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2This document helps decision makers assess and leverage the policy tools they have and consider how to align traditional public policy interests with rapidly emerging AV and CV technologies, even amid a high level of un- certainty. In spite of that uncertainty, the transformational nature of AV and CV technology argues that public agencies should consider the strategies and possible outcomes to effectively manage public interest concerns. Overseeing the deployment of AV and CV technologies is a natural extension of the longstanding role of government to: â¢ Ensure safe and efficient operation of public roadways. â¢ Foster equity across users of the system. â¢ Mitigate negative effects of transportation. The strategies provided in this resource can guide policy development that proac- tively shapes the deployment of these technologies in ways that advance societal benefits while lessening potentially harmful consequences. Technology Context For the purposes of this work, an automated vehicle is one that takes full control of all aspects of the dynamic driving task for at least some of the time. Using the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) taxonomy, this research focuses on the role of higher levels of AV in mitigating or exacerbating the societal effects of driving, or in creating new effects. The higher levels of vehicle automation are designated SAE levels 3, 4, and 5 and are referred to in federal policy guidance as highly automat- ed vehicles (HAVs). Level Name Description Automated driving system monitors the driving environment 3 Conditional automation The driving mode-specific performance by an automated driving system of all aspects of the dynamic driving task with the expectation that the human driver will respond appropriately to a request to intervene 4 High automation The driving mode-specific performance by an automated driving system of all aspects of the dynamic driving task, even if a human driver does not respond appropriately to a request to intervene 5 Full automation The full-time performance by an automated driving system of all aspects of the dynamic driving task under all roadway and environmental conditions that can be managed by a human driver High Levels of Driving Automation (SAE 2014) A connected vehicle has internal devices that connect to other vehicles, as in vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) communication, or a back-end infrastructure system, as in vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I) communication. V2V applications enable crash pre- vention, and V2I applications enable telecommunication, safety, mobility, and en- vironmental benefits. Their foundation of data communications enables real-time driver advisories and warnings of imminent threats and roadway hazards. Dedicated short-range communications standardsâthe two-way, short-to-medi- um-range wireless communications capability that permits very high data trans- missionâare currently the leading medium for: