National Academies Press: OpenBook

Strategies to Advance Automated and Connected Vehicles (2017)

Chapter: Technology Context

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Suggested Citation:"Technology Context." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Strategies to Advance Automated and Connected Vehicles. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24873.
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2This document helps decision makers assess and leverage the policy tools they have and consider how to align traditional public policy interests with rapidly emerging AV and CV technologies, even amid a high level of un- certainty. In spite of that uncertainty, the transformational nature of AV and CV technology argues that public agencies should consider the strategies and possible outcomes to effectively manage public interest concerns. Overseeing the deployment of AV and CV technologies is a natural extension of the longstanding role of government to: • Ensure safe and efficient operation of public roadways. • Foster equity across users of the system. • Mitigate negative effects of transportation. The strategies provided in this resource can guide policy development that proac- tively shapes the deployment of these technologies in ways that advance societal benefits while lessening potentially harmful consequences. Technology Context For the purposes of this work, an automated vehicle is one that takes full control of all aspects of the dynamic driving task for at least some of the time. Using the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) taxonomy, this research focuses on the role of higher levels of AV in mitigating or exacerbating the societal effects of driving, or in creating new effects. The higher levels of vehicle automation are designated SAE levels 3, 4, and 5 and are referred to in federal policy guidance as highly automat- ed vehicles (HAVs). Level Name Description Automated driving system monitors the driving environment 3 Conditional automation The driving mode-specific performance by an automated driving system of all aspects of the dynamic driving task with the expectation that the human driver will respond appropriately to a request to intervene 4 High automation The driving mode-specific performance by an automated driving system of all aspects of the dynamic driving task, even if a human driver does not respond appropriately to a request to intervene 5 Full automation The full-time performance by an automated driving system of all aspects of the dynamic driving task under all roadway and environmental conditions that can be managed by a human driver High Levels of Driving Automation (SAE 2014) A connected vehicle has internal devices that connect to other vehicles, as in vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) communication, or a back-end infrastructure system, as in vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I) communication. V2V applications enable crash pre- vention, and V2I applications enable telecommunication, safety, mobility, and en- vironmental benefits. Their foundation of data communications enables real-time driver advisories and warnings of imminent threats and roadway hazards. Dedicated short-range communications standards—the two-way, short-to-medi- um-range wireless communications capability that permits very high data trans- mission—are currently the leading medium for:

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TRB's National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP) has released Strategies to Advance Automated and Connected Vehicles: Briefing Document. It is intended for state, regional, and local agency and political decision makers who are framing public policy making for these transformational technologies. The briefing document makes the case for taking action in spite of uncertainties and presents 18 policy and planning strategies that may be useful in advancing societal goals.

The briefing document is based on NCHRP Research Report 845: Advancing Automated and Connected Vehicles: Policy and Planning Strategies for State and Local Transportation Agencies. The report assesses policy and planning strategies at the state, regional, and local levels that could influence private-sector automated vehicle (AV) and connected vehicle (CV) choices to positively affect societal goals. The report aims to assist agencies with exploring actions that might increase the likelihood that AV and CV technologies will have beneficial impacts on traffic crashes, congestion, pollution, land development, and mobility (particularly for older adults, youths under the age of 16, and individuals with disabilities).

TRB has partnered with the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO) to develop a Transportation TV Special Report on Automated Vehicles in America, featuring the results of this briefing document.

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