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Chart Your Agencyâs Path to Resilience - 2-1 CHAPTER 2 Chart Your Agencyâs Path to Resilience STEPS: Step 1. Getting Started Step 2. Taking Stock Step 3. Moving Forward Step 4. Monitoring Progress
Chart Your Agencyâs Path to Resilience - 2-2 CHART YOUR AGENCYâS PATH TO RESILIENCE This chapter offers a basic four-step process intended to help you identify which path or paths to resilience make sense for your agency. Step 1 includes several âgetting startedâ activities that should help you understand better the opportunities and constraints you may face as you seek to advance resilience adoption. Step 2 covers the basics of risk and vulnerability assessment, describes the âdomainsâ of resilience adoption and the processes that can be used to support resilience planning and implementation. It also provides some approaches and tools designed to help you understand the current status of resilience adoption in your agency. Step 3 is all about moving forward. Guidance includes: how to articulate a resilience vision, goals and desired short and longer-term outcomes for your agency; how to select and prioritize resilience strategies; how to develop strategy actions plans and how to mobilize commitment to resilience implementation in a way that creates lasting change. Step 4 will help you choose resilience-related performance metrics and put in place a system for monitoring progress and evaluating success over time. A resilient transit system is customer- focused, well maintained, safe, in a state of good repair and efficient even under adverse conditions.
Chart Your Agencyâs Path to Resilience - 2-3 Step 1: Get Started Agency Context P lan Oppor tun i t ies /Const ra ints Bus iness Case STEP 1. Get Started Whether planning for transit system resilience is new to your agency or you are looking for ways to move to the next level, the following initial activities can help ground your work in the circumstances special to your agency. This step borrows from traditional strategic planning approaches to help you understand the internal strengths and weaknesses of your agency as they relate to resilience adoption, as well the external influences that may shape your efforts. You will also identify who needs to be engaged in the resilience planning and adoption process; what opportunities there are to leverage ongoing resilience efforts both within and outside your agency; and what constraints may place limits on achieving greater resilience. Getting started on your path to resilience involves taking the following actions: ï§ Understanding agency context ï§ Engaging to plan ï§ Identifying opportunities and barriers to greater resilience ï§ Articulating a business case for resilience Key Quest ions
Chart Your Agencyâs Path to Resilience - 2-4 i. Understand agency context Successful resilience programs are not one size fits all. The specifics of your agencyâs circumstances will influence which approaches are best suited to the needs of your agency. Important considerations (summarized in Figure 2.1) include: Implementation of a resilience program should be compatible with existing short-term and long-term planning and reporting mechanisms and products, such as five-year capital plans, and special purpose plans such as safety and security plans. Incorporate resilience considerations within these existing planning processes rather than creating an entirely new process, and you will improve the effectiveness, efficiency and adoption of resilience programs. ï§ Agency administrative structure ï§ The assets your agency owns and the type of services it provides ï§ Available f inancial resources ï§ A range of external influences such state or local government policies, statutory and regulatory mandates, interagency relationships, regional partnership opportunit ies, and other resourcesFigure 2.1 . Agency Context
Chart Your Agencyâs Path to Resilience - 2-5 In terms of administrative structure, it is important to think about who makes decisions and how. If your agency is an independent authority, final decisions may be made by a board of directors or trustees with input from the senior management team. Agencies that are part of a local government structure may take direction from the elected mayor or local governing body. Internal decision making processes are also important, especially in terms of securing management and frontline worker buy- in as well as inter- unit coordination. ii. Key questions Key questions to consider include: ï§ How are decisions made in your agency? ï§ What role does your transit agency board play in operation and investment decisions? ï§ Are decisions related to planning, operations, capital programming and finance made in silos? ï§ How do silos impact system-wide decision making? ï§ What existing coordination mechanisms exist within your agency that can be adapted to facilitate resilience planning and adoption?
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Chart Your Agencyâs Path to Resilience - 2-7 A resilient system can be key to maintaining and growing customer confidence that transit services will be there when needed, even in emergencies. This can lead to ridership gains and public support for further transit investments. If services are not resilient and disruptions are frequent, customer confidence can erode, leading to ridership decline over time. agency priorities. An important challenge for any new or ongoing resilience planning and adoption initiative is figuring out what financial and personnel resources are available to support implementation and over what time frame. As part of this step, you can prepare a preliminary assessment of potential funding sources and other resources that can be used to support resilience adoption. Thinking through available resources can help highlight the types of resilience measures you can/should pursue. Questions to consider include: ï§ What existing programs, people, projects and procedures can be leveraged to enhance resilience while achieving other priorities and goals? ï§ Does the agency face challenges or problems (e.g., poor customer communication, unreliable service, state of good repair, etc.) that might be concurrently addressed if resilience strategies are implemented?
Chart Your Agencyâs Path to Resilience - 2-8 ï§ Are there creative ways to bring new money and resources to the table? These might be grant funding, demonstration projects, and sources of funds not traditionally tapped into by transit agencies. Examples include FEMA hazard mitigation funds; green infrastructure and stormwater management funding from EPA; other sources such as HUD, which seeks to establish more resilient communities with special attention to vulnerable populations, which often overlap with communities dependent on transit for mobility. In addition, a range of external influences can play a role in how your agency pursues resilience adoption and integration. For example, some state and local governments have laws and policies that require or support resilience planning and climate adaptation. In other instances, government leadership may not make resilience a priority or may even be adversarial to pursuing a climate resilience and adaptation agenda. In some locales there may be ongoing resilience planning efforts at the state, regional or local levels that may give direction or lend credence to efforts by your agency to plan for a more resilient future. There may be considerable opportunity for collaboration and sharing of responsibilities and resourcesââor such opportunities may limited, or need to be developed.
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Chart Your Agencyâs Path to Resilience - 2-10 ï§ Who is or could demonstrate resilience leadership? The answer to these questions will help you to determine who needs to be involved and at what level. Keep in mind too that the process that the process of pursuing transit system resilience will likely take a sustained effort over the long-term. Resilience planning and implementation may well be phased in over time. Therefore, individuals, stakeholders and partners can be invited to join as the process evolves. Having the commitment and involvement of the right people at the right time can be critical to success. Once you have identified key internal participants, consider establishing a resilience working group that meets regularly to consider matters of policy, planning and prioritization of resources. As an alternative, your agency may already have an existing committee or working group that can add resilience to its agenda. Ideally, the group would have representation from across domains of possible adoption, departments and modes, as appropriate. This will help to ensure synergies and linkages across domains are addressed. Externally, many potential local, regional and national partners can bring expertise and resources to the effort. External stakeholder activities may provide weather and climate change data and resources, expertise in vulnerability and risk assessment, or even policy and program expertise
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Chart Your Agencyâs Path to Resilience - 2-12 Identify opportunities and barriers to greater resilience Many opportunities to advance resilience adoption likely exist both within your agency and in partnership with external stakeholders. There will also likely be barriers to adoption. Identifying at least some of the opportunities and barriers early in the planning and adoption process can help your agency chart a successful course. Key questions to ask include: ï§ What opportunities exist to support change? ï§ What do barriers to resilience look like in your agency? ï§ What can you, your agency, and advocates within and outside your agency do to overcome these barriers? One way to identify opportunities and barriers to resilience adoption is to conduct a simple Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats (SWOT) analysis. SWOT analysis is a structured planning method that evaluates the forces that can potentially affect a project, organization or initiative. Strengths and weaknesses capture influences internal to your agency, while opportunities and threats refer to external influences. iv.
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Chart Your Agencyâs Path to Resilience - 2-16 Step 2: Take Stock Threats & Impacts Risk Assessment Resilience Self- Assessment Infrastructure (https://sustainableinfrastructure.org/). These sources provide free online tools and guidance; these (and others) have been steadily improving methods to define and quantify risks and benefits, and better prioritize alternative strategies to protect critical infrastructure, assets and operations. In addition, as noted in the MARTA case study, asset management systemsâ risk assessment components can contribute to resilience initiatives while improving the robustness of the asset management evaluation process. STEP 2. Take Stock Step 2 focuses on assessing which threats, vulnerabilities and risks your agency faces and determining the current status of resilience activity within your agency. The purpose of this step is to answer these key questions: 1. What threats may impact transit infrastructure and operations in your region? 2. How vulnerable are your agencyâs infrastructure and operations to these threats? 3. How prepared is your agency to withstand, recover from and adapt to the threats?
Chart Your Agencyâs Path to Resilience - 2-17 4. What success have you had in addressing the consequences of severe weather events on your transit infrastructure and services? The answers to these questions are a critical starting point on your path to resilience. The first two questions can be answered by conducting a vulnerability and risk assessment. Answers to the next two come from conducting a self- assessment to determine what plans, policies, procedures and projects may already be in place to mitigate and manage the identified risks. Before embarking on such an effort, it is a good idea to make sure you are familiar with some basic terminology. The box âUnderstanding Key Termsâ provides some simple definitions to keep in mind. It is also important to remember that the terms threat, vulnerability and risk are not interchangeable. Threats/hazards generally cannot be controlled. Vulnerabilities can be identified and addressed proactively to manage or mitigate risk. As part of a vulnerability and risk analysis process you should: ï§ Identify the threats/hazards that could potentially impact your agencyâs transit assets, infrastructure and services; ï§ Identify which of your assets and infrastructure are critical and essential to maintaining your agencyâs core functions;
Chart Your Agencyâs Path to Resilience - 2-18 ï§ Identify how and where your agencyâs essential functions and services are dependent on infrastructure and services managed by other entities (e.g., roads, rails, power); ï§ Decide which assets, infrastructure, and services may be impacted; ï§ Identify the threats/hazards that could potentially impact your agencyâs transit assets, infrastructure and services; ï§ Identify which of your assets and infrastructure are critical and essential to maintaining your agencyâs core functions; ï§ Identify how and where your agencyâs essential functions and services are dependent on infrastructure and services managed by other entities (e.g., roads, rails, power); ï§ Decide which assets, infrastructure, and services may be impacted; ï§ Determine how likely and/or consequential the impacts might be; and ï§ Summarize system vulnerabilities so that they can be proactively addressed over time. Key Terms in a Transit Resilience Context Assets are the personnel, property and physical infrastructure needed to achieve the core mission of the transit agency. Threats/Hazards are the events or condit ions that can negatively impact transportation assets and services. Vulnerabilities are weaknesses that may lead to damage/loss of transit system assets and disrupt services. Risk is the l ikelihood or probabil ity that a threat/hazard might occur and that if it occurs, transit assets might be impacted, together with an indication of how serious the impact could be.
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Chart Your Agencyâs Path to Resilience - 2-20 data/ projections are usually available from a variety of sources. Internal sources may include: transit asset management systems; environmental management systems; departments responsible for emergency management, hazard mitigation, operations and maintenance, as well as sustainability. External sources may include: the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA); state climatologists; emergency management agencies and other state agencies; and universities. Utility companies may also be a potential information resource. The depth and detail of available data may vary among agencies, jurisdictions and locations; however, donât not let gaps in available data discourage you from doing a vulnerability and risk assessment. Even without detailed data and analysis, expert knowledge from within your agency, including personal accounts and experiences, can provide valuable information about potential hazard impacts. This base of information and insights can form a preliminary threat/hazard assessment (for examples, see Table 2.1 below), which will be supplemented in your regional conversations.
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Chart Your Agencyâs Path to Resilience - 2-22 You will likely want to work with your region and/or state in terms of localized climate forecasts and credible scenarios. When you bring that information back into your agency, it is important to involve front- line operations and maintenance, systems planning, asset management, emergency management, and other domains. Note that the analysis tools mentioned in the section Articulating the Business Case for Resilience (e.g., CAPTA, INVEST, Envision), as well as others mentioned in the chapter, will be useful in many steps of the analysis. More detailed tool profiles are included in Chapter 4. Concurrent with the threat/hazard assessment, you should build an inventory of which transit infrastructure and assets might be impacted by the threats/hazards you have identified. The inventory should include the vehicles, facilities, stations, fixed guideways and support systems necessary to operate your services. This list can and should tie into your asset management and capital asset inventories. For example, MARTA added a tab to its asset management system to provide a cross- link to the capital planning, and at the same time added fields to capture environmental factors, risks and resilience. Begin with the most critical infrastructureââwhat is absolutely needed to run serviceââand work from there.
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Chart Your Agencyâs Path to Resilience - 2-27 risk assessment may not tell you is the extent to which your agencyâs assets are already protected and how prepared your agency is to withstand, recover from and adapt to the natural disaster, weather and climate-related threats you have identified. One way to figure this out is to perform a self-assessment to determine what resilience-related measures are already in place. Cross-walking the results of the vulnerability/risk analysis with current agency activities can assist in providing a full understanding of current practice. The self-assessment should be systematic, and it should explore resilience activities in the context of all six domains of adoption introduced in Chapter 2, as well as the internal agency processes that can support resilience activities. The results can highlight where there is resilience activity on which to build and inform where more attention may need to be given. Your assessment will need to include agency, mode, facility, and threat-specific considerations. A host of checklist tools and guidance documents are available from a variety of sources.
Chart Your Agencyâs Path to Resilience - 2-28 STEP 3. Move Forward This step in the process uses the information and insights gained from the previous steps to create a shared sense of need within your agency that resilience is important and, from that, articulate a resilience vision that can guide future efforts. It also includes selecting and prioritizing resilience strategies that can help your agency achieve its resilience vision, develop the detailed action plans needed to support implementation, and mobilize commitment that can make change last. Think about your pursuit of improved transit system resilience as a strategic planning process. A strategic planning framework can be helpful whether your agency is just starting out on its path to resilience or has been pursuing resilience approaches for some time. As shown in Figure 2.7 (below), strategic planning requires you to consider and answer several basic, straightforward questions. Step 3: Move Forward Shared Sense of Need Vision & Goals Prior i t ize S t rategies Action Plan Lead Change
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Chart Your Agencyâs Path to Resilience - 2-30 i. Explore the shared sense of need People are often slow to embrace change unless they believe the need to change is real. It is critical that people planning for change understand why itâs important, what difference it will make, how they may be affected, and that their contributions will count. In the case of transit resilience, this will involve promoting a better understanding of system vulnerabilities across the business units and functions of your agency, quantifyingââto the extent feasibleââthe potential magnitude of impact from different hazards and threats, and making the business case for why investing in resilience make sense to your agencyâs bottom line. Increasingly, organizational management studies show that starting a vision process without establishing a shared sense of need, or what the vision will address, dramatically increases the risk of failure in the planning process. Common data and vulnerability assessments or risk scenarios can help prevent this kind of failure. Participants in the planning process may come to the process with varying ideas about the goal. For agencies that have experienced serious weather-related disruptions or a natural disaster, the need for change may be very clear. For those that have not, making the case for change may require more effort. Disaster experience provides both a unique opportunity to move in the direction of improved transit resilience,
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Chart Your Agencyâs Path to Resilience - 2-32 Most agencies donât have the experiential reference point of a major disaster to inspire agency leaders and personnel to embrace resilience. However, it is still important to create a shared understanding of the threats and a sense of need within the agency to motivate decision makers and others to integrate resilience into day-to-day workflows, project planning and other processes that can support improved resilience. The shared stories and lessons learned by agencies that have experienced disaster and those that have made the decision to implement resilience approaches (such as those profiled in this guide) can help to build the case for greater transit system resilience at your agency. That case can be made even stronger by linking the experiences of other agencies to the findings of your agencyâs vulnerability and risk assessment, which can highlight the unique needs of your agency and the potential benefits of adopting resilience approaches to address those needs. ii. Articulate a resilience vision and goals Closely related to creating a shared sense need is figuring out where your agency wants to go in terms of achieving greater resilience. Articulating the vision can be as simple as developing a definition of resilience that works for your agency. Figure 2.8 illustrates example resilience vision components. Remember, definitions of resilience can and
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Chart Your Agencyâs Path to Resilience - 2-34 Table 2.2 provides some example goals to consider. Vision Component Example Goal What makes a good goal Preparedness Implement operations changes and asset investments to reduce or eliminate weather- related service delays and disruptions (within 5 years). A common acronym for defining âgoodâ goal statements is SMART: Specific: The goal statement should indicate what should be accomplished. It should be phrased using action words (like âdesign,â âbuild,â âimplement,â). Measurable: The goal statement should clearly state what will be achieved and when it will be achieved. If you can measure the goal, you can determine if you have accomplished it. If the goal is accomplished, the project is a success. Acceptable: Does everyone in the organization agree that the goal is necessary and desirable? Is the objective acceptable to managers and KEY stakeholders? Realistic: This means the goal can be accomplished, but it is probably challenging. Is the goal/objective achievable? Time bound: A goal should specify a deadline and time horizon. Additional criteria for evaluating goals and objectives include: Flexible - Is the objective adaptable to unforeseen changes in the firmâs environment? â especially relevant in the resilience realm, facing climate and extreme weather). Suitable - Does the goal/objective fit with the mission statement/purpose and with other important long-term objectives? Understandable - Will managers at all levels understand what senior managers are trying to accomplish and achieve by setting the specific long-term objective? (Source: Askdan, 2016). Protection Minimize damage by taking preventive action (larger scale, fleet de-carbonization or smaller scale, equipment relocation) . Mitigation and Adaptation Strengthen, harden, elevate, or move critical assets to reduce or eliminate damage to critical infrastructure from severe weather events. (Complete initial steps within 5 years, full program as life cycle updates take place or within 15 years.) (May also be part of Protection.) Strengthen, harden, elevate or move facilities and equipment to protect people and equipment and reduce or eliminate damage and personal injury. (Complete initial steps within 5 years, full program as life cycle updates take place or within 15 years.) (May also be part of Protection.) Rapid Recovery Restore safe service as quickly as is safely possible: safe for staff, passengers, equipment and facilities. (Establish and train for exceptional standard operating procedures within one year; implement additional protocols as preparedness, protection, and adaptation projects and procedures are brought on board.) Table 2.2 . Resi l ience goal examples
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Chart Your Agencyâs Path to Resilience - 2-36 Initial screening of strategy ideas can help weed out any that do not meet basic threshold criteria. The strategies that remain can be further screened and prioritized for implementation. assembled as part of the Step 1 SWOT analysis, as well as the results of vulnerability and risk assessment and the resilience self-assessment conducted as part of Step 2. In particular, the Resilience Strategy Planning Worksheet can be instructive. The checklist is a compilation of some leading resilience practicesââand a partial inventory of strategies and measures that can be implemented to improve transit system resilience over time. Some basic criteria might include: ï§ Does the strategy contribute to achieving one or more resilience goals? ï§ Is the strategy within the authority of agency to implement? If not, is it reasonable to think it falls within the jurisdiction of a potential resilience partner? ï§ Is the strategy technically feasible? ï§ Is the strategy politically feasible? ï§ Is the strategy acceptable to the public and your customers?
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Chart Your Agencyâs Path to Resilience - 2-39 is expected of them are likely to deliver it. Every plan should end with a responsibility chart for every element: Who owns it? Who manages it? Who consults on it? Who signs off on it? Who produces (or delivers) it? v. Lead change and mobilize commitment to support implementation While detailed action plans provide the basis for accountability, the process of advancing implementation and âmainstreamingâ transit resilience at your agency ââ whether agency-wide or in a single domain of adoption ââ is likely to be challenging and will take time. Two important factors that can make or break your agencyâs resilience adoption efforts are leadership and commitment to making change happen. It is also important to identify potential points of resistance and devise a strategy to overcome them. However, as noted in Chapter 1, leadership need not always start at the top and be comprehensive. It can begin within a single manager, department or mode and grow from there. If efforts to improve resilience are not immediately endorsed Successful resilience adoption efforts require active, visible leadership. When top management buys in to resilience planning and makes the case for change, it motivates all levels of agency personnel. Their motivation is magnified when top management personally commits time and resources to get things done.
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Chart Your Agencyâs Path to Resilience - 2-41 3. Who at your agency will be most impacted by the proposed changes? 4. Who will and wonât be on board with the proposed changes and why? The answers to these questions can help you to identify key constituencies that have a stake in improved transit resilience and can also help to highlight where resistance to change may arise. Understanding key constituencies and their possible attitudes (both positive and negative) toward the proposed resilience strategies and approaches can help make clear what it will take to build a coalition committed to implementation. To create lasting change, agencies can: ï§ Invite transparency and innovation to tackle organizational capacity constraints and competing demands for limited resources. ï§ Break open siloed business units that too often focus on one mode, one function, or one program. ï§ Formalize informal resilience practices by making them standard operating procedures. ï§ Value and capitalize on the knowledge of frontline workers and guard against the loss of
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Chart Your Agencyâs Path to Resilience - 2-43 i. Choose performance measures and metrics A performance measure is used to predict, evaluate, and monitor the degree to which stated goals and objectives are being achieved. Performance measures usually are broad and may not be directly measurable. A metric is more narrowly defined and measurable, typically with a unit of measure. For example, for the performance measure âservice reliability,â a metric might be âminutes of passenger delay due to weather-related events.â Performance metrics can measure process steps and inputs, outputs as well as outcomes. Examples of all three are presented in Table 2.3.
Chart Your Agencyâs Path to Resilience - 2-44 Some metrics may be binary, with only two possible values given, such as Yes or No, or Present or Absent. These metrics may be used to answer simple evaluation questions such as whether an activity is being done. Metrics may also provide more detail to support the understanding of how effective activities are. Metric Type Process & Input Metrics Routine maintenance protocols are in place and are regularly completed Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) are in place to permit the safe shutdown of services when needed Infrastructure design criteria address resilience issues and risk Resilience considerations are included in asset management systems Long range capital plans include strategies to improve system resilience to extreme weather and potential climate change threats Output Metrics Dollars invested in resilience projects Percent of sensitive electrical/signal systems located in 100 year flood plain Percent of personnel trained in emergency management plan procedures Outcome Metrics Repair costs resulting from extreme weather events Passenger hours of delay associated with weather events Hours/days to return to full service after an event Customer satisfaction with service performance under adverse conditions Table 2.3. Resil ience-Related Input, Output and Outcome Metric Examples Metric
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Chart Your Agencyâs Path to Resilience - 2-47 indicators measure the agencyâs capacity to take actions and make decisions. This assessment may be completed for a division, department or the agency as a whole. More information on LA Metroâs RIF can be found in Chapter 4 and in the Database. ii. Track data Many potential sources of data to assist with monitoring resilience implementation are available. The sources of information, like the data needed for the vulnerability and risk assessment, may come from both internal and external sources. Examples of internal sources include: ï§ Customer Surveys â Surveys include satisfaction surveys, ridership surveys, and others. ï§ Inspection and Maintenance Records â These records could indicate repetitive problems, system impacts, restoration times, short-term solutions, fixes or best practices to resolve maintenance problems, infrastructure deterioration over time compared to expectations, and more.
Chart Your Agencyâs Path to Resilience - 2-48 ï§ Frontline Worker Observations â Firsthand accounts help identify repetitive problems, best practices for incorporation into procedures, difficulties in completing maintenance or normal tasks under extreme events, safety concerns and historical perspectives. ï§ Performance Monitoring of Operations â This data could include delays, cancellation of service, closure of infrastructure, performance of infrastructure over time, number of incidents over time (e.g. power failures, rail buckling) and the time to restore service and repair damages. ï§ Personnel and payroll databases â This could include tracking of absences of critical staff during weather events, evaluation of business continuity readiness and overtime costs in response to system incidents. ï§ Financial management systems â These include systems that track one-time and recurring expenses across agency business units. These data are particularly important when seeking reimbursement from Federal agencies for activities undertaken before during and after a disaster. ï§ Asset Management Database(s) â This could include frequency of repair to assets, vulnerability based on geographic and elevation
Chart Your Agencyâs Path to Resilience - 2-49 data, and costs associated with maintenance and assets. ï§ Self-assessments â This includes assessment conducted for one or all business units of an agency that highlights gaps, points to areas for improvement and helps agency managers decide where to begin. Assessments may also be program specific such as a system safety plan audit. ï§ After Action Reports (AAR) â These reports generally developed out of an emergency management department are conducted in response to training, exercises or incidents. The incident could be system failures, disasters, weather impacts, or other disruptions. They generally identify the good and bad aspects of an agencyâs response and outline planning, equipment, operational or training pathways and recommendations to improvement. Tracking progress of recommendations is one possibility. Examples of external sources include: ï§ Weather and Climate Data â As mentioned under section 2.1, a number of external stakeholders from local to federal government to private sector can provide support and tools for collecting and tracking this type of data.
Chart Your Agencyâs Path to Resilience - 2-50 ï§ Stakeholder Input â Stakeholders who have a role in response to incidents or ones with which the system has an interdependency could provide critical data to understand where the system really stands in the face of an event. These could include external AARs or vulnerability and impact analyses. iii. Evaluate success As with any planning and implementation process, transit agencies should monitor and regularly evaluate the progress being made. A comprehensive approach to monitoring and evaluation will likely include an assessment of process and inputs that impact policies, procedures, system components and personnel in a way that can improve resilience outcomes over time. The overall evaluation can highlight how well your agency is doing in terms of achieving its resilience goals, whether the goals are still realistic and whether timeframes for implementation can still be achieved. If progress is being made, and especially if goals/objectives are being achieved, those successes should be acknowledged, rewarded and communicated broadly within the organization. If progress is slow or not being made, the evaluation can help you to identify why and what can be done to improve the results of your efforts. In terms of process/input evaluation, consider these and similar questions: 1. Has your agency/department leadership consistently demonstrated an active and visible commitment to the resilience adoption process?
Chart Your Agencyâs Path to Resilience - 2-51 2. What specific progress has been made on implementing each of the items called for in the resilience strategy action plans? 3. Do personnel have adequate resources (money, equipment, facilities, training, time) to advance implementation and to achieve the goals? 4. Should priorities be changed to put more focus on achieving certain implementation steps over others? When assessing the impact of your resilience adoption efforts, consider these and similar questions: 1. Have policies, procedures and other supportive processes been changed to reflect resilience considerations? 2. Are infrastructure and other critical systems being made more resilient? 3. Are a greater number of personnel trained in emergency management plan procedures? Finally, the evaluation should consider whether and how the changes put in place have improved transit resilience. In this regard, it may only be possible to assess resilience outcomes during and/or after a weather-related event or natural disaster. However, concurrent benefits can often suggest resilience improvement absent the impact of an event. For example, improved communication protocols may lead to higher customer satisfaction during everyday operations, or upgraded switching technology may lead to higher on-time performance on an everyday basis. The results of this type of comprehensive evaluation process not only highlight the impact resilience adoption efforts are having, they also can help determine what, if any, mid- course corrections might be needed to enhance and further improve resilience outcomes.