National Academies Press: OpenBook
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Green Stormwater Infrastructure - Volume 1: Primer. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24817.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Green Stormwater Infrastructure - Volume 1: Primer. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24817.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Green Stormwater Infrastructure - Volume 1: Primer. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24817.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Green Stormwater Infrastructure - Volume 1: Primer. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24817.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Green Stormwater Infrastructure - Volume 1: Primer. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24817.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Green Stormwater Infrastructure - Volume 1: Primer. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24817.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Green Stormwater Infrastructure - Volume 1: Primer. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24817.
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A I R P O R T C O O P E R A T I V E R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M ACRP RESEARCH REPORT 174 2017 Research sponsored by the Federal Aviation Administration Subscriber Categories Aviation • Environment Green Stormwater Infrastructure Volume 1: Primer James W. Jolley Mary Ellen Tuccillo Michelle L. Young The Cadmus Group, InC. Waltham, MA Michael Barrett Anna Lantin mIChael Baker InTernaTIonal Irvine, CA

AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM Airports are vital national resources. They serve a key role in trans- portation of people and goods and in regional, national, and interna- tional commerce. They are where the nation’s aviation system connects with other modes of transportation and where federal responsibility for managing and regulating air traffic operations intersects with the role of state and local governments that own and operate most airports. Research is necessary to solve common operating problems, to adapt appropriate new technologies from other industries, and to introduce innovations into the airport industry. The Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) serves as one of the principal means by which the airport industry can develop innovative near-term solutions to meet demands placed on it. The need for ACRP was identified in TRB Special Report 272: Airport Research Needs: Cooperative Solutions in 2003, based on a study spon- sored by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). ACRP carries out applied research on problems that are shared by airport operating agen- cies and not being adequately addressed by existing federal research programs. ACRP is modeled after the successful National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP) and Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP). ACRP undertakes research and other technical activi- ties in various airport subject areas, including design, construction, legal, maintenance, operations, safety, policy, planning, human resources, and administration. ACRP provides a forum where airport operators can cooperatively address common operational problems. ACRP was authorized in December 2003 as part of the Vision 100— Century of Aviation Reauthorization Act. The primary participants in the ACRP are (1) an independent governing board, the ACRP Oversight Committee (AOC), appointed by the Secretary of the U.S. Department of Transportation with representation from airport operating agencies, other stakeholders, and relevant industry organizations such as the Airports Council International-North America (ACI-NA), the American Associa- tion of Airport Executives (AAAE), the National Association of State Aviation Officials (NASAO), Airlines for America (A4A), and the Airport Consultants Council (ACC) as vital links to the airport community; (2) TRB as program manager and secretariat for the governing board; and (3) the FAA as program sponsor. In October 2005, the FAA executed a contract with the National Academy of Sciences formally initiating the program. ACRP benefits from the cooperation and participation of airport professionals, air carriers, shippers, state and local government officials, equipment and service suppliers, other airport users, and research organi- zations. Each of these participants has different interests and responsibili- ties, and each is an integral part of this cooperative research effort. Research problem statements for ACRP are solicited periodically but may be submitted to TRB by anyone at any time. It is the responsibility of the AOC to formulate the research program by identifying the highest priority projects and defining funding levels and expected products. Once selected, each ACRP project is assigned to an expert panel appointed by TRB. Panels include experienced practitioners and research specialists; heavy emphasis is placed on including airport professionals, the intended users of the research products. The panels prepare project statements (requests for proposals), select contractors, and provide technical guidance and counsel throughout the life of the project. The process for developing research problem statements and selecting research agencies has been used by TRB in managing coop- erative research programs since 1962. As in other TRB activities, ACRP project panels serve voluntarily without compensation. Primary emphasis is placed on disseminating ACRP results to the intended users of the research: airport operating agencies, service pro- viders, and academic institutions. ACRP produces a series of research reports for use by airport operators, local agencies, the FAA, and other interested parties; industry associations may arrange for workshops, training aids, field visits, webinars, and other activities to ensure that results are implemented by airport industry practitioners. ACRP RESEARCH REPORT 174, VOluME 1 Project 02-62 ISSN 2572-3731 (Print) ISSN 2572-374X (Online) ISBN 978-0-309-44641-9 Library of Congress Control Number 2017941561 © 2017 National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. COPYRIGHT INFORMATION Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously published or copyrighted material used herein. Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permission is given with the understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB, AASHTO, FAA, FHWA, FMCSA, FRA, FTA, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Research and Technology, PHMSA, or TDC endorsement of a particular product, method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the material in this document for educational and not-for-profit uses will give appropriate acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of the material, request permission from CRP. Cover photo © M. Barrett 2015. NOTICE The research report was reviewed by the technical panel and accepted for publication according to procedures established and overseen by the Transportation Research Board and approved by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The opinions and conclusions expressed or implied in this report are those of the researchers who performed the research and are not necessarily those of the Transportation Research Board; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; or the program sponsors. The Transportation Research Board; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; and the sponsors of the Airport Cooperative Research Program do not endorse products or manufacturers. Trade or manufacturers’ names appear herein solely because they are considered essential to the object of the report. Published research reports of the AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM are available from Transportation Research Board Business Office 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 and can be ordered through the Internet by going to http://www.national-academies.org and then searching for TRB Printed in the United States of America

The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, non- governmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Marcia McNutt is president. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to bring the practices of engineering to advising the nation. Members are elected by their peers for extraordinary contributions to engineering. Dr. C. D. Mote, Jr., is president. The National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine) was established in 1970 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to advise the nation on medical and health issues. Members are elected by their peers for distinguished contributions to medicine and health. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president. The three Academies work together as the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to provide independent, objective analysis and advice to the nation and conduct other activities to solve complex problems and inform public policy decisions. The Academies also encourage education and research, recognize outstanding contributions to knowledge, and increase public understanding in matters of science, engineering, and medicine. Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine at www.national-academies.org. The Transportation Research Board is one of seven major programs of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The mission of the Transportation Research Board is to increase the benefits that transportation contributes to society by providing leadership in transportation innovation and progress through research and information exchange, conducted within a setting that is objective, interdisciplinary, and multimodal. The Board’s varied committees, task forces, and panels annually engage about 7,000 engineers, scientists, and other transportation researchers and practitioners from the public and private sectors and academia, all of whom contribute their expertise in the public interest. The program is supported by state transportation departments, federal agencies including the component administrations of the U.S. Department of Transportation, and other organizations and individuals interested in the development of transportation. Learn more about the Transportation Research Board at www.TRB.org.

C O O P E R A T I V E R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M S CRP STAFF FOR ACRP RESEARCH REPORT 174, VOluME 1 Christopher J. Hedges, Director, Cooperative Research Programs Lori L. Sundstrom, Deputy Director, Cooperative Research Programs Michael R. Salamone, Manager, Airport Cooperative Research Program Marci A. Greenberger, Senior Program Officer Eileen P. Delaney, Director of Publications Natalie Barnes, Senior Editor ACRP PROjECT 02-62 PANEl Field of Environment Jennifer M. Fuller, North Carolina DOT, Raleigh, NC (Chair) James Berg, Port of Portland (OR), Portland, OR Eddie R. Clayson, Salt Lake City Department of Airports, Salt Lake City, UT Laura D. Morland, Mead & Hunt, Inc., Middleton, WI Jesse Nikkel, Southwest Airlines Co., Dallas, TX Eduardo N. Tovar, Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport, DFW Airport, TX Janell Barrilleaux, FAA Liaison Frank Smigelski, FAA Liaison Stephen F. Maher, TRB Liaison

ACRP Research Report 174 defines and discusses green stormwater infrastructure (GSI) management strategies, a relatively new approach to regulation compliance. As more airports are proactively incorporating sustainable practices in all aspects of their operations, federal and state regulatory agencies are also promoting GSI strategies to comply with water regulations and requirements. There are some challenges in implementing GSI strategies, such as the perception that they are expensive and may conflict with safety and operational regulations, as well as a lack of understanding of what constitutes a GSI strategy, which includes techniques, technologies, and design elements. The Volume 1: Primer is written for the airport manager, planner, and engineer seeking to understand stormwater management and how GSI can comply with regulatory standards and requirements along with other benefits. Volume 2: Guidebook has been developed to assist airport staff with evaluating the applicability of a GSI strategy and how to select an appropriate GSI strategy. Stormwater regulations that affect all airports have evolved so that water quantity is as much a factor as water quality standards. Stormwater systems were designed to convey water runoff efficiently without regard to downstream impacts. Most people are familiar with these systems such as sewers composed of pipes and other mechanical equipment. Over time, stormwater regulations and requirements have progressed so that they are more encompass- ing and broad reaching. Concurrently, sustainability activities and techniques have become more mainstream within aviation and other industries. GSI strategies began to be imple- mented in the spirit of sustainability to meet stormwater requirements and strategies, though they are relatively new to the aviation sector. The Cadmus Group, under ACRP Project 02-62, was selected to develop (1) a primer to educate airport management on the benefits and applicability of incorporating GSI strategies into stormwater management programs and (2) a guidebook that identifies best management practices for GSI and a process to evaluate the appropriate strategies for implementation. The research was conducted in part by assessing GSI implementation at airports and the potential application at airports found in other industries. F O R E W O R D By Marci A. Greenberger Staff Officer Transportation Research Board

Note: Photographs, figures, and tables in this report may have been converted from color to grayscale for printing. The electronic version of the report (posted on the web at www.trb.org) retains the color versions. ix Acronyms, Abbreviations, and Initialisms 1 Introduction 1 The Problem: Stormwater Management at Airports 5 Two Approaches: Conventional Versus Green Stormwater Infrastructure 9 GSI Best Management Practices 9 Descriptions of GSI Best Management Practices 22 Selection of GSI Best Management Practices 26 Benefits of Green Stormwater Infrastructure 26 Potential Cost Savings 28 Reduction of Energy Costs 28 Reduction of Flooding Damage 29 Protection of Water Quality 29 Stewardship and Aesthetics 30 Applicability to Airports 30 Typical Airport Land Uses 30 Pollutants in Runoff as Related to Airports 31 Applicability of General GSI Guidance Manuals 31 Avoiding the Creation of Wildlife Attractants 34 Challenges and Constraints Associated with Green Stormwater Infrastructure at Airports 34 Legal and Policy Constraints 35 Retrofit Costs 35 Familiarity with GSI at Airports 35 Maintenance and Evaluation 36 Evaluation of Effectiveness 38 References C O N T E N T S

Acronyms, Abbreviations, and Initialisms ACRP Airport Cooperative Research Program AOA Airport Operations Area ATL Hartsfield–Jackson Atlanta International Airport AUS Austin-Bergstrom International Airport BMP Best Management Practice CDA Chicago Department of Aviation CLE Cleveland Hopkins International Airport DEN Denver International Airport EPA Environmental Protection Agency FAA Federal Aviation Administration GSE Ground Support Equipment GSI Green Stormwater Infrastructure LAX Los Angeles International Airport LEED Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design MS4 Municipal Separate Storm Sewer Systems MSGP Multi-Sector General Permit MSP Minneapolis–Saint Paul International Airport NPDES National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System OAK Oakland International Airport PIT Pittsburgh International Airport RSA Runway Safety Area SAN San Diego International Airport SEA Seattle–Tacoma International Airport SIC Standard Industrial Classification SUNY State University of New York SWF Steward International Airport UDFCD Urban Drainage and Flood Control District UNHSC University of New Hampshire Stormwater Center REALCOST Rational Estimation of Actual Likely Costs of Stormwater Treatment

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TRB's Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Research Report 174 defines and discusses green stormwater infrastructure (GSI) management strategies, a relatively new approach to regulation compliance. As more airports are proactively incorporating sustainable practices in all aspects of their operations, federal and state regulatory agencies are also promoting GSI strategies to comply with water regulations and requirements. Volume 1: Primer is written for the airport manager, planner, and engineer seeking to understand stormwater management and how GSI can comply with regulatory standards and requirements along with other benefits. Volume 2: Guidebook assists airport staff with evaluating the applicability of a GSI strategy and how to select an appropriate GSI strategy.

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