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2017 T R A N S I T C O O P E R A T I V E R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M TCRP RESEARCH REPORT 192 Research sponsored by the Federal Transit Administration in cooperation with the Transit Development Corporation Subject Areas Highways â¢ Public Transportation â¢ Finance Decision-Making Toolbox to Plan and Manage Park-and-Ride Facilities for Public Transportation Guidebook on Planning and Managing Park-and-Ride Linda K. Cherrington Jonathan Brooks James Cardenas Zachary Elgart Luis David Galicia Todd Hansen Kristi Miller Michael J. Walk Texas a&M TransporTaTion insTiTuTe The Texas a&M universiTy sysTeM College Station, TX Paul Ryus Conor Semler KiTTelson & associaTes, inc. Boston, MA Kathryn Coffel KaThryn coffel consulTing, llc Portland, OR Marking 25 Years of Service through Research
TCRP RESEARCH REPORT 192 Project H-52 ISSN 2572-3782 (Online) ISBN 978-0-309-44639-6 Â© 2017 National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. COPYRIGHT INFORMATION Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously published or copyrighted material used herein. Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permission is given with the understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB, AASHTO, FAA, FHWA, FMCSA, FRA, FTA, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Research and Technology, PHMSA, or TDC endorsement of a particular product, method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the material in this document for educational and not-for-profit uses will give appropriate acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of the material, request permission from CRP. NOTICE The research report was reviewed by the technical panel and accepted for publication according to procedures established and overseen by the Transportation Research Board and approved by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The opinions and conclusions expressed or implied in this report are those of the researchers who performed the research and are not necessarily those of the Transportation Research Board; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; or the program sponsors. The Transportation Research Board; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; and the sponsors of the Transit Cooperative Research Program do not endorse products or manufacturers. Trade or manufacturersâ names appear herein solely because they are considered essential to the object of the report. TRANSIT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM The nationâs growth and the need to meet mobility, environmental, and energy objectives place demands on public transit systems. Cur- rent systems, some of which are old and in need of upgrading, must expand service area, increase service frequency, and improve efficiency to serve these demands. Research is necessary to solve operating prob- lems, adapt appropriate new technologies from other industries, and introduce innovations into the transit industry. The Transit Coopera- tive Research Program (TCRP) serves as one of the principal means by which the transit industry can develop innovative near-term solutions to meet demands placed on it. The need for TCRP was originally identified in TRB Special Report 213âResearch for Public Transit: New Directions, published in 1987 and based on a study sponsored by the Urban Mass Transportation Administrationânow the Federal Transit Administration (FTA). A report by the American Public Transportation Association (APTA), Transportation 2000, also recognized the need for local, problem- solving research. TCRP, modeled after the successful National Coop- erative Highway Research Program (NCHRP), undertakes research and other technical activities in response to the needs of transit ser- vice providers. The scope of TCRP includes various transit research fields including planning, service configuration, equipment, facilities, operations, human resources, maintenance, policy, and administrative practices. TCRP was established under FTA sponsorship in July 1992. Proposed by the U.S. Department of Transportation, TCRP was authorized as part of the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991 (ISTEA). On May 13, 1992, a memorandum agreement outlining TCRP operating procedures was executed by the three cooperating organi- zations: FTA; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, acting through the Transportation Research Board (TRB); and the Transit Development Corporation, Inc. (TDC), a nonprofit educational and research organization established by APTA. TDC is responsible for forming the independent governing board, designated as the TCRP Oversight and Project Selection (TOPS) Committee. Research problem statements for TCRP are solicited periodically but may be submitted to TRB by anyone at any time. It is the responsibility of the TOPS Committee to formulate the research program by identi- fying the highest priority projects. As part of the evaluation, the TOPS Committee defines funding levels and expected products. Once selected, each project is assigned to an expert panel appointed by TRB. The panels prepare project statements (requests for propos- als), select contractors, and provide technical guidance and counsel throughout the life of the project. The process for developing research problem statements and selecting research agencies has been used by TRB in managing cooperative research programs since 1962. As in other TRB activities, TCRP project panels serve voluntarily without compensation. Because research cannot have the desired effect if products fail to reach the intended audience, special emphasis is placed on disseminat- ing TCRP results to the intended users of the research: transit agen- cies, service providers, and suppliers. TRB provides a series of research reports, syntheses of transit practice, and other supporting material developed by TCRP research. APTA will arrange for workshops, train- ing aids, field visits, and other activities to ensure that results are imple- mented by urban and rural transit industry practitioners. TCRP provides a forum where transit agencies can cooperatively address common operational problems. TCRP results support and complement other ongoing transit research and training programs. Published research reports of the TRANSIT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM are available from Transportation Research Board Business Office 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 and can be ordered through the Internet by going to http://www.national-academies.org and then searching for TRB Printed in the United States of America
The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, non- governmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Marcia McNutt is president. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to bring the practices of engineering to advising the nation. Members are elected by their peers for extraordinary contributions to engineering. Dr. C. D. Mote, Jr., is president. The National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine) was established in 1970 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to advise the nation on medical and health issues. Members are elected by their peers for distinguished contributions to medicine and health. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president. The three Academies work together as the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to provide independent, objective analysis and advice to the nation and conduct other activities to solve complex problems and inform public policy decisions. The National Academies also encourage education and research, recognize outstanding contributions to knowledge, and increase public understanding in matters of science, engineering, and medicine. Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine at www.national-academies.org. The Transportation Research Board is one of seven major programs of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The mission of the Transportation Research Board is to increase the benefits that transportation contributes to society by providing leadership in transportation innovation and progress through research and information exchange, conducted within a setting that is objective, interdisciplinary, and multimodal. The Boardâs varied committees, task forces, and panels annually engage about 7,000 engineers, scientists, and other transportation researchers and practitioners from the public and private sectors and academia, all of whom contribute their expertise in the public interest. The program is supported by state transportation departments, federal agencies including the component administrations of the U.S. Department of Transportation, and other organizations and individuals interested in the development of transportation. Learn more about the Transportation Research Board at www.TRB.org.
C O O P E R A T I V E R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M S AuTHOR ACkNOwlEDGMENTS The research conducted for TCRP Project H-52 was performed by the Texas A&M Transportation Institute (TTI) with assistance from Kittelson & Associates, Inc., and Kathryn Coffel Consulting, LLC. Linda Cherrington of TTI was the principal investigator for the project. TTI researchers Zachary Elgart and Jonathan Brooks assisted with the research and data collection for the state-of-the-practice scan, and Todd Hansen prepared the literature review. Jonathan Brooks led the research to investigate demand estimation models for park-and-ride planning. Jonathan Brooks, James Cardenas, Zachary Elgart, David Galicia, Todd Hansen, Kristi Miller, and Michael Walk of TTI; Paul Ryus and Conor Semler of Kittelson & Associates, Inc.; and Kathryn Coffel of Kathryn Coffel Consulting, LLC, conducted the case study research for the transit agencies participating in the project. Jonathan Brooks, James Cardenas, Kathryn Coffel, Zachary Elgart, Paul Ryus, Conor Semler, and Michael Walk contributed content for the guidebook. Paul Ryus prepared the summary for the guide- book. Kathryn Coffel was the author for Volume 1 of the research report. Michelle Benoit of TTI pro- vided copy writing and editing for the guidebook, and Lisa Patke of TTI assisted with the production for Volumes 1 and 2 of the research report. The research team gratefully acknowledges the assistance and support of the members of the project panel, who contributed valuable guidance and input throughout the project. The research team would also like to thank the representatives of the many transit agencies that participated in the research project for sharing their data, insights, and time. CRP STAFF FOR TCRP RESEARCH REPORT 192 Christopher J. Hedges, Director, Cooperative Research Programs Gwen Chisholm Smith, Manager, Transit Cooperative Research Program Dianne S. Schwager, Senior Program Officer Daniel J. Magnolia, Senior Program Assistant Eileen P. Delaney, Director of Publications Doug English, Editor TCRP PROjECT H-52 PANEl Field of Policy and Planning Maribeth Feke, Greater Cleveland Regional Transit Authority, Cleveland, OH (Chair) Darcy L. Cleaver, Port Authority of Allegheny County, Pittsburgh, PA Peter Fahrenwald, Regional Transportation Authority, Chicago, IL Hal R. Johnson, Utah Transit Authority, Salt Lake City, UT Peter C. Martin, CDM Smith, San Francisco, CA R. J. Palladino, New Jersey Transit Capital Planning, Newark, NJ Young H. Park, Tri-County Metropolitan Transportation District, Portland, OR Stephen L. Salin, Dallas Area Rapid Transit, Dallas, TX Raymond A. Santiago, Golden Gate Bridge, Highway, and Transportation District, San Rafael, CA R. Patrick Schmitt, Jr., Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority, Washington, D.C. Ken Cervenka, FTA Liaison Richard Weaver, APTA Liaison Stephen J. Andrle, TRB Liaison
TCRP Research Report 192 is a comprehensive resource for public transportation agencies, local and regional governments, and others interested in better planning and management of park-and-ride facilities for public transportation. It builds on relevant completed research to address both of these important concerns and presents improved strategies and best practices. It will be of immediate use to practitioners engaged in planning, designing, financing, operating, and maintaining park-and-ride facilities for public transportation. TCRP Research Report 192: Decision-Making Toolbox to Plan and Manage Park-and-Ride Facilities for Public Transportation: Guidebook on Planning and Managing Park-and-Ride provides public transportation agencies with guidance to develop park-and-ride facilitiesâ from concept through operation. The guidebook presents information about best practices and lessons learned gathered via a literature review, an industry scan, and detailed case study research with transit agencies in the United States and Canada. It was developed as the lead research product from TCRP Project H-52, âDecision-Making Toolbox to Plan and Manage Park-and-Ride Facilities for Public Transportation.â The guidebook (a) begins with an overview of park-and-ride; (b) includes two sections on planningâstrategic and financial; (c) provides guidance on design and implementation; (d) addresses operating and charging for park-and-ride as well as interacting with the com- munity; (e) discusses maintenance, asset management, and state-of-good-repair practices; and (f) offers information on the potential for park-and-ride facilities to also serve as sites for transit-oriented development. The guidebook is supplemented by two research products, a research report and transit agency case studies, which are available as TCRP Web-Only Document 69: Decision-Making Toolbox to Plan and Manage Park-and-Ride Facilities for Public Transportation: Research Report and Transit Agency Case Studies at www.TRB.org. F O R E W O R D By Dianne S. Schwager Staff Officer Transportation Research Board
1 Summary 1 Introduction 2 What Is Park-and-Ride? 2 Planning Considerations for Park-and-Ride 4 Designing and Implementing Park-and-Ride 5 Managing and Operating Park-and-Ride Facilities 6 State of Good Repair and Asset Management 6 Transit-Oriented Development 6 Summary 7 Chapter 1 Introduction 7 Guidebook Purpose 7 Guidebook Organization 9 How to Use This Guidebook 9 How This Guidebook Was Developed 10 Terminology 10 Additional Resources 12 Chapter 2 Park-and-Ride Overview 12 Purpose of This Chapter 12 What Is Park-and-Ride? 13 What Are the Benefits of Park-and-Ride? 14 How Does Park-and-Ride Fit a Transit Agencyâs Suite of Services? 15 What Are the Types of Park-and-Ride Facilities? 16 How Does a Transit Agency Implement and Operate Park-and-Ride? 17 Chapter 3 Strategic Planning for Park-and-Ride 17 Purpose of This Chapter 18 Transit Service Characteristics 20 Master Planning/Long-Range Park-and-Ride Planning 22 Project Planning 23 Estimation of Demand for Parking 26 Facility Types and Ownership Approaches 28 Summary 29 Chapter 4 Financial Planning for Park-and-Ride 29 Purpose of This Chapter 29 Capital Investment 31 Ongoing Operating and Maintenance Expenses 34 Sources of Funding for Capital Investment and Operating and Maintenance Expenses 39 Summary C O N T E N T S
41 Chapter 5 Design and Implementation 41 Purpose of This Chapter 41 Park-and-Ride Typology and Interaction with Adjacent Land Use 45 The Decision to Lease or Build 46 Design Considerations 54 Designing for Future Expansion/Conversion 55 Summary 56 Chapter 6 Operating Park-and-Ride 56 Purpose of This Chapter 57 Park-and-Ride Operation Needs 68 Operations Approaches: In-House Versus Contracting 73 Managing Demand for Parking 78 Performance Metrics 84 Summary 85 Chapter 7 Charging for Parking 85 Purpose of This Chapter 86 Case Study Transit Agencies 86 Legislative and Regional Context 86 Whether to Charge for Parking Separate from Fares 88 Setting the Amount of Parking Charges 91 Equity Concerns: Title VI Analysis 92 Methods of Collecting Fees 94 Parking Fee Enforcement 95 Challenges Associated with Parking Charges 98 Summary 98 More Information 99 Chapter 8 Park-and-Ride and the Community 99 Purpose of This Chapter 100 Potential Community Impacts 102 Community Engagement for New/Expanded Facilities 105 Ongoing Community Communication 107 Summary 108 Chapter 9 State of Good Repair and Asset Management 108 Purpose of This Chapter 108 State of Good Repair 109 Transit Asset Management 112 Summary 113 Chapter 10 Transit-Oriented Development 113 Purpose of This Chapter 114 Return on Investment 116 Parking and Land Use 118 TOD/Joint-Development Participation 120 TOD Proposal Processes 123 Summary 123 Additional Information
124 Appendix A Demand Model Briefs 127 Glossary, Acronyms, and Abbreviations 132 References