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144 A P P E N D I X F Glossary of Terms & Acronyms AC Advisory Circular ACAMS Access Control and Alarm Monitoring Systems ACC Airport Communications Center ACM Airport Certiï¬cation Manual. This is required as part of the airportâs governmental operating certiï¬cation. ACS Access Control System (centralized or decentralized, physical or logical) Access Control A set of procedures performed by hardware, software, and administrators to monitor access, identify users requesting access, record access attempts, and grant or deny access ADA Americans with Disabilities Act A/E Architect-Engineer AEP Airport Emergency Plan AES Advanced Encryption StandardâReference Encryption Standards AIP Airport Improvement Program. An FAA function that provides funding for certain airport planning and development projects at airports included in the National Plan of Integrated Airport Systems (NPIAS). Airport Operations Center (AOC) The Airport Operations Center is the focal point for daily airport operational functions, including such issues as maintenance of the airï¬eld, runway surface and lighting, and management of terminal facilities and fueling facilities. It may also include control over gate operations and aircraft maintenance areas (although these may also be tenant functions). Analog A video signal made of a continuous electrical signal. Televisions and videocassette recorders can be analog video devices. To be stored and manipulated on a computer, analog video must be converted to digital video.
Glossary of Terms & Acronyms 145 AO Operational Availability AOA Airport Operations Area AODB Airport operational database. Software that collects, processes, stores, and analyzes airport operation data, ï¬ight information, aircraft and passenger status, and other information used to manage airport and airline operations. APCO Association of Public-Safety CommunicationsOï¬cials APD Airport Police Department ARFF Aircraft Rescue and Fireï¬ghting ASP Airport Security Program ASTA Aviation Transportation Security Act Bandwidth Capacity of a network or data connection, often measured in kilobits/second (kbps) for digital transmissions. The amount and rate of data that can be processed or transmitted by a given device. Biometrics The automated process of identifying a person based on that personâs measurable biological or behavioral characteristics. Biometric Access Control Any means of controlling access through human measurements, such as ï¬ngerprinting or voice printing. BMS Building Maintenance System BoD Basis of Design C2 Command and Control CAD Computer-Aided Dispatch CBP U.S. Customs and Border Protection CCD Charge Coupled Device. The "chip" in a solid state camera that replaces the camera tube. A sensor that collects light and turns it into an electrical signal. CCTV Closed-Circuit Television CDMA Code division multiple access. A channel access method used by various radio communication technologies, where several transmitters can send information simultaneously over a single communication channel. This allows several users to share a band of frequencies (see bandwidth). ANSI The American National Standards Institute, which develops standards for transmission storage, languages, and protocols and represents the United States in the ISO (International Organization for Standardization).
146 Guidance for Planning, Design, and Operations of Airport Communications Centers Centrex Central telephone exchange CFR Code of Federal Regulations CONOPS Concept of Operations Contrast The range of light and dark values in a picture or the ratio of maximum and minimum brightness. CSI Construction Standards Institute CUSS Common Use Self-Service. Describes the speciï¬cations and standards for multiple airlines sharing one physical self-service kiosk, primarily for check-in functionality. CUTE Common Use Terminal Equipment. Airport-installed software and network equipment which airports use to control gate access and which enables airlines and handling agents to access their own applications at common terminal gates. dB Decibel. A logarithmic unit that indicates the ratio of a physical quantity, usually power or intensity relative to a speciï¬ed or implied reference level. DHS The U.S. Department of Homeland Security Digital Video A video signal made of binary digits. To store and manipulate analog video on a computer workstation, it must be converted to digital video. DLP Digital Light Processing is a type of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) technology that uses a digital micro mirror device. DLP projector technology is used in various display applications from traditional static displays to interactive displays. E911/E-911 Enhanced 911 is a system used in North America that links emergency callers with the appropriate public resources using a three-digit dialing scheme. EMS Emergency Medical Service EOC Emergency Operations Center. The physical location where information and resources support incident management and on- scene emergency activities. An EOC may be a temporary facility, or may be in a more permanently established facility, often near the SOC/AOC. It may be organized by major functional disciplines (e.g., ï¬re, law enforcement, and medical services), by jurisdiction (e.g., federal, state, regional, city, and county), or in some combination.
Glossary of Terms & Acronyms 147 Ethernet A local area network (LAN) protocol featuring a bus topology and a 10-megabit per second data transfer rate. FAA Federal Aviation Administration Fail Safe A locking device that is unlocked when no power is applied. On loss of power, access points will automatically unlock, allowing free access, and signal the card access system of a device malfunction or loss of power. FAT Factory Acceptance Testing FCC Federal Communications Commission, which oversees frequency usage in the U.S. FEMA Federal Emergency Management Agency Fiber Optics A medium using light for transmitting either an analog or digital signal. The signal loss is lower than that of coaxial cables and has a higher immunity to electromagnetic and static interference. Field of View The image area produced by any camera and lens combination. The horizontal or vertical picture size at a given distance from a camera to the subject. Fusion Center A fusion center is a relatively new concept used to provide information for decisionmakers. Fusion Centers are not a true command control structure, but a place where multiple agencies can collaborate to provide resources, expertise, and information. GB Gigabytes (billions of bytes) GIS Geographic Information System. Applies a spatial component to text data. GSM Global System for Mobile Communications is a standard developed by the European Telecommunications Standards Institute to describe protocols for second generation (2G) digital cellular networks used by mobile phones. It is the de facto global standard for mobile communications with over 90% market share and is available in over 219 countries and territories. HD High-deï¬nition. In video, a type of video derived from broadcast television standards, with higher resolution than standard CCTV video (usually at least 1024x768 pixels) and formatted for 16:9 widescreen displays.
148 Guidance for Planning, Design, and Operations of Airport Communications Centers HSA Homeland Security Act of 2002 (Public Law 107.296 Â§301, 116 Stat. 2135/2163 (2002). Public law that provides a framework to coordinate federal government civilian eï¬orts. HVAC Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning Hz Cycles per second ICAO International Civil Aviation Organization ICP Incident Command Post. The ï¬eld location where the primary command functions during an incident are performed. The ICP may be co-located with other incident facilities or may be mobile. IROPS Irregular Operations at airports IT Information Technology JOC Joint Operations Center. The JOC combines the functions of various other operations centers (e.g., AOC and SOC) into one integrated system. A JOC could be accomplished physically by co- locating an AOC and SOC in the same location or through a virtual linkage on a common platform. LAN Local Area Network LCD Liquid Crystal Display LDCS Local departure control systems LMR Land Mobile Radio MB Megabytes (millions of bytes) MHz Megahertz Mission creep The gradual broadening/expanding of the original objectives of a mission or organization. MTBF Mean-Time-Between-Failure MUBIDS Multi-User Baggage Information Display System MUFIDS Multi-User Flight Information Display System NCIC National Crime Information Center. A computerized index of criminal justice information (e.g., criminal record information, fugitives, stolen properties, and missing persons) available to federal, state, and local law enforcement agencies.
Glossary of Terms & Acronyms 149 NIST National Institute of Standards and Technology; U.S. Department of Commerce; a primary standards development and issuance body. Noise Random spurts of interference NOC Network Operations Center NTSC National Television System Committee. Formulated the standard of broadcasting color television in the U.S. and Japan: 525 lines of resolution at 60 ï¬elds per second, 30 frames per second. NVR Network Video Recorder. A networked device for capturing digitally encoded video streams transmitted over the network, storing the video streams, and accessing stored video for viewing. OSI Open Systems Interconnection model OT Operational Testing PACS Physical Access Control System PIDS Perimeter Intrusion-Detection System PSAP Public Safety Answering Point. An airport PSAP can serve as the focal point for 911 emergency call center service to a larger geographic area outside its fence, receiving and processing emergency calls and event notiï¬cations for a speciï¬c area. These facilities dispatch public safety personnel such as police, ï¬re, and EMS. PSFA The Public Safety Foundation of America PTZ Pan-Tilt-Zoom. A type of surveillance camera PSIM Physical Security Information Management system QoS Quality of Service RECC Regional Emergency Communications Coordination Resolution A measure of the ability of a camera, recorder, or monitor to reproduce detail. The bandwidth of the video signal relating to amount of detail that determines the quality of the picture. RFID Radio Frequency Identiï¬cation. The wireless non-contact use of radio-frequency electromagnetic ï¬elds to transfer data, for automatically identifying and tracking tags attached to objects. ROM Rough order of magnitude
150 Guidance for Planning, Design, and Operations of Airport Communications Centers SAN Storage Area Network SCIP Statewide Communication Interoperability Plan. Workshops are provided by the U.S. DHS to create locally driven, multi- jurisdictional, and multidisciplinary statewide plans to enhance emergency communications. SIT Site Installation Testing SLA Service level agreement SMR Specialized Mobile Radio SOC Security Operations Center. The focal point for airport security monitoring, command and control (C2) and communications functions relative to security operations. In larger airports, this is often physically separate from other operations; smaller airports often include the security function in an AOC. SOP Standard Operating Procedure SQT System Qualiï¬cation Testing SSI Sensitive Security Information TCP/IP Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol. The suite of communications protocols used to connect hosts on the Internet. TCP/IP uses several protocols, the two main ones being TCP and IP. TIA Telecommunications Industry Association TSA Transportation Security Administration TVA Threat and Vulnerability Assessment UHF Ultra-High Frequency UL Underwriterâs Laboratories. A testing laboratory that develops standards and test procedures for materials, components, assemblies, tools, equipment, and procedures, chieï¬y dealing with product safety and utility. UPS Uninterrupted Power Supply User Any person who interacts directly with a computer system. User Interface The part of an application that the user works with. User interfaces can be text driven, such as DOS, or graphical, such as Windows.
Glossary of Terms & Acronyms 151 VCIN An automated, high-speed communications system that interfaces with computerized databases at the National Crime Information Center, National Law Enforcement Telecommunications System, FAA, and other federal and state agencies. VHF Very High Frequency VLAN Virtual LAN VMS Video Management System VoIP Voice Over IP VPN Virtual Private Network WAN Wide Area Network Wi-Fi A common term for wireless local area networks (LANs) that conform to IEEE 802.11 standards WLAN Wireless Local Area Network