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14 The information presented in this synthesis was gathered by conducting a literature search, an online survey of the largest U.S. airports, and interviews of selected airport staff. 2.1 Literature Search The amount of published literature and research on TNC operations at airports is extremely limited. There are numerous published articles describing TNC operations, service, and their effects on trans- portation in general, but few describe the challenges and opportunities facing airport operators. Litera- ture discussing TNC operations at airports published in the popular media and technical journals can be categorized by: 1. Overviews of the TNC industry. The best example is TRB Special Report 319: Between Public and Private Mobility: Examining the Rise of Technology-Enabled Transportation Services (Committee for Review of Innovative Urban Mobility Services 2015). This report contains several references to taxicab and transportation service at airports but few specifics about TNC operations at airports. Similarly, ACRP Report 146: Commercial Ground Transportation at Air- ports: Best Practices (LeighFisher 2015) describes the regulatory framework, regulation, and operations of commercial vehicles at airports, as well as TNC operations at airports, but contains little information about best practices because few airports had permitted TNCs in early 2015 when the report was prepared. 2. Overviews of TNCs at airports. âAirportsâ Response to Transportation Network Companiesâ (Mandle and Box 2016) in TR News provides an overview of several of the topics described in this synthesis report. 3. Announcements that TNC service is now available at an airport. These are typically news articles in local papers or on TV [e.g., âMilwaukee Airport Finalizes Rules for Uber, Lyftâ (Barrow 2016)]. 4. Descriptions of an airportâs efforts to enforce existing prohibitions of TNC service. These are typically news articles in local papers or on TV [e.g., âLyft Users Can No Longer Request Rides from Logan Airportâ (Vaccaro 2016)]. 5. Presentations at aviation industry conferences. These typically describe the status of the industry, its regulation by state and local authorities, and the regulation of TNCs by airports [e.g., âTrans- portation Network Companies and Car-Sharing at Airportsâ (Box 2016)]. These and other presentations were available to conference participants but not published in technical journals. In summary, the literature search conducted as part of this project confirmed that there is little pub- lished research or technical documentation describing TNC operations at airports. This is because, as stated, TNCs have been permitted to operate at most airports for 18 months or less. Only a few airports have 12 months of experience with TNCs. Further, there is frequently a 1- to 3-month lag between when airport activity occurs and the availability of relevant statistics (e.g., the publication of airline passenger traffic volumes, parking or rental car revenues, commercial ground transportation trips, or other informa- tion). As a result, there is little useful published information on TNC operations at airports to synthesize. 2.2 OnLine Survey To compensate for the lack of useful published information on TNC operations at airports, a survey of airport staff was conducted. First, the survey was developed with a draft copy reviewed by the members of the Project Panel. After incorporating the panelâs comments and suggestions, a final chapter two Summary Of SyntheSiS apprOach
15 online survey instrument was prepared and tested. Once complete, it was distributed in the fall of 2016 to the staff members responsible for ground transportation operations at the 100 largest airports in the United States as measured by the number of enplaned airline passengers. The appendix contains a copy of the online survey form. The survey was conducted using an online survey program, SurveyGizmo, which allowed the survey questions to vary depending on a recipientâs response to prior questions. As a result, the copy of the survey shown in the appendix does not reflect the actual questions seen by each airport representative who completed the survey. As part of the online survey, airport staff were asked to indicate: 1. If TNCs are operating on the airport (with or without permission from the airport). 2. If TNCs are legally allowed to operate in the city/county/state in which the airport is located. 3. If the airport has a permit/agreement signed by one or more TNCs. 4. The type and amount of the fees charged to TNCs and how the fees were established. 5. Where TNCs are permitted to drop off and pick up passengers, and staging location. 6. If the airportâs operating costs had changed as a result of TNCs operating at the airport. 7. The amount of revenue the airport received from TNCs during the first year of operation and revenue to date. 8. If there had been any change in revenues from taxicabs, shared-ride services, limousine services, or other ground transportation services because TNCs were permitted to operate at the airport. 9. If there had been any changes in parking or rental car revenues because TNCs were permitted to operate at the airport. 10. If TNC pickup/drop-off had affected airport roadways or other locations. 11. If any data were available indicating airline passengers were using different transportation modes to enter or exit the airport. 12. If the airport had received any feedback from airline passengers or the operators/drivers of traditional ground transportation services. 13. How the airport monitored (or audited) TNC activity and enforced TNC operations and whether any additional staff were needed. 14. When the local city/county/state first permitted TNCs to operate and the extent of the airportâs involvement in the original regulatory process or possible changes to the regulations. 15. If the airport imposed any regulations on TNCs in addition to those imposed by the local city/ county/state. In addition to these topics, airport staff were asked to describe the challenges they faced regulating TNCs, their advice for other airports, and what they might have done differently, if anything. Finally, those responding where asked (1) if they would be willing to participate in a telephone interview regarding TNC operations at their airport, (2) if they could share data on TNC trips and/or revenues, and (3) if they could share a copy of their current TNC permit. FAA defines airports by the proportion of annual aircraft boardings that an airport serves, with large hubs serving 1.0% or more of the annual U.S. aircraft boardings, medium hubs serving at least 0.25% but less than 1.0%, and small hubs serving at least 0.05% but less than 0.25%. By these definitions, responses were received from 72 airports: 24 large hubs, 20 medium hubs, and 28 small hubs with all but three stating that TNCs were operating at the airport. Not all respondents com- pleted the full survey, and because of the survey logic, many questions were answered by a smaller number of respondents. Subsequent sections of this report summarize the responses received from airport staff. 2.3 interviewS Of airpOrt Staff Airport staff who indicated they were willing to participate in a more detailed telephone interview were contacted, telephone calls scheduled, and interviews conducted. Telephone interviews were con- ducted with the staff of 19 airports, including the commercial airports serving Dallas (Love Field);
16 Dallas/Fort Worth; Denver; Fort Myers, Florida; Harrisburg, Pennsylvania; Las Vegas; Memphis; Madison, Wisconsin; Orange County, California (John Wayne Airport); Phoenix (Sky Harbor Interna- tional Airport); Pittsburgh; Portland, Oregon; Salt Lake City; San Antonio; San Diego; San Francisco; San Jose; and Washington, D.C. (Washington Dulles International Airport and Ronald Reagan Washington National Airport). During the telephone interviews, airport staff were asked to expand upon comments included in the responses to the online survey; provide additional information about the challenges they had encountered or overcome; and discuss trends in the use of taxicabs, limou- sines, shared-ride vans, public parking facilities, and rental cars.