AND CONFIGURATIONS 10-5 Overview 10-5 Bus Stops 10-6 Transit Centers 10-7 Busway and BRT Stations 10-8 Light Rail and Streetcar Stations 10-8 Heavy Rail and AGT Stations 10-9 Commuter Rail Stations 10-10 Ferry Docks and Terminals 10-10 Intermodal Terminals 10-10 Passenger Amenities in Stations 10-13 3. PASSENGER CIRCULATION 10-13 Introduction 10-13 Pedestrian Level of Service 10-15 Station Access 10-20 Horizontal Circulation 10-24 Vertical Circulation 10-29 Platforms and Waiting Areas 10-31 4. VEHICLE CIRCULATION AND STORAGE 10-31 Transit Vehicles 10-34 Private Vehicles 10-38 5. STATION ELEMENTS AND THEIR CAPACITIES 10-38 Introduction 10-39 Station Access 10-43 Horizontal Circulation 10-48 Vertical Circulation 10-55 Platforms and Waiting Areas 10-58 Interactions Between Station Elements 10-58 Alternative Performance Measures for Sizing Station Circulation Elements 10-62 6. APPLICATIONS 10-62 Alternative Mode and Alignment Comparisons 10-63 Alternative Station Location and Features Comparisons 10-63 Remodeling an Existing Station 10-64 Addressing a Specific Capacity Issue in an Existing Station 10-64 Comprehensive Analysis of Passenger Circulation 10-67 Pedestrian Microsimulation 10-73 7. CALCULATION EXAMPLES 10-73 Calculation Example 1: Suburban Transit Center Design 10-76 Calculation Example 2: Stairway Sizing 10-79 Calculation Example 3: Platform Sizing 10-81 Calculation Example 4: Escalator Queuing Area 10-83 Calculation Example 5: Multiple Pedestrian Activities in a Facility 10-85 Calculation Example 6: Complex Multilevel Station 10-88 Calculation Example 7: Application of Pedestrian Microsimulation Software 10-91 8. REFERENCES 10-94 APPENDIX A: EXHIBITS IN METRIC UNITS

11-i CHAPTER 11 Glossary and Symbols 11-1 1. GLOSSARY 11-1 A 11-4 B 11-8 C 11-14 D 11-16 E 11-17 F 11-20 G 11-21 H 11-22 I 11-23 J 11-24 K 11-24 L 11-27 M 11-29 N 11-30 O 11-32 P 11-36 Q 11-36 R 11-40 S 11-47 T 11-56 U 11-58 V 11-59 W 11-59 Y 11-60 Z 11-61 2. LIST OF SYMBOLS 12-1 CHAPTER 12 Index

Abbreviations and acronyms used without definitions in TRB publications: A4A Airlines for America AAAE American Association of Airport Executives AASHO American Association of State Highway Officials AASHTO American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials ACI–NA Airports Council International–North America ACRP Airport Cooperative Research Program ADA Americans with Disabilities Act APTA American Public Transportation Association ASCE American Society of Civil Engineers ASME American Society of Mechanical Engineers ASTM American Society for Testing and Materials ATA American Trucking Associations CTAA Community Transportation Association of America CTBSSP Commercial Truck and Bus Safety Synthesis Program DHS Department of Homeland Security DOE Department of Energy EPA Environmental Protection Agency FAA Federal Aviation Administration FHWA Federal Highway Administration FMCSA Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration FRA Federal Railroad Administration FTA Federal Transit Administration HMCRP Hazardous Materials Cooperative Research Program IEEE Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers ISTEA Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991 ITE Institute of Transportation Engineers MAP-21 Moving Ahead for Progress in the 21st Century Act (2012) NASA National Aeronautics and Space Administration NASAO National Association of State Aviation Officials NCFRP National Cooperative Freight Research Program NCHRP National Cooperative Highway Research Program NHTSA National Highway Traffic Safety Administration NTSB National Transportation Safety Board PHMSA Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration RITA Research and Innovative Technology Administration SAE Society of Automotive Engineers SAFETEA-LU Safe, Accountable, Flexible, Efficient Transportation Equity Act: A Legacy for Users (2005) TCRP Transit Cooperative Research Program TEA-21 Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century (1998) TRB Transportation Research Board TSA Transportation Security Administration U.S.DOT United States Department of Transportation

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TRB’s Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP) Report 165: Transit Capacity and Quality of Service Manual, Third Edition provides guidance on transit capacity and quality of service issues and the factors influencing both. The manual contains background, statistics, and graphics on the various types of public transportation, and it provides a framework for measuring transit availability, comfort, and convenience from the passenger and transit provider points of view. In addition, the manual includes quantitative techniques for calculating the capacity and other operational characteristics of bus, rail, demand-responsive, and ferry transit services, as well as transit stops, stations, and terminals.

The CD-ROM that accompanies the manual provides PDF versions of all the publication’s chapters for use on tablets and computers; links to all of the TCRP reports referenced in the manual; spreadsheets that help perform the calculations used in the bus, ferry, and rail transit capacity methods; and presentations that introduce the manual and its core material.

The CD-ROM is also available for download from TRB’s website as an ISO image. Links to the ISO image and instructions for burning a CD-ROM from an ISO image are provided below.

Readers can download a full version of the report or download each chapter through the "read more" button. A zipped file of all chapters in PDF format is also available for download below. PowerPoint presentations and spreadsheet tools that are included in the CD-ROM are available for download below.

Warning: The full report and ISO CD-ROM are very large. Some may take in excess of an hour to download, depending on Internet capacity.

Downloadable Content

.ISO CD-ROM Image (Help on Burning an .ISO CD-ROM Image)

PowerPoint Presentations

TCQSM Overview

Quality of Service

Bus Capacity

Demand-Responsive Transit

Rail Capacity

Ferry Transit Capacity

Station Capacity

Spreadsheet Tools

Bus Capacity

Rail Transit Capacity

Ferry Capacity

Multimodal Transit LOS

Disclaimer - This software is offered as is, without warranty or promise of support of any kind either expressed or implied. Under no circumstance will the National Academy of Sciences or the Transportation Research Board (collectively "TRB") be liable for any loss or damage caused by the installation or operation of this product. TRB makes no representation or warranty of any kind, expressed or implied, in fact or in law, including without limitation, the warranty of merchantability or the warranty of fitness for a particular purpose, and shall not in any case be liable for any consequential or special damages.

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