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6The most important asset existing within an airport is the data the airport generates during daily operations. This data, generated by hundreds of separate operational functions throughout the airport, forms the basis for an information flow that can provide airport management with the situational awareness, trends, and historical background needed so as to make sound daily and strategic decisions. The challenge is communicating all of this dynamic, often disparate, data, to a central point in a form that can be translated into a concise and cohesive picture and then using that information for decisions and outgoing communications. The range of communication channels in a modern airport seems endless. Call centers com- municating with passengers, tenants, and the public; visual images transmitted over closed-circuit television (CCTV) systems; signals sent from physical access control systems; radio and voice com- munication with law enforcement and airport staff; social media feeds; computer-aided dispatch (CAD) systems and emergency messaging systems; email; video, and audio conferencing; and per- sonal interactions are just a few of the systems that make up the modern airport technology and communication environment. Airports are increasingly seeing the need to implement a single point of control where func- tional execution takes place and the data resulting from that execution is made available in a manner which can be shared with other airport functions and, especially, with airport decision- makers at every level. That single point of contact is often referred to as an airport communica- tions center (ACC). These centers may also be referred to as airport coordination centers, airport operations centers, and airport resource coordination centers. Regardless of the name assigned, such entities strive to house both critical and non-critical airport functions in a manner which facilitates communication and information sharing throughout the organization. This Guidebook has been developed to assist airports, of all sizes, in determining if an ACC would bring value to their unique operational environments and, if so, how best to approach the planning design, implementation, and operation of a Center. For airport operators who have already developed an ACC, or some variation of a communications center, this Guidebook may offer some insight on how best to improve, maintain, and even expand the current operation. This Guidebook provides a set of guidelines, tools, resources, and supporting information necessary for an airport operator to plan, design, and operate an ACC. Developing an ACC involves a range of activities and tasks necessary to define technical and functional requirements, facility location, support, operations, and other aspects. The tasks and activities for each specific air- port will be determined by local conditions, organizational goals, funding, and other factors. The information and guidelines in this document will supplement the capabilities present in the airport organization with industry-tested experience and tools, to assist the airport operator in achieving a carefully conceived and well-designed facility. S E C T I O N 1 Introduction
Introduction 7 Although the operational details of an ACC can be complex, planning and designing the facil- ity is based on commonly used project management and analysis techniques used in many other aspects of airport management. The first task is the creation of a project team responsible for developing and implement- ing the ACC, followed by the initial development of a Concept of Operations, or CONOPS. The CONOPS is a document that presents a high-level statement of the purpose and goals of the ACC, as determined by the facilityâs stakeholders and users. This document becomes the guide for all future decisions and direction. An ACC can be built without a CONOPS, but the likelihood of completing a successful ACC project goes up considerably with the use of a CONOPS. A CONOPS may indicate numerous options, configurations, and functions as appropriate for an ACC. There is no âone-size-fits-mostâ solution. Through careful identification of the objec- tives and outcomes the airport operator wants to achieve, the best approach and optimal solution can be chosen. 1.1 Definition of an ACC For this Guidebook, an ACC is a central physical location in an airport where one or multiple internal (and potentially external) organizations work together to develop a comprehensive picture of one, many, or all aspects of airport operations. The ACC gathers data from various sources using various methods and produces information to portray an accurate picture of air- port conditions on which informed management decisions can be made. The ACC is an integral focal point for airport operation through normal conditions, irregular operations, and emergency situations. (The one exception to this definitionâwhere an airport operator may want to create a âvirtualâ communications center where there is no specific physical locationâis discussed later in this Guidebook.) 1.2 Guidebook Structure The purpose of this Guidebook is to give airport operators the tools needed to consider, plan, design, implement, and operate ACCs. Section 1 outlines the basic foundation for the need of an ACC, identifies important terminol- ogy, suggests an approach for ACC design based on the development of a project management plan and a CONOPS, and identifies some basic structural considerations of an ACC. Section 2 lists organizational components and considerations which may or may not be included in an airportâs ACC, but which should be considered before making a final decision on the scope of the ACC functionality. These components will help to frame the direction of the CONOPS and its effect on the project management plan. Section 3 outlines the basic steps for developing a project management team responsible for successfully implementing the ACC initiative. This Section includes recommendations on select- ing a project team, basic project management artifacts, planning scheduling, and project risk. Section 4 delves into the CONOPS approach and its importance and role in determining a future course of action, as well as the steps an airport operator should take to develop a relevant CONOPS for their environment. Section 4 also discusses the importance of situational aware- ness in a communications center and how an airport operator can seek to achieve operational intelligence.
8 Guidance for Planning, Design, and Operations of Airport Communications Centers Section 5 outlines the steps an airport operator will take as it considers the physical design of its ACC. The section explores the planning approach necessary to making critical design deci- sions about physical infrastructure, layout, human factors, ergonomics, and other critical design features. Section 6 provides guidance for managing the construction of a new ACC, where appropriate, and for commissioning and pre-opening activities that will reduce risk and increase the chances for a successful launch. Section 7 outlines the approach to determining, selecting, and integrating the technology wanted for the ACC. Given that an ACC is basically a node in a complex technology environ- ment, identifying, procuring, integrating, and operating ACC technology is the most critical step in a successful ACC. Section 8 outlines best practices for ongoing operations of an ACC and how best to maintain and continually improve communication, data flow, and information sharing. Section 9 summarizes the best practices and recommendations for an airport operator to consider as it defines, implements, and operates an ACC. 1.3 Role of an ACC Airports strive to operate in the safest, most efficient, and most effective manner possible. Accomplishing this depends on creating an environment in which information can be shared, assimilated, and used quickly and efficiently to support proper decision-making and assignment of resources for both day-to-day operations and for irregular events. The sheer physical size and complexity of airport campuses and operations, however, make simple, direct, person-to-person communications increasingly difficult. The objective of an ACC is to provide a facility and/or environment in which mission-critical information, both visual and audible, is delivered to a central point in the shortest possible time and with a high level of accuracy. With support from technology-based tools and solutions, the ACC acts as a data integrator, connecting different information sources and people so that they can operate in a more fully informed manner. The role and function of the ACC may also provide a command and control or decision-making structure from which airport management decisions are made. As much of this Guidebook suggests, the role of the ACC and corresponding communica- tion needsâand thereby ACC configurations and functionsâwill likely differ from airport to airport. Determining the role of the ACC at a specific airport and the tools required begins with an assessment that rationalizes choices and design decisions. In undertaking this process, the airport management team should address the following questions: â¢ What goals are we trying to achieve? â¢ What are the internal and external influences that govern the need for better communication? â¢ What critical information must be generated to provide airport management with situational awareness of airport conditions? â¢ What is the source of the data that will be used to generate the necessary information? â¢ Which organizations need the generated information and for what purposes? â¢ If an ACC is chosen as a solution to address these questions, what organizational changes must occur, if any, to accommodate this new business process and focus? â¢ If an ACC is chosen as a solution, what resources will be made available to achieve the desired outcome (in terms of funding, physical space, and human resources)? â¢ Finally, what metrics may be used to determine if a successful outcome has been achieved?
Introduction 9 1.4 User/Function Focus Within the airport community, communications centers have been configured in many different ways to support each airportâs own operational approach. However, even with the seemingly endless variety of airport configurations, certain operational functions are shared by all airports. A few examples of the most common uses of an ACC are as follows: â¢ Airfield operations can effectively assess airfield conditions, control gates, direct aircraft movement in ramp areas on the Airport Operations Area (AOA), and monitor aircraft servic- ing operations. â¢ Landside operations can assess the status of terminal conditions, monitor passenger flow through security and public areas, coordinate repairs and maintenance, and manage parking lot operations and traffic operations at the terminal front and approaching roadways. â¢ Security and public safety can (1) control police and security dispatch, access control, video surveillance, and alarm monitoring, and Aircraft Rescue and Fire Fighting (ARFF) and medi- cal dispatch and (2) coordinates with local public safety resources. â¢ Emergency services can provide oversight and support for an incident or an event involving the airport or in support of an Emergency Operation Center (EOC) as part of the Incident Command System. â¢ Facilities management can use the ACC as an intake mechanism for work orders and main- tenance requests and coordinate these activities with other airport functions. An ACC can be configured to support one, some, or all of these functions, depending on the operational requirements and approach preferred by the airport operator. Further, the range of users may include other airport organizations not normally involved with daily airport operational decision-making, such as public and media relations, community relations, con- cessions and business management, federal agencies, the local community, and public offi- cials. The ACC may also include various functions, outside of core airport operations, such as traffic and parking management, lost-and-found, paging and passenger locator assistance, general airline information, tenant communications, and passenger satisfaction and customer relation activities. Though not as common, the ACC may also house the airportâs technology help desk, net- work operations center (NOC), and security operations center (SOC). As technology becomes the primary tool for virtually all airport activity, having these essential technology components co-located will be beneficial. Figures 1-1 through 1-3 illustrate different dimensions of an ACC. Figure 1-1 identifies some of the many groups which may be found participating in an ACC. Figure 1-2 depicts common functions that may be included in an ACC. Determining which functions are best integrated using a hierarchy of operational priorities is best achieved by developing a CONOPS. Figure 1-3 illustrates how communications systems need to be scalable to support both daily operations and irregular operations of emergency situations. Most airports face the task of collecting, coordinating, and communicating information within the airport environment and with external government and support agencies. This situation has created an increased emphasis on satisfying growing communication demands, heightened regu- latory requirements and security procedures, and more sophisticated information technology (IT) systems to effectively and efficiently coordinate diverse entities. Because the communications process has a direct relationship with, and effect on, the efficient operation of airside and landside facilities, any terminal planning and design must consider the interaction of communications systems with all major airport and community components and services.
10 Guidance for Planning, Design, and Operations of Airport Communications Centers Figure 1-1. Common airport operations/ public safety communications/command and control center. Figure 1-2. Information technology infrastructure/physical infrastructure.
Introduction 11 1.5 Current Communications Center Models ACCs may be challenging to design and build. Each airport is unique in terms of location, existing infrastructure, aircraft and passenger traffic, operational environment, and other issues; each airport operator has its own ideas of how to manage ACC-type functions and integrate them with airport IT assets; and each airport has different staffing and budgetary issues that define and limit the extent to which an ACC can be configured and supported. No solution addresses all these issues, but there are many good examples which should be assessed when considering planning for a new ACC or expanding an existing ACC. The most commonly found ACC models are as follows: â¢ Airport Operations Center (AOC). This facility is typically concerned with airfield move- ments, including ramp and gate management. An AOC is the focal point for daily airport operational functions and issues including, but not limited to, maintenance of the airfield, runway surface, lighting, and the management of terminal facilities and fueling facilities. An AOC can include control over gate operations and aircraft maintenance areas. In some facilities, an AOC may also encompass other landside operations such as traffic and parking operations. Generally, this will be a 24/7/365 operation although, in smaller facilities, the AOC may close for a period when operations at the facility stop or are infrequent. The AOCâs design should support the CONOPS for airport operations, including linking the SOC and EOC in the event of an incident, because many security events will profoundly affect the continuing daily operations of the airport. The AOC manages rou- tine work that is essentially the same every day, with occasional emergency response activities. Finally, AOCs may include monitoring building functions such as building automation and asset and maintenance management. Figure 1-3. Airport communications/command and control center mission escalation.
12 Guidance for Planning, Design, and Operations of Airport Communications Centers â¢ Emergency Operations Center (EOC). Although primarily concerned with incidents that directly affect airport operations, EOCs may also address events such as large gatherings, natu- ral disasters, or civil disorders, which occur beyond the airport but may involve both airport and non-airport organizations. The airport-related functions and communications of an EOC are found in the Airport Emergency Plan [FAA Advisory Circular 150-5200-31]. An EOC may be a temporary facility or may be in a permanently established facility. If the local community has established its own EOC, then the airport may maintain a Department Operations Center (DOC) which works with and under the community EOC. The airport EOC/DOC focuses on managing emergencies. Depending on the scale of the incident or event requiring activation, the airport EOC/DOC may be linked to local, state, or regional EOCs, to obtain or provide support. An EOC is often not occupied until it is âactivatedâ when an incident occurs. In addition, EOC technology infrastructure is (1) often designed to accommodate internal and external personnel who may not be familiar with the systems that support the EOC and (2) scalable for a sudden influx of people when emergencies occur. â¢ Security Operations Center (SOC). This is the term used in the Transportation Security Admin- istrationâs (TSAâs) Recommended Security Guidelines for Airport Planning, Design, and Construc- tion and in the Radio Technical Commission for Aeronautics (RTCA) Standards for Airport Security Access Control Systems. A SOC is often the key element in an ACC because of its specialty equipment and communication capabilities in addition to its responsibilities for maintaining a safe environment, which includes responding to security and emergency incidents. A SOC is the focal point for airport security monitoring, command and control, and com- munications functions. Generally, a SOC will be a 24/7/365 operation, staffed and designed pursuant to the guidance of the Airport Security Program (ASP). These functions often involve sensitive security information (SSI) or other law enforcement restricted material such as âOfficial Use Only,â or âBe on the Lookoutâ (BOLO) alerts for which dissemination requires special controls. The SOC functions may include â Collecting information from many sources to provide situational awareness for command personnel. Enhancing situational awareness is a major objective. A SOC can be designed to leverage multiple communication links throughout the airport, including police, fire/rescue, airport operations, off-airport emergency assistance, and secure communication channels to federal, state, and local agencies, and may be used to coordinate the action of such agen- cies and airport personnel. â Coordinating security functions with other command and control functions, including physical or virtual links with other operations [e.g., AOC, EOC and Incident Command Post(s) (ICP)]. Careful consideration of who has authority to shift views or otherwise control CCTV operations should be developed by key personnel. There is considerable dif- ference between observation, influencing change, taking over control, and command responsibility for committing resources. â Serving as a Police Dispatch Center, which may be integral to the SOC. In these centers, operators dispatch a range of public safety resources, including police, fire and emergency medical service (EMS) personnel. These may be resources controlled solely by the airport operator or may be resources provided by and, in some cases, shared with the surrounding community. Dispatch functions in larger operations often use CAD software. In dispatch- ing, whether through the use of CAD or not, operators are often responsible for functions identified with a SOC. â A different version of a SOC may be maintained by the airportâs IT department. This version focuses on the cybersecurity of the airport, its network, applications, data and any physical component that makes up the technology environment of the airport. A SOC is also termi- nology used in an IT environment for a cybersecurity center where networks and applica- tions are monitored in much the same way as with physical security. â¢ Public Safety Answering Point (PSAP), sometimes also called a Public Safety Access Point. A PSAP is typically a call center responsible for answering calls to an emergency telephone
Introduction 13 number (usually 9-1-1) for police, firefighters, and ambulances, and is staffed by trained tele- phone operators who are responsible for dispatching these emergency services. The establish- ment of a PSAP carries with it a separate set of regulatory requirements that apply nationwide to emergency 9-1-1 call-taking operations. A registered PSAP operation is subject to stan- dards for answering calls and dispatch operations. There are also funding streams open to PSAPs that are unavailable to non-PSAP call-taking operations. A PSAP may also provide 9-1-1 service to areas outside the airport perimeter. PSAPs are set up to receive and process emergency calls and event notifications for a specific area. A PSAP may dispatch public safety personnel such as police, fire, and EMS in response to calls for service and should be able to accommodate additional operators during emergency situations. â¢ ICP. An ICP may have several responsibilities and will likely not be a fixed location because it may be co-located with other responder facilities as an incident evolves or may be a mobile facility. The ICP is often at or near the scene of an event or incident. An ICP may be integrated into the Police Dispatch Center or associated with an EOC. Some of an ICPâs response func- tions may also be performed by an AOC. The ICP is generally operated in connection with the National Incident Management Systems (NIMS). â¢ Fusion Center. This facility is designed to integrate multiple organizations in a single facil- ity to encourage cross-agency collaboration. Fusion centers are typically used by government agencies to collaborate on intelligence issues that are not easily communicated via more formal channels of communication. Multiple agencies can collaborate to provide resources, exper- tise, and information to the Center with the goal of maximizing the ability to detect, prevent, investigate, analyze, and respond to criminal and emergency activity. The airport is often a participant/user rather than the host agency. â¢ Hybrid ACCs. The hybrid model is the most common. It includes various functions and pro- cesses from some or all of the above models. As an airport develops its CONOPS, it will choose from among these models and develop its own approach. (A more descriptive outline of a hybrid ACC is included in Section 1.6 below.) 1.6 Virtual, Single-Function, and Multi-Function Centers Examination of the user requirements for airports of varying size and complexity presents a range of options for the design and configuration of communications centers. Although âACCsâ may suggest images of a single physical location supporting a multi-function operation with multiple workstations, video display walls, and complex technology solutions, this may not be the best approach for every airport, especially small airports. Each airport management team must choose a direction that works for its own specific environment. There are six key factors in determining the appropriate configuration of the communica- tions center: â¢ The CONOPS, as developed specifically for that airportâs operational environment â¢ Local conditions and operational preferences defined by stakeholder user requirements â¢ Legacy and planned technology systems and applications â¢ Existing organizational structure â¢ Available funding â¢ Input from the non-airport communities When seeking an appropriate model for an ACC for any given airport, the optimal solution depends on the individual physical and operational characteristics of the existing legacy sys- tems and the desired operational state as determined by user requirements of the stakeholders in developing the Concept of Operations. There is no single one-size-fits-all solution; in fact, several equally valid solutions with somewhat different configurations, different priorities, or different degrees of integration may exist.
14 Guidance for Planning, Design, and Operations of Airport Communications Centers 1.6.1 Virtual ACC Configuration A virtual configuration is a multi-function ACC not housed physically in one location. This may be necessary for various reasons, most typically because no single structure is available that possesses all of the physical attributes needed. However, there could also be geographic dispersion concerns where multiple airport sites are spread over a large geographic area and it is not possible to choose one single site. In this case, the ACC is physically dispersed in various locations, each in a separate structure, connected virtually through advanced communications. Virtual communicationâwhich allows sharing of audio, video, and other content in real-time onlineâis a growing presence in the airport environment made possible by traditional technol- ogy tools, such as video and audio conferencing, and an airportâs desktop infrastructure (email, phone). Virtual communication is encouraged because of the growing reliance on mobile devices such as Geographic Information System (GIS)-enabled smartphones and tablets, using safety management system (SMS) messaging, Skype, and other advanced communication features. With the proper communication environment in place, an airport operator can maintain constant communication with various geographic locations and staff resources without being physically co-located. 1.6.2 Single-Function ACC A single-function ACC focuses on a single operation, generally limited to basic communica- tions channels and technology. For example, airfield operations could be the sole function. A single-function ACC is (1) typically found at smaller airports, (2) dedicated to a specific set of communication requirements, and (3) generally operates as a separate physical and operational facility. A single-function ACC will typically include the following: â¢ Telephone services (switched or Voice over Internet Protocol) â¢ Public information and courtesy calls â¢ Paging â¢ Radio dispatch â¢ Voice and/or data services for coordinating on-airport operating staff In most scenarios, this will be a relatively small facility, requiring limited technology beyond basic communications and monitoring capability and staff and providing limited situational awareness. For a smaller, less complex airport, a single function ACC may be the most cost-effective and event-responsive solution. This approach is less costly in terms of staffing, technology, and space, and requires less training in terms of number of systems, policies, technical understanding, and proficiency. The downside of single function ACCs, especially as operations become more complex, is the risk of compartmentalizing the operations and information. This can be addressed with strong organizational and operational practices, but there is always the risk of a lack of situational aware- ness or delays in communication or collaboration. Another disadvantage is the consequences of decisions made in a âstovepipeâ environment, i.e., without a full range of necessary information, communication, and coordination. 1.6.3 Partial Multi-Function Configuration ACC Partial integration of an ACC introduces a range of possible scenarios and will typically include a combination of operational and technical integration. In this model, more than one airport
Introduction 15 organization, but not all, will be physically co-located for better collaboration, information sharing, and decision-making. For example, operational activities such as facility and building management and airside and landside operations may happen in a single location. In the partial configuration, typically the level of communication increases as different tech- nology solutions are brought into a common center. This situation often results in an operations console configuration with multiple workstations providing visibility and management of a range of different systems. A partial configuration can be beneficial at several levels. It can be applied to existing spaces and staffing operations that have limited capacity to expand or incorporate new systems and personnel. It can also be used to migrate a purely communications-focused facility and opera- tion to a broader range of responsibilities, without full integration. For example, an ACC with monitoring capability and managing all security and life safety alarms requires a relatively simple level of technical integration, while providing a great deal more information to the ACC staff and end users. Similarly, adding dispatch for security, fire, and life safety personnel can be accomplished by either adding a CAD system or providing read- access to the CADâthis requires only a modest level of technical integration and additional training, without putting significantly greater demands on space or personnel. A partial configuration can serve as an interim step toward full integration, allowing the air- port operator to move in a set of reasonable, well-planned steps over time toward a more com- plex operation if and when wanted. This approach allows for a measured process, with funding, training, integration, and other steps being accomplished along a multi-year plan, and dimin- ishes the potential disruption of the facility, the airport, and operations. This approach also minimizes human factors that often create resistance to changing environments and may serve as a proof of concept to validate each element planned, one step at a time. One of the challenges with this approach is to have a sufficiently clear long-term plan to allow the initial configuration to support and integrate with future developments in terms of technol- ogy, space, operations, funding, and people. The disadvantages inherent in a partial configuration are the continued need to coordinate and collaborate with other non-integrated facilities (e.g., law enforcement, media relations, or conces- sion management) and resource inefficiencies inherent in the redundant staffing requirements. 1.6.4 Full Multi-Function Configuration ACC Full integration of the ACC is generally an aggregation within a single location and normally adds a second backup location with full operational capability. In essence, the ACC becomes an overall centralized command and control center. Typically, this means the facility will handle the following: â¢ Communications center functions â¢ Security monitoring and dispatch â¢ Life safety, i.e., police, fire and medical â¢ Facility and building management systems, maintenance â¢ Airside operations â¢ Landside and terminal operations â¢ Parking management â¢ Paging, lost-and-found â¢ Gate management â¢ Mutual-aid coordination â¢ Irregular operations
16 Guidance for Planning, Design, and Operations of Airport Communications Centers This often requires the following: â¢ A scalable, flexible, protected physical environment to meet current and future needs. â¢ Integration of personnel with broader capabilities and responsibilities, and appropriate cross- training. â¢ Introduction of more complex and robust technology systems to manage multiple origins of information and data gathering into a more intelligent output that may include analysis, work flow, trending, reports, and dashboards. â¢ Integration or convergence of systems and information sources. â¢ Addition and/or modification of operational policies and procedures. Most challenges usually associated with full integration are manageable, but must be planned for in the CONOPS. These challenges may include the following: â¢ Higher original costs of more complex technology systems and integration â¢ Increased maintenance costs and complexity â¢ Higher levels of personnel requirements and increased training requirements â¢ Increased space and infrastructure requirements â¢ More extensive record-keeping and distribution requirements Full integration has several benefits, including the greatest degree of situational awareness and promotion of the highest level of staff communication and support, through co-location and cross-training of personnel. With an increasing IT capability to integrate diverse data and infor- mation sources into single-platform workstations, the full integration approach allows access to more information. Additionally, the aggregation of the data and synthesis of more complete information affords more effective and informed support for determining trends for future decision-making and response. Most multi-function communications centers in airports are seen as a positive change, by deploying more efficient responses, diminishing operational down times during irregular operations, and supporting better management of time and materials for improved budget- ing responsiveness. Multi-function communications centers are not just for large hub airports- smaller airports with fewer staff can benefit from cross-training and, therefore, cross utilization of reduced staff. A smaller airport may consider a phased approach, using partial integration to help with technology transitions and funding by spreading it out over a period of time. The decision to have a standalone, partially integrated, or fully integrated ACC is rarely a mat- ter of answering the single question of which is the best solution. The solution is best defined by developing a detailed CONOPS to determine the operational needs placed on the ACC by the airport and a full complement of users. Investment of the necessary time and resources to do a comprehensive CONOPS plan for a future ACC is essential, irrespective of the model or approach being considered. Incorrect deci- sions are considerably less expensive to correct during the initial planning stages than during construction or, worse, in the face of an emergency situation. 1.7 Examples of Current Communications Centers 1.7.1 OâHare Incident Management Center (IMC) The OâHare IMC serves as a coordination center for multiple departments during emer- gencies. Located on the airfield, the IMC was designed to be reconfigurable as circumstances required. It is not a 24/7/365 operation but is activated to respond to large-scale events and inci- dents. It can function both as auxiliary space to augment the main Operations Control Center (OCC) and as a backup center for some functions of the OCC. The IMC is scalable to accommodate additional users as new participants arrive from state, local, and federal organizations that need access to communications, information, and working
Introduction 17 space. The OâHare IMC is quickly reconfigurable, using a âno-consoleâ modular furniture design concept. All systems are computer-accessible with proper authorization. The IMC can accom- modate up to nine operators, depending on event requirements. The 100% Server/Network- based digital systems are all accessible from a single user interface and include the following: â¢ Digital video management system â¢ Access control system â¢ CAD system â¢ Video wall and display management system 1.7.2 Los Angeles International Airport (LAX)âAirport Response and Coordination Center (ARCC) The ARCC is an integrated communications center that coordinates a range of activities. It operates 24/7/365. The Centerâs physical layout accommodates airside and landside operations, police, and construction/maintenance services divisions, and several governmental agencies. The information technology and management group also maintains a presence in the ARCC to provide support and manage IT issues should they occur. A separate section is activated in response to a major incident, with assigned workstations for managers of response teams, and providing shared access to information from initial response through full recovery, thus reduc- ing response time to activity that may affect the traveling public. The ARCC functions include the following: â¢ Physical security information management (PSIM) system â¢ Video wall and large displays/liquid crystal displays (LCDs) â¢ Work order management system â¢ Crisis management system â¢ Emergency notification system â¢ Digital trunked radio system â¢ Airport Part 139 compliance software â¢ Voice recording system â¢ Weather and traffic alert system â¢ Physical access control system (PACS) â¢ Video management and review for closed-circuit television â¢ Fire and life safety systems â¢ Gate/bus management â¢ Traffic management 1.7.3 Metropolitan Washington Airports Authority (MWAA) MWAA operates a single integrated ACC for two airports, the Ronald Reagan Washington National Airport (DCA) and Washington Dulles International Airport (IAD). The ACC is in Hangar 5 at DCA and combines a Police Dispatch Center with an SOC and an EOC. The ACC uses CAD technology which allows staff to (1) dispatch fire, police, and mainte- nance personnel to multiple facilities and (2) monitor and respond to access control and CCTV systems at multiple facilities. During an emergency, camera control/operation may be over- ridden by selected facility operations personnel. 1.7.4 Midway International Airport (MDW) MDW operates an ACC structure similar to Chicago OâHare (ORD). The MDW Communi- cations Center (MCC) provides communication services for public safety assets. A separate Ops Center manages Federal Aviation Regulations (FAR) Part 139 compliance. The major differences between ORD and MDW are the smaller scale at MDW and the type of dispatch functions based
18 Guidance for Planning, Design, and Operations of Airport Communications Centers on the Concept of Operations specific to MDW public safety personnel. For example, ORD dis- patches fire personnel from three dedicated fire stations. At MDW, the fire station is shared with the surrounding urban neighborhood, so dispatch is conducted by the Cityâs 911 dispatch center. The MCC is in the terminal area, where square footage is at a premium, thus limiting the ability to use it as a Crisis Management Center (CMC). Similar to ORD, the CMC functions at MDW are not collocated; they operate from a more remote area of the airport, in the sterile area, which limits access. The MDW radio system uses a 6-channel 470-MHz trunked radio system for dispatch and communications and has no redundant repeater site. 1.7.5 Sarasota-Bradenton International Airport (SRQ) This small airport operates an integrated ACC in the form of a SOC and AOC, combined with an adjacent EOC. AOC communications, security monitoring, and operations occupy the same suite of offices, but do not use the same stations. Called AIRCOM 1 and AIRCOM 2, they are not configured for routine operations functions, but can support operations during airfield incidents and emergencies. The SRQ AOC is not provisioned for operators to reside in the AOC overnight during emergencies. The ACC staffâs responsibilities consist of monitoring essential safety and security systems, including the access control and fire alarm systems, the Air Traffic Control Tower ring-down emergency line, and the CCTV surveillance cameras. AIRCOM also manages all airport emer- gency calls, answers public calls, and makes paging announcements. AIRCOM provides dis- patching service via the 800-MHz radio system base unit to all airport groups, including Police, Fire, and Operations. In the event of a major incident, AIRCOM coordinates all mutual-aid calls to outside responding agencies. The current AOC site was decided in post-9/11 planning sessions; its predecessor was in a cramped ground floor room, below the TSA checkpoint. Moving the AOC to another termi- nal area enabled a configuration to include offices for Operations and IT and communications equipment. The Airport Police Department (APD) inherited the older AOC space so that its officers could remain close to the TSA checkpoint and respond to incidents quickly. Current communications modes and technologies include the following: â¢ Wired telephony, which is the primary means of communicating with external parties. â¢ Trunked radio talk groups, assigned on the Sarasota City 800-MHz radio system and used by the operations and maintenance staff. APD also operates a separate 800-MHz trunked radio provided by Manatee County, which is not interoperable with the City of Sarasota radio system. â¢ Cellular telephones used by the airport management and operations staff for routine activities and receiving alerts, including notifications of security breaches and emergency events. SRQ has two cellular carriers; each uses a different modulation scheme. The CDMA-based carrier pri- marily serves the airport management staff. The GSM-based carrier primarily serves operations and maintenance and its service includes a push-to-talk party-line type radio mode, commonly known as Direct Connect, which is popular with the maintenance personnel. Both cellular carriers have made arrangements for SRQ to have priority channel access during emergencies. â¢ Standard very-high frequency (VHF) radios for airfield and air traffic control (ATC) tower communications. 1.7.6 Tampa International Airport (TPA) Hillsborough County Airport Authority (HCAA) is an independent operating unit within Hillsborough County. HCAA operations, engineering, and IT departments determine their own operational and technical requirements and select the best solutions to meet these needs.
Introduction 19 The APD at this medium-sized airport operates a Police Dispatch Center, linked through the County Sheriff âs Department with other County departments for support during emergencies. TPA has configured an Integrated Communications Center, known as the Airport Operations Center (AOC), which provides police dispatch, security monitoring, and emergency operations support functions, including response to incidents and natural disasters; it is staffed 24/7 by police and operations personnel who operate a full set of communications modalities, includ- ing wired and cellular telephony, 800-MHz trunked radio talk groups provided by Hillsborough County, and a local area network (LAN) capable of carrying Internet Protocol (IP) telephony. 1.8 Examples of Non-Airport ACC Facilities 1.8.1 City of Chicago Response Centers The Chicago Office of Emergency Management & Communications (OEMC) operates the Cityâs public safety communications systems that coordinate the response of police, fire, and EMS resources to 911 calls. The OEMC is a 161,000-square-foot facility on the west side of Chicago that relies on a secure communications network with hundreds of miles of buried fiber-optic and cop- per cable dedicated to providing City 911 and 311 services. OEMC uses several key technological and infrastructure elements. Chicagoâs Joint Operations Center (JOC) is designed for use during major emergencies, pro- viding complete communications capabilities for all police, fire, medical, city, state, and federal command personnel. Each workstation is equipped with a telephone and online capabilities, allowing staff to connect directly to their offices and networks. Three large-screen televisions enable the JOC to monitor local, national, and international events. The JOC has video technol- ogy to link the OEMC with City Hall and the Chicago Police Department Headquarters, with live video conferencing capability. If an incident occurs, the OEMC can pinpoint the location, designate a specific radius around the location, and call all land-line phones in this predetermined area with a message capability of up to 1,000 phones per minute, chosen from a library of options, or a custom message for a specific incident. The OEMC operates a mobile communications vehicle capable of coordinating disparate radio bands for multiple first-responder resources. The vehicle is designed to support City first responders, and county, state, and federal agencies operating within 75 miles of the City. 1.8.2 Fairfax County, Virginia, Public Safety Transportation Operations Center (PSTOC) The Fairfax County PSTOC, a large regional fusion center, links the Fairfax Department of Public Safety, Police, Fire, EOC, Water and Wastewater departments; the State Department of Transportation (VDOT), Office of Emergency Management, and State Police; and EOC facili- ties in nearby counties. It also serves as a Regional Incident Coordination Center, with potential for coordination service to both DCA and IAD. The facility has a 100-ft setback and other blast- resistant measures. The PSTOC co-locates the following functions: â¢ VSP (call-taking, dispatch and support) â¢ VDOT (Smart Traffic Center, signal system and support) â¢ County 911 call-taking and support â¢ Fire Department dispatch â¢ Police Department dispatch