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35 chapter five ConClusions and Future researCh Considerations The key conclusions of the study conducted as part of this synthesis project are: â¢ Airports rely on state and local regulation of transportation network companies (TNCs) and their vehicles and drivers but require that TNCs obtain an airport permit to ensure adherence to airport regulations concerning operations on the airport, payment of required airport fees, compliance with FAA rules, and penalties for nonadherence. â¢ More than half of airports stipulate the locations of passenger drop-off and pickup areas and TNC driver staging areas. Terminology and wayfinding are not standardized throughout all airports in the United States and present a challenge to airport passengers. â¢ Airports typically rely on curbside traffic officers or airport operations staff to enforce airport regulations. â¢ Most airports require TNCs to pay one or more of the following fees: annual permit fee, per-trip fee, activation fee, and maximum annual guarantee (MAG) amount. Airports rely on TNCs to self- report the number of vehicle trips crossing airport-specific geofences established by each company. â¢ At present, annual revenues that the surveyed airports receive from TNCs range from $100,000 to $20,000,000. â¢ TNCs have numerous impacts on airport operations, including additional responsibilities for air- port operations staff; increased airport curbside congestion; a 5% to 30% decrease in taxi trips; and an 18% to 30% decrease in shared-ride customers. Decreases appear to be increasing over time and may be masked by increases in airline passenger volumes, parking and rental car rates, rental car reservation days, and other factors. Changing passenger mode choice from taxis, shared-ride vans, and private vehicles to TNCs are resulting in airport staff having to renegotiate concessions agreements with affected transportation services. â¢ A larger question, not addressed in this synthesis, is whether ânewâ revenues (trips from passen- gers that now use TNCs for airport travel) exceed the lost revenues an airport would have received in absence of TNCs. â¢ Interviewed airports with effective programs to manage TNCs offered a number of tips or effec- tive practices to airports embarking upon management of TNCs, including opportunities and constraints of the TNCs. As noted, this synthesis was prepared relying on the limited amount of published information describing TNC operations at airports and a survey of airport staff. The information on the chal- lenges and opportunities facing airports or industry best practices is limited because TNCs have been permitted to operate at most airports for less than 18 months at the time this report was prepared and because of the lag time in the publication of airport statistics. It is suggested that future consideration be given to: â¢ Updating the survey, particularly the revenues airports receive from TNCs and the changes in the use of public parking, rental cars, and traditional ground transportation services. It is sug- gested that information be gathered from a larger number of airports, which will be feasible as an increasing number of airports have permitted TNCs for more than 12 months. â¢ Monitoring the airport staff uses of TNC tracking tools and the evolution and improvement of these tools. At the time this synthesis was prepared only a handful of airports were using TNC tracking tools, with several airports having developed their own tools. It would be useful to document the benefits to airports from the use of these tools and the resulting costs.
36 â¢ Determining if the anticipated increasing popularity of TNCs results in a need for additional enforcement to ensure the appropriate behavior by TNC drivers. Airport staff is reporting increased curbside and roadway congestion resulting from the increased volume of TNC traffic coupled with some drivers being unfamiliar with airport regulations. Research on the measures airports are using to reduce congestion and ensure desired driver behavior would benefit the industry. â¢ Analyzing the impacts of the anticipated adoption of automated vehicles, including connected or self-driving vehicles, by TNCs. The pace at which connected vehicles are being introduced is uncertain, as are the effects these vehicles will have on airport operations. However, research from initial tests on public roadways may be instructive.