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152 Industry Technical Standards 1. Standards Bodies Standards are essential for communication systems and computer networks to function prop- erly. In the United States, the following standards bodies should be of interest to airports: â¢ The Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE) publishes standards for network- ing architectures, such as Ethernet networks; for network devices such as a network switch or a wireless access point; and for various electrical power, communications, and other equipment and systems. http://www.ieee.org â¢ The Telecommunications Industry Association (TIA) publishes standards for telecommuni- cation facilities and for the cable plants that serve them, in addition to other standards. http:// www.tiaonline.org â¢ The Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) publishes standards for protocols and devices which operate over the Internet, including protocols for routing datagrams and Voice over Internet Protocol. An IETF standard is a special Request for Comments (RFC) or a set of RFCs. http://www.ietf.org â¢ The American National Standards Institute (ANSI) publishes a wide range of standards and often jointly publishes telecommunication standards with the TIA. ANSI and its largely European counterpart, the International Standards Organization (ISO), also publish comple- mentary standards or cross reference their standards. http://www.ansi.org â¢ U.S. National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) publishes standards and guide- lines, known as Special Publications, for facility, communication, and network security which are mandatory for federal agencies, unless exempted in PL 107-296, The Homeland Security Act. U.S. Airports are generally not obligated to follow NIST standards, but these documents represent a significant resource for airports to use in modeling their own security programs and especially for network security. http://www.nist.org â¢ The International Organization for Standardization (ISO). The ISO is the worldâs largest developer of voluntary international standards. Founded in 1947, it has since published more than 19,500 international standards, covering almost all aspects of technology and business. Many IEEE and ANSI standards are also published by the ISO. http://www.iso.org â¢ The International Telecommunications Union (ITU) is the United Nationsâ specialized agency for information and communication technologies. It allocates global radio spectrum and satellite orbits and develops the technical standards to ensure that networks and technolo- gies interconnect seamlessly. http://www.itu.int â¢ Building Industry Consulting Service International (BICSI) is a professional organization supporting the information technology systems industry. The IT industry covers voice, data, electronic safety and security, and audio/video technologies. It encompasses the design, proj- ect management, and installation of pathways, spaces, distribution systems, wireless-based A P P E N D I X G
Industry Technical Standards 153 systems, and infrastructure that supports the transportation of information between and among communications and information-gathering devices. http://www.bicsi.org 2. Standards and Standards-Related Documents There is no single U.S. or internationally recognized standard for airport operations (FAA Advisory Circulars are not considered standards, although they do provide useful guidance) or for airport communications and communications centers or even for integrating physical security systems. However, the following standards-type documents may be valuable for airport communications design and planning: â¢ âRecommend Security Guidelines for Airport Planning, Design and Construction,â issued by the TSA on May 1, 2011. See Part III, Section I, IT, Power, and Communications in particular. â¢ âIntegrated Security Systems Standard for Airport Access Control,â Document No. 230C, issued by the RTCA on June 21, 2011. See in particular Section 2, Requirements and System Design; Section 7, Security Operations Centers (SOC); and Section 8, Communications Infra- structure. The RTCA intends to publish an extensive update of this standard before the end of 2013, which will contain a new section on System Integration. â¢ âErgonomics Design of Control Centers,â ISO 11064, published on December 01, 2000. This baseline design document, which adopts the user-centric approach, specifies ergonomic principles, recommendations and requirements for designing control centers for process industries, transportation and other control applications. Although primarily intended for non-mobile control centers, its principles also apply to mobile control centers. â¢ Human Factors Design Standard (HFDS), published by the FAA and updated on May 03, 2012. This standard provides in one source human factors practices and principles inte- gral to the procurement, design, development, and testing of FAA systems, facilities, and equipment. 3. Communications and Network Standards Airport communications exist in many forms, including radios for air traffic control and ground communications and the networking of control, security, and other devices. For airport communications centers, coverage of standards includes wireless and wired means of inter- connecting various devices so they can function in an integrated manner, as determined by the CONOPS. Network architectures depend on the application. The common forms are local area networks (LANs) for on-airport operations and Wide Area Networks (WANs) to extend this connectivity off airport. In both cases, the predominant architecture is Ethernet for which IEEE has published several sets of standards. The IEEE 802.3 series of âStandard for Ethernetâ defines wired connectivity for Ethernet local area, access, and metropolitan area networks. IEEE 802.3 defines the physical (PHY) and media access control (MAC) layers of Ethernet transmission across wired connections of multiple media and bandwidth providers. For wireless LANs, the IEE 802.11 series apply. Generally known as the Wi-Fi bands, the most significant for airport use are â¢ IEEE 802.11a - operating in the 5 GHz band. â¢ IEEE 802.11b/g - operating in the 2.4 GHz band. â¢ IEEE 802.11n - range enhancements for operations in the a/g bands.
154 Guidance for Planning, Design, and Operations of Airport Communications Centers All wireless activity in the United States is governed by two agencies: the FCC, which assigns frequencies and controls transmissions, and the National Telecommunications and Information Administration (NTIA), a policy advisory unit of the U.S. Department of Commerce. The FCC has set aside several frequency bands for unlicensed wireless operations. http://www. fcc.gov. The most popular commercial bands are governed by FCC Part 15 Subpart C, known as the ISM band (for Industrial-Scientific-Medical users) and includes the frequencies used for the Wi-Fi bands. The relevant IETF standards include â¢ STD 5 (RFC0791) Internet Protocol â¢ STD 6 (RFC0768) User Datagram Protocol â¢ STD 7 (RFC0793) Transmission Control Protocol â¢ STD 9 (RFC0959) File Transfer Protocol â¢ STD 41 (RFC0894) A Standard for the Transmission of IP Datagrams over Ethernet Networks â¢ STD 43 (RFC1042) Standard for the transmission of IP datagrams over IEEE 802 networks â¢ STD 44 (RFC0891) DCN Local-Network Protocols â¢ STD 51 (RFC1661) The Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) â¢ STD 62 (RFC3411) An Architecture for Describing Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) Management Frameworks â¢ STD 64 (RFC3550) RTP: A Transport Protocol for Real-Time Applications Cable Plants Wired networks, and interconnections to wireless devices, require cable plants. In most cases, the cabling will include both fiber-optic and copper cabling, the latter commonly referred to as âstructured cabling.â Standards for fiber-optic cabling are issued by the IEEE and also by the Telecommunications Industry Association (TIA). The areas in which the IEEE has issued fiber-optic standards include â¢ 100 Gigabit Ethernet â¢ 10 Gigabit Ethernet â¢ Fiber Channel â¢ Gigabit Ethernet â¢ Synchronous Digital Hierarchy â¢ Synchronous Optical Networking â¢ Optical Transport Network (OTN) The primary TIA cabling standards of interest to airports are â¢ 568-C.0 Generic Structured Cabling Standard for Customer Premises â¢ 568-C.1 Commercial Building Cabling Standard â¢ 568-C.2 Copper Cabling and Components Standard â¢ 568-C.3 Fiber Cabling and Components Standard â¢ 568-C.4 Broadband Coaxial Cabling and Components Standard The TIA 568 series standards should be used with the following complementary standards â¢ 222 Standard for Antenna Supporting Structures and Antennas â¢ 569 Telecommunications Pathways and Spaces â¢ 598 Fiber Optic Color Coding â¢ 606 Administrative Standard for Telecommunications Infrastructure â¢ 607 Standard for Commercial Building Grounding (Earthing) and Bonding Requirements for Telecommunications â¢ 758 Customer-owned Outside Plant Telecommunications Infrastructure Standard â¢ 942 Telecommunications Infrastructure Standard for Date Centers
Industry Technical Standards 155 Network Security Standards and Guidelines NIST is empowered to set security standards for most agencies of the federal government. NIST has published extensively on means to secure both wired and wireless networks. Its pub- lications include both standards and guidelines, known as Special Publications. NIST standards are generally not mandated for airports, which are not federal agencies, but NIST standards constitute a set of âbest practicesâ which can prove valuable to airports by providing ways to secure their communications. NIST security standards include the following: â¢ FIPS 201, Personal Identity Verification (PIV) of Federal Employees and Contractors â¢ FIPS 200, Minimum Security Requirements for Federal Information and Information Systems â¢ FIPS 199, Standards for Security Categorization of Federal Information and Information Systems â¢ FIPS 197, Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) â¢ FIPS 196, Entity Authentication Using Public Key Cryptography â¢ FIPS 191, Guideline for The Analysis of Local Area Network Security â¢ FIPS 190, Guideline for the Use of Advanced Authentication Technology Alternatives Special Publications of NIST include â¢ SP 800-130, A Framework for Designing Cryptographic Key Management Systems â¢ SP 800-128, Guide for Security-Focused Configuration Management of Information Systems â¢ SP 800-127, Guide to Securing WiMAX Wireless Communications â¢ SP 800-125, Guide to Security for Full Virtualization Technologies â¢ SP 800-124, Guidelines for Managing and Securing Mobile Devices in the Enterprise â¢ SP 800-116, A Recommendation for the Use of PIV Credentials in Physical Access Control Systems (PACS) â¢ SP 800-100, Information Security Handbook: A Guide for â¢ SP 800-98, Guidelines for Securing Radio Frequency â¢ SP 800-79, Guidelines for the Accreditation of Personal Identity Verification (PIV) Card Issuers (PCIs) â¢ SP 800-77, Guide to IPsec VPNs â¢ SP 800-76-2, Biometric Data Specification for Personal Identity Verification 4. Video Standards Airports often have several types of command and control centers (e.g., Security Operations Centers (SOCs), AOCs, EOCs, and Police Dispatch Centers, among others. The names vary, though in many cases, the base functions and systems are similar. How these centers interface and share information will depend on the airport, but most make extensive use of video inputs and monitors for which video standards are important. Several industry groups have standardized protocols for digital video systems and for their integration with other elements of physical security systems. Their common goal is improved hardware and software compatibility, but each group has its own focus, and their standards differ in important respects, including their span of coverage and how they specify and test for compatibility compliance. Examples of standards include â¢ The Open Network Video Interface Forum is composed of most of the leading manufacturers of video hardware and software. ONVI standards focus on camera, encoder, and software compatibility, including VMS and PSIM integration.
156 Guidance for Planning, Design, and Operations of Airport Communications Centers â¢ The Physical Security Interoperability Alliance (PSIA) also includes video manufacturers as members, but it also includes leading access control hardware and software manufacturers and suppliers of building automation systems. PSIAâs emphasis is on making these elements interoperable, e.g., being able to hand off access control alerts so that video imagery and decision-making software can use such information. â¢ The Security Industry Association (SIA) is working on access control integration using speci- fications of leading access control hardware and software manufacturers, which have been regarded by many system integrators as de facto standards for many years. Stating that an item of equipment, such as a video camera, âcompliesâ with a published indus- try standard does not ensure that it will interoperate with âcompliantâ products of other manu- facturers. Even within a given camera product line, there can be models which comply with a given standard while other models do not. Equipment specifications, however detailed, are not sufficient to reveal to an airport operator the full level of operational performance or the compliance of a specific device to a standard. Always check equipment model details against the standards to which they have been tested, and, whenever possible, physically test the products under local operational and environmental conditions of use. Digital television standards are defined by the coder-decoder (codec) being used. The formats in use include â¢ CCIR 601, now reissued as an ITU-T standard, for commercial broadcast transmissions â¢ H.261 (ITU-T) â¢ H.263 (ITU-T) â¢ H.264/MPEG-4 AVC (ITU-T + ISO), currently the de facto standard for security video streams â¢ H.265/ISO/IEC 23008-2 HEVC (ITU-T + ISO), approved in January 2013 as the successor to H.264, is expected to be phased in as high-end products and services outgrow the limits of current network and display technology â¢ M-JPEG (ISO) used for high-quality compression where sufficient bandwidth is available â¢ MPEG-1 (ISO) used for video CDs â¢ MPEG-2 (ITU-T + ISO) used for DVDs and broadcasting â¢ MPEG-4 (ISO) the de facto standard before H.184, and still widely used in security systems â¢ VC-1 (SMPTE) Analog video standards in use differ by region and include: â¢ NTSC - USA, Canada, Japan â¢ PAL - Europe, Asia, Oceania â¢ PAL-M - PAL variation, Brazil and Argentina â¢ PALplus - PAL extension, Europe â¢ RS-343 (military) â¢ SECAM - France, former Soviet Union states, Central Africa â¢ MUSE - Japan 5. Other Standards and Standards-Related Documents The Construction Specifications Institute (CSI) develops and publishes specifications, in the MASTERSPEC format, which reflect best practices and standards for commercial build- ing design and construction projects in North America. It lists titles and section numbers for organizing data about construction requirements, products, and activities for use by architects, specifiers, contractors, and suppliers. http://www.csinet.org/?gclid=COTpzeG2_ roCFaTm7AodT34Atw
Industry Technical Standards 157 FAA Circulars: The FAA has issued numerous Advisory Circulars (ACs). Although not strictly standards, these documents provide valuable guidance for planning and designing airport com- munications. http://www.faa.gov/regulations_policies/advisory_circulars/ Federal Regulatory Requirements: Federal agencies have issued regulatory requirements, sometimes, in the form of standards, which affect the planning and design of airport commu- nications facilities. One example is the Americans with Disabilities Act, which the U.S. Depart- ment of Justice has implemented in the â2010 ADA Standards for Accessible Designâ issued on September 15, 2010. http://www.ada.gov/regs2010/2010ADAStandards/2010ADAstandards.htm Other examples are ergonomic and workplace standards and requirements of the U.S. Department of Labor, Occupational Safety & Health Administration, which are available at the following websites: www.osha.gov/SLTC/ergonomics www.osha.gov/SLTC/etools/baggagehandling/index.html http://www.osha.gov/SLTC/etools/computerworkstations/components_monitors.html National Electric Code, NEC, http://www.neccodebooks.com/ Lighting standards: At this time, there are no U.S. Government-mandated requirements for security lighting at airports. Lighting design standards bodies with relevant publications include â¢ The U.S. Department of Energy (DoE), including standards for SSL products summarized in factsheets and guidelines available at http://apps1.eere.energy.gov/buildings/publications/pdfs/ssl/ssl_standards.pdf DoE chairs the Commercial Building Energy Alliance (CBEA), which has released standards for parking lots and parking structures, available at http://www1.eere.energy.gov/buildings/alliances/parking_lot_lighting.html http://www1.eere.energy.gov/buildings/alliances/parking_structure_spec.html â¢ The U.S. National Institute of Standards & Technology, which has several standards for LED manufacturing and performance testing. â¢ The Illumination Engineering Society (IES), which publishes industry standards and best practices. http://www.ies.org