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Quantifying the Influence of Geosynthetics on Pavement Performance (2017)

Chapter: APPENDIX G. FLEXIBLE PAVEMENT EXPERIMENTS: COMPARISON OF TEST MEASUREMENTS

« Previous: APPENDIX F. SUMMARY CHARTS FOR FLEXIBLE PAVEMENT EXPERIMENTS
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Suggested Citation:"APPENDIX G. FLEXIBLE PAVEMENT EXPERIMENTS: COMPARISON OF TEST MEASUREMENTS." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Quantifying the Influence of Geosynthetics on Pavement Performance. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24841.
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Suggested Citation:"APPENDIX G. FLEXIBLE PAVEMENT EXPERIMENTS: COMPARISON OF TEST MEASUREMENTS." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Quantifying the Influence of Geosynthetics on Pavement Performance. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24841.
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Suggested Citation:"APPENDIX G. FLEXIBLE PAVEMENT EXPERIMENTS: COMPARISON OF TEST MEASUREMENTS." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Quantifying the Influence of Geosynthetics on Pavement Performance. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24841.
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Suggested Citation:"APPENDIX G. FLEXIBLE PAVEMENT EXPERIMENTS: COMPARISON OF TEST MEASUREMENTS." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Quantifying the Influence of Geosynthetics on Pavement Performance. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24841.
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Suggested Citation:"APPENDIX G. FLEXIBLE PAVEMENT EXPERIMENTS: COMPARISON OF TEST MEASUREMENTS." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Quantifying the Influence of Geosynthetics on Pavement Performance. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24841.
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Suggested Citation:"APPENDIX G. FLEXIBLE PAVEMENT EXPERIMENTS: COMPARISON OF TEST MEASUREMENTS." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Quantifying the Influence of Geosynthetics on Pavement Performance. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24841.
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Suggested Citation:"APPENDIX G. FLEXIBLE PAVEMENT EXPERIMENTS: COMPARISON OF TEST MEASUREMENTS." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Quantifying the Influence of Geosynthetics on Pavement Performance. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24841.
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Suggested Citation:"APPENDIX G. FLEXIBLE PAVEMENT EXPERIMENTS: COMPARISON OF TEST MEASUREMENTS." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Quantifying the Influence of Geosynthetics on Pavement Performance. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24841.
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Suggested Citation:"APPENDIX G. FLEXIBLE PAVEMENT EXPERIMENTS: COMPARISON OF TEST MEASUREMENTS." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Quantifying the Influence of Geosynthetics on Pavement Performance. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24841.
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Suggested Citation:"APPENDIX G. FLEXIBLE PAVEMENT EXPERIMENTS: COMPARISON OF TEST MEASUREMENTS." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Quantifying the Influence of Geosynthetics on Pavement Performance. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24841.
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Suggested Citation:"APPENDIX G. FLEXIBLE PAVEMENT EXPERIMENTS: COMPARISON OF TEST MEASUREMENTS." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Quantifying the Influence of Geosynthetics on Pavement Performance. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24841.
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Suggested Citation:"APPENDIX G. FLEXIBLE PAVEMENT EXPERIMENTS: COMPARISON OF TEST MEASUREMENTS." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Quantifying the Influence of Geosynthetics on Pavement Performance. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24841.
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Suggested Citation:"APPENDIX G. FLEXIBLE PAVEMENT EXPERIMENTS: COMPARISON OF TEST MEASUREMENTS." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Quantifying the Influence of Geosynthetics on Pavement Performance. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24841.
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Suggested Citation:"APPENDIX G. FLEXIBLE PAVEMENT EXPERIMENTS: COMPARISON OF TEST MEASUREMENTS." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Quantifying the Influence of Geosynthetics on Pavement Performance. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24841.
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Suggested Citation:"APPENDIX G. FLEXIBLE PAVEMENT EXPERIMENTS: COMPARISON OF TEST MEASUREMENTS." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Quantifying the Influence of Geosynthetics on Pavement Performance. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24841.
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Suggested Citation:"APPENDIX G. FLEXIBLE PAVEMENT EXPERIMENTS: COMPARISON OF TEST MEASUREMENTS." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Quantifying the Influence of Geosynthetics on Pavement Performance. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24841.
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Suggested Citation:"APPENDIX G. FLEXIBLE PAVEMENT EXPERIMENTS: COMPARISON OF TEST MEASUREMENTS." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Quantifying the Influence of Geosynthetics on Pavement Performance. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24841.
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Suggested Citation:"APPENDIX G. FLEXIBLE PAVEMENT EXPERIMENTS: COMPARISON OF TEST MEASUREMENTS." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Quantifying the Influence of Geosynthetics on Pavement Performance. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24841.
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Suggested Citation:"APPENDIX G. FLEXIBLE PAVEMENT EXPERIMENTS: COMPARISON OF TEST MEASUREMENTS." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Quantifying the Influence of Geosynthetics on Pavement Performance. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24841.
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G-1 APPENDIX G. FLEXIBLE PAVEMENT EXPERIMENTS: COMPARISON OF TEST MEASUREMENTS

G-2 Appendix G1. Flexible Pavements: Comparison of Test Measurements: Dynamic Loading—Thin Base: No. 1 (Control), No. 3 (Geogrid), and No. 5 (Geotextile)

G-3 Table G1-1. Comparison between Accelerometer Measurements Statistical Significant Difference between Instrumentation Results Geogrid vs. Control Geotextile vs. Control Geotextile vs. Geogrid Load (kip) Instrumentation 9 12 16 9 12 16 9 12 16 Msg1_Y SH* SH SH SH SH SH NS SL NS Msg1_Z - - - - - - SH SL SL Msg2_Y SL* SL SL - SL SL - NS SL Msg2_Z - - - - - - SH SL NS Msg3_Y NS** NS - SL SL - NS SL NS Msg3_Z SL SL - SL SL - NS SL NS Mgd1_Y - - - - - - SL SL NS Mgd1_Z - - - - - - SL NS SL Mgd2_Y - - - - - - SL SH SL Mgd2_Z - - - - - - SL SH NS Mgd3_Y - - - - - - NS - SH Mgd3_Z - - - - - - NS SH SH *SH/SL: Geogrid accelerometer measurement is statically higher/lower than the control accelerometer measurement at a significance level of 0.05. **NS: Control accelerometer measurement and geogrid accelerometer measurement are not significantly different at a significance level of 0.05.

G-4 Table G1-2. Comparison between LVDT Measurements *SH/SL: Geogrid LVDT measurement is statically higher/lower than the control LVDT measurement at a significance level of 0.05. **NS: Control LVDT measurement and geotextile LVDT measurement are not significantly different at a significance level of 0.05. Statistical Significant Difference between Instrumentation Results Geogrid vs. Control Geotextile vs. Control Geotextile vs. Geogrid Load (kip) Instrumentation 9 12 16 9 12 16 9 12 16 LVDT1 SH* SH SH NS** NS SH NS SL SH LVDT2 SL* SL SL SH NS SH SH NS SH LVDT3 SL SL SL SL SL SL NS NS SH LVDT4 SH SH SH SH SH SH NS SH SH LVDT6 SL SL SL SH NS SH SH SH SH

G-5 Table G1-3. Comparison between Pressure Cell Measurements Statistical Significant Difference between Instrumentation Results Geogrid vs. Control Geotextile vs. Control Geotextile vs. Geogrid Load (kip) Instrumentation 9 12 16 9 12 16 9 12 16 P1 SH* SH SH SH SH SH SH SH SH P2 SL* SL SL SL SL SL SH SH SH P3 SL SL SL SL SL SL SH SH SH P4 SL SL SL SH SH SH SH SH SH P5 SH SH SH SH SH SH SH SH SH P21 SL SL SL SL SL SL SL SL SL P22 SH SH SH - - - SL SL SL *SH/SL: Geogrid pressure cell measurement is statically higher/lower than the control pressure cell measurement at a significance level of 0.05.

G-6 Table G1-4. Comparison between Strain Gauge Measurements *SH/SL: Geotextile strain gauge measurement is statically higher/lower than the geogrid strain gauge measurement at a significance level of 0.05. **NS: Geotextile strain gauge measurement and geogrid strain gauge measurement are not significantly different at a significance level of 0.05. Statistical Significant Difference between Instrumentation Results Geogrid Vs Control Geotextile vs Control Geotextile vs Geogrid Load (kip) Instrumentation 9 12 16 9 12 16 9 12 16 S1 SH SH SH SL SL SL SL SL SL SG1_X - - - - - - SL* SL SL SG1_Y - - - - - - SH* SH SH SG2_X - - - - - - SL SL SL SG2_Y - - - - - - SH SH SH SG3_X - - - - - - NS** NS NS SG3_Y - - - - - - SH NS SL

G-7 Appendix G2. Flexible Pavements: Comparison of Test Measurements: Static Loading— Thin Base: No. 1 (Control), No. 3 (Geogrid), and No. 5 (Geotextile)

G-8 Table G2-1. Percent Difference in LVDT Measurements Percent Difference in Instrumentation Results Geogrid vs. Control* Geotextile vs. Control** Geotextile vs. Geogrid*** Load (kip) Instrumentation 5 9 12 5 9 12 5 9 12 LVDT1 0.6 24.9 13.8 6.7 -0.5 56.0 6.1 -20.3 37.1 LVDT2 -14.1 15.1 7.8 13.6 -4.5 36.2 32.4 -17.0 26.4 LVDT3 -36.2 -27.6 -26.0 -12.5 -8.3 -10.8 37.1 26.7 20.5 LVDT4 -12.1 49.1 39.0 30.8 61.4 64.0 48.8 8.3 17.9 LVDT6 -9.9 5.7 0.6 2.6 -4.3 32.3 13.8 -9.4 31.5 *Geogrid vs. Control: 100*[(LVDT Measurement in Experiment 3−LVDT Measurement in Experiment 1)/LVDT Measurement in Experiment 1] **Geotextile vs. Control: 100*[(LVDT Measurement in Experiment 5−LVDT Measurement in Experiment 1)/LVDT Measurement in Experiment 1] ***Geotextile vs. Geogrid: 100*[(LVDT Measurement in Experiment 5−LVDT Measurement in Experiment 3)/LVDT Measurement in Experiment 3]

G-9 Table G2-2. Percent Difference in Pressure Cell Measurements Percent Difference in Instrumentation Results Geogrid vs. Control* Geotextile vs. Control** Geotextile vs. Geogrid*** Load (kip) Instrumentation 5 9 12 5 9 12 5 9 12 P1 15.0 43.2 33.3 32.7 24.8 53.1 15.3 -12.8 14.8 P2 -25.1 -19.9 -14.5 -14.0 -12.2 3.9 14.8 9.6 21.6 P3 -24.2 -11.0 8.9 -1.8 6.3 59.6 29.6 19.5 46.5 P4 -55.6 -58.9 -58.8 37.5 38.7 43.1 209.3 237.1 247.0 P5 25.0 24.6 21.7 42.6 38.3 25.0 14.1 11.1 2.7 P21 -46.2 -36.5 -28.4 -53.2 -49.6 -34.5 -13.0 -20.7 -8.6 *Geogrid vs. Control: 100*[(Pressure Cell Measurement in Experiment 3−Pressure Cell Measurement in Experiment 1) /Pressure Cell Measurement in Experiment 1] **Geotextile vs. Control: 100*[(Pressure Cell Measurement in Experiment 5−Pressure Cell Measurement in Experiment 1) /Pressure Cell Measurement in Experiment 1] ***Geotextile vs. Geogrid: 100*[(Pressure Cell Measurement in Experiment 5−Pressure Cell Measurement in Experiment 3) /Pressure Cell Measurement in Experiment 3]

G-10 Table G2-3. Percent Difference in Strain Gauge Measurements Percent Difference in Instrumentation Results Geogrid vs. Control* Geotextile vs. Control** Geotextile vs. Geogrid*** Load (kip) Instrumentation 5 9 12 5 9 12 5 9 12 S1 -56.3 -78.8 -53.2 190.4 133.4 -100.0 563.9 1002.5 -100.0 SG1_X - - - - - - -100.0 -100.0 -100.0 SG1_Y - - - - - - -34.9 -56.8 7.4 SG2_X - - - - - - -27.7 -61.7 17.3 SG2_Y - - - - - - -100.0 -100.0 -100.0 SG3_X - - - - - - 89.4 115.0 547.9 SG3_Y - - - - - - -364.7 35.8 128.1 *Geogrid vs. Control: 100*[(Strain Gauge Measurement in Experiment 3−Strain Gauge Measurement in Experiment 1) /Strain Gauge Measurement in Experiment 1] **Geotextile vs. Control: 100*[(Strain Gauge Measurement in Experiment 5−Strain Gauge Measurement in Experiment 1) /Strain Gauge Measurement in Experiment 1] ***Geotextile vs. Geogrid: 100*[(Strain Gauge Measurement in Experiment 5−Strain Gauge Measurement in Experiment 3) /Strain Gauge Measurement in Experiment 3]

G-11 Appendix G3. Flexible Pavements: Comparison of Test Measurements: Dynamic Loading—Thick Base: No. 2 (Control), No. 4 (Geogrid), and No. 6 (Geotextile)

G-12 Table G3-1. Comparison between Accelerometer Measurements Statistical Significant Difference between Instrumentation Results Geogrid vs. Control Geotextile vs. Control Geotextile vs. Geogrid Load (kip) Instrumentation 9 12 16 9 12 16 9 12 16 Msg1_Y NS** NS SL NS SL SL NS SL NS Msg1_Z SH* SH NS NS SH NS SL NS SL Msg2_Y SL* SL SL SL SL SL NS NS SH Msg2_Z SL - SL SL - SL SL SH NS Msg3_Y SL SL SL NS SL SL NS NS NS Msg3_Z SL SL SL SL SL SL SL SH SH Mgd1_Y - - - - - - NS SH SH Mgd1_Z - - - - - - SL SH SH Mgd2_Y - - - - - - SL SL SL Mgd2_Z - - - - - - SL NS NS Mgd3_Y - - - - - - NS SL SL Mgd3_Z - - - - - - SL SH SL *SH/SL: Geogrid accelerometer measurement is statically higher/lower than the control accelerometer measurement at a significance level of 0.05. **NS: Control accelerometer measurement and geogrid accelerometer measurement are not significantly different at a significance level of 0.05.

G-13 Table G3-2. Comparison between LVDT Measurements Statistical Significant Difference between Instrumentation Results Geogrid vs. Control Geotextile vs. Control Geotextile vs. Geogrid Load (kip) Instrumentation 9 12 16 9 12 16 9 12 16 LVDT1 SL* SL SL SH* SH SH SH SH SH LVDT2 NS** NS SL SH SH SH SH SH SH LVDT3 NS NS NS NS NS NS NS NS SH LVDT4 NS NS NS SH SH SH SH SH SH LVDT6 - - - - - - SH SH SH *SL: Geogrid LVDT measurement is statically higher/lower than the control LVDT measurement at a significance level of 0.05. *SH: Geotextile LVDT measurement is statically higher/lower than the control LVDT measurement at a significance level of 0.05. **NS: Control LVDT measurement and geogrid LVDT measurement are not significantly different at a significance level of 0.05.

G-14 Table G3-3. Comparison between Pressure Cell Measurements Statistical Significant Difference between Instrumentation Results Geogrid vs. Control Geotextile vs. Control Geotextile vs. Geogrid Load (kip) Instrumentation 9 12 16 9 12 16 9 12 16 P1 SH* SH SH SH SH SH SH SH SH P2 - - - - - - SL SL SL P3 (For Control, P2 measurements are used since they are equivalent to P3 measurements in Reinforced experiments) SL* SL SL SL SL SL SH SH SH P4 (For Control, P21 measurements are used since they are equivalent to P4 measurements in Reinforced experiments) SH SH SH SL SL SL SL SL SL P5 - - - - - - NS** SH NS P6 (For Control, P3 measurements are used since they are equivalent to P6 measurements in Reinforced experiments) - - - - - - SL SL SL P7 (For Control, P4 measurements are used since they are equivalent to P7 measurements in Reinforced experiments) - - - - - - SL SL SL P21 (For Control, P5 measurements are used since they are equivalent to P21 measurements in Reinforced experiments) SL SL SL SL SL SL SL SL SL *SH/SL: Geogrid pressure cell measurement is statically higher/lower than the control pressure cell measurement at a significance level of 0.05. **NS: Geotextile LVDT measurement and geogrid LVDT measurement are not significantly different at a significance level of 0.05.

G-15 Table G3-4. Comparison between Strain Gauge Measurements Statistical Significant Difference between Instrumentation Results Geogrid vs. Control Geotextile vs. Control Geotextile vs. Geogrid Load (kip) Instrumentation 9 12 16 9 12 16 9 12 16 S1 NS** NS NS SL SL SL SL* SL SL SG1_Y - - - - - - SL SL SL SG2_X - - - - - - SH* SH SH SG2_Y - - - - - - SH SH SH SG3_X - - - - - - SL SL SL SG3_Y - - - - - - SH SH SH *SH/SL: Geotextile strain gauge measurement is statically higher/lower than the geogrid strain gauge measurement at a significance level of 0.05. **NS: Geogrid strain gauge measurement and control strain gauge measurement are not significantly different at a significance level of 0.05.

G-16 Appendix G4. Flexible Pavements: Comparison of Test Measurements: Static Loading— Thick Base: No. 2 (Control), No. 4 (Geogrid), and No. 6 (Geotextile)

G-17 Table G4-1. Percent Difference in LVDT Measurements Percent Difference in Instrumentation Results Geogrid vs. Control* Geotextile vs. Control** Geotextile vs. Geogrid*** Load (kip) Instrumentation 5 9 12 5 9 12 5 9 12 LVDT1 -32.1 1.0 -15.9 7.0 -38.9 -59.8 57.6 -39.5 -52.2 LVDT2 -1.2 12.2 8.3 -112.0 -270.0 -350.2 -112.1 -251.5 -331.0 LVDT3 97.4 47.4 11.9 -110.1 -266.4 -335.6 -105.1 -212.9 -310.5 LVDT4 232.7 70.5 11.3 -305.1 -423.2 -475.5 -161.7 -289.5 -437.5 LVDT6 - - - - - - -2.4 -113.6 -161.9 *Geogrid vs. Control: 100*[(LVDT Measurement in Experiment 4−LVDT Measurement in Experiment 2)/LVDT Measurement in Experiment 2] **Geotextile vs. Control: 100*[(LVDT Measurement in Experiment 6−LVDT Measurement in Experiment 2)/LVDT Measurement in Experiment 2] ***Geotextile vs. Geogrid: 100*[(LVDT Measurement in Experiment 6−LVDT Measurement in Experiment 4)/LVDT Measurement in Experiment 4]

G-18 Table G4-2. Percent Difference in Pressure Cell Measurements Percent Difference in Instrumentation Results Geogrid vs. Control* Geotextile vs. Control** Geotextile vs. Geogrid*** Load (kip) Instrumentation 5 9 12 5 9 12 5 9 12 P1 17.1 25.0 34.5 185.0 96.8 90.1 143.4 57.5 41.3 P2 - - - - - - 21.0 11.2 15.1 P3 (For Control, P2 measurements are used since they are equivalent to P3 measurements in Reinforced experiments) -68.9 -60.6 -57.1 2.6 18.4 29.5 230.3 200.8 202.2 P4 (For Control, P21 measurements are used since they are equivalent to P4 measurements in Reinforced experiments) -12.2 37.2 59.9 -51.5 -14.1 -0.3 -44.8 -37.4 -37.6 P5 - - - - - - 15.6 10.4 13.1 P6 (For Control, P3 measurements are used since they are equivalent to P6 measurements in Reinforced experiments) - - - - - - -20.1 -27.5 -21.7 P7 (For Control, P4 measurements are used since they are equivalent to P7 measurements in Reinforced experiments) - - - - - - -52.4 -49.7 -47.7 P21 - - - - - - -33 -49 -50 *Geogrid vs. Control: 100*[(Pressure Cell Measurement in Experiment 4−Pressure Cell Measurement in Experiment 2) /Pressure Cell Measurement in Experiment 2] **Geotextile vs. Control: 100*[(Pressure Cell Measurement in Experiment 6−Pressure Cell Measurement in Experiment 2) /Pressure Cell Measurement in Experiment 2] ***Geotextile vs. Geogrid: 100*[(Pressure Cell Measurement in Experiment 6−Pressure Cell Measurement in Experiment 4) /Pressure Cell Measurement in Experiment 4]

G-19 Table G4-3. Percent Difference in Strain Gauge Measurements Percent Difference in Instrumentation Results Geogrid vs. Control* Geotextile vs. Control** Geotextile vs. Geogrid*** Load (kip) Instrumentation 5 9 12 5 9 12 5 9 12 S1 252.2 153.0 165.2 3774.2 1854.6 1312.7 1000.0 672.5 432.7 SG1_X - - - - - - - - - SG1_Y - - - - - - 1754.2 1476.6 862.2 SG2_X - - - - - - 990.6 483.9 424.2 SG2_Y - - - - - - -135.9 -145.2 -268.6 *Geogrid vs. Control: 100*[(Strain Gauge Measurement in Experiment 4−Strain Gauge Measurement in Experiment 2) /Strain Gauge Measurement in Experiment 2] **Geotextile vs. Control: 100*[(Strain Gauge Measurement in Experiment 6−Strain Gauge Measurement in Experiment 2) /Strain Gauge Measurement in Experiment 2] ***Geotextile vs. Geogrid: 100*[(Strain Gauge Measurement in Experiment 6−Strain Gauge Measurement in Experiment 4) /Strain Gauge Measurement in Experiment 4]

Next: APPENDIX H. INSTRUMENTATION PLANS FOR RIGID PAVEMENT EXPERIMENTS »
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 Quantifying the Influence of Geosynthetics on Pavement Performance
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TRB's National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP) Web-Only Document 235: Quantifying the Influence of Geosynthetics on Pavement Performance develops a methodology for quantifying the influence of geosynthetics on pavement performance for use in pavement design and analysis. This project focused on the use of geosynthetics in unbound base/subbase layers or as a base/subgrade interface layer for flexible and rigid pavements. The AASHTOWare Pavement ME Design software provides a methodology for the analysis and performance prediction of pavements. However, use of geosynthetics in pavement layers and their influence on distress models have not been included in Pavement ME Design.

The Composite Geosynthetic-Base Course Model is a computer subroutine written for incorporation into the Pavement ME Design software to predict the performance of pavements with geosynthetics.

In November 2017, an errata for this publication has been issued, and corrections have been made to the version available for download.

This software is offered as is, without warranty or promise of support of any kind either expressed or implied. Under no circumstance will the National Academy of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine or the Transportation Research Board (collectively "TRB") be liable for any loss or damage caused by the installation or operation of this product. TRB makes no representation or warranty of any kind, expressed or implied, in fact or in law, including without limitation, the warranty of merchantability or the warranty of fitness for a particular purpose, and shall not in any case be liable for any consequential or special damages.

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