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20 An ACC may take on a seemingly endless variety of configurations. It will likely evolve and become larger and more complex as the airport operator gains experience with its operation and realizes the increasing benefits of a coordinated focal point for communications. This section pro- vides guidance on components of a potential ACC that may be overlooked when first out lining ACC functions, goals, and objectives. Some components are physical, others are functional, and still others are organizational. Nevertheless, all these components should be considered in the decision and included in the CONOPS, as appropriate. 2.1 ACC Policies A robust, comprehensive, documented set of policies is essential for every ACC, no matter the size. In almost all cases, an airport will have an established set of policies in place. Policies created for the ACC could be a subset of the existing airport policies or could stand alone. However, the airport operator needs to ensure that newly created ACC policies are consistent with existing airport operational policies. The number of policies that need to be developed for a new ACC will vary, depending on the airport and the intended mission and goals of the ACC. There is no one-size-fits-all approach to policy development, because each airport will likely have a different foundation on which to build its ACC policies. However, any new ACC will likely require policies that outline the following: â¢ Hours of operation â¢ Staffing and coverage â¢ Interaction among ACC organizational components â¢ Internal meetings and communication channels â¢ Documentation of irregular operations â¢ Procedures for communicating with external entities One of the most important potential benefits of an ACC is that an airport will produce the same (or similar) desired outcome each time it encounters a particular condition or stimulus. To achieve this goal, policies must be established that clearly identify a system of principles to guide decisions and achieve rational outcomes. A policy is, therefore, a statement of intent and is implemented as a procedure or protocol. Policies may be developed by various entities within the airport, such as the board or senior gov- ernance body, the airport director, external political entities, other airport organizations, or even the ACC. Policies can assist in both subjective and objective decision-making. Policies to assist in subjective decision-making would usually assist senior management with decisions that must consider the relative merits of factors before making decisions and which are, as a result, often S E C T I O N 2 Components of an ACC
Components of an ACC 21 hard to test objectively (e.g., a major aircraft incident or an active shooter). In contrast, policies to assist in objective decision-making are usually operational in nature and can be objectively tested (e.g., responding to a door alarm). Policy differs from rules or law. Although law can compel or prohibit behaviors (e.g., FAA requirements), policy merely guides actions toward those most likely to achieve a desired outcome. Furthermore, policies are supplemented by procedures or protocols typically designed by the ACC to implement the established policies in a common, process-oriented manner. Using a consistent approach when creating a new policy is critical to policy development. As an example, the following eight-step policy cycle is found in The Australian Policy Handbook by Peter Bridgman and Glyn Davis: â¢ Issue identification â¢ Policy analysis â¢ Consultation (which permeates the entire process) â¢ Policy instrument development â¢ Building coordination and coalitions â¢ Program design: decision making â¢ Policy implementation â¢ Policy evaluation Perhaps the most overlooked and underrated step in the policy lifecycle is policy implementa- tion. A critical element in ACC management is ensuring that all policies are clearly documented, understood, and followed and that employees understand the ramifications of not following policy. 2.1.1 Policy Format and Taxonomy All policies must follow a standard format to ensure consistency between policies. A sample description of the information that should be included for each policy follows: â¢ Policy Number. For new policy drafts, this section should remain blank until a number is assigned by the Policy Group. For revisions, this number will remain unchanged. â¢ Effective and Revised Dates. To be determined by the Policy Group. â¢ Policy Title. Should capture the content of the policy but should not include the word âpolicy.â â¢ Policy Metadata. Key words that describe the policy. â¢ Purpose. A brief statement of the purpose of the policy; this may include a basic explanation for the policy if not apparent on its face. â¢ Policy Body. The policy should be stated in detail and in unambiguous language such that there can be no confusion as to what the policy requires and the expected outcome from fol- lowing the policy. â¢ Additional Authority. A list of statutes, regulations, board policies, Airport Director Orders, or other relevant authority governing the policy. â¢ Scope. Addresses to who or what the policy applies. â¢ Responsible Party. A list of the unit, department, or other pertinent area responsible for administering or enforcing policy. â¢ Definitions. Uncommon words or words with meanings unique to the airport industry should be defined for new staff members. Where the policy requires that procedures and processes be developed to ensure that the policy is consistently followed, the full procedure, including all the steps necessary to comply with the policy with sufficient detail that end users will readily understand how to comply with
22 Guidance for Planning, Design, and Operations of Airport Communications Centers the policy, should be included. Similar to the policy, the procedure template should be standard and consistently published so that the reader can quickly understand the process that must be followed. When developing procedures, a step-by-step approach is usually best. 2.1.2 Policy Taxonomy Developing a system of classifying, numbering, and organizing an airportâs policies requires developing a policy taxonomy. Most airports using this Guidebook probably have already devel- oped a policy taxonomy and the ACC should use the existing protocol to maintain consistency with the rest of the organization. If no taxonomy exists, the airport operator should consider developing a simple taxonomy representing major lines of business (e.g., landside, airfield, and public safety), each with its own distinct number and relevant subcategories. A taxonomy should be scalable so that policies can be added over time without fully using the numbering system. Finally, a system of metadata should be established so that policy users can quickly locate policy information, especially in times of emergency. Metadata consists of key words that describe the airport policy (e.g., runway, airfield, and airfield lighting). In other words, metadata acts as a catalog to help users locate policies quickly, especially if the airport makes the policies available on line on its airport intranet. 2.2 Call Center Functions An airport call center is usually a physical place where an organization handles telephone calls from passengers, tenants, airlines, and other entities, usually with some computer automation. Typically, a call center can handle a considerable volume of calls simultaneously, screen calls and forward calls to individuals qualified to handle such calls, and, finally, log calls. Two related terms are virtual call center and contact center. In an airport, the three most common call centers are (1) public and passenger information; (2) reporting of facility issues by tenants, concessionaires and passengers; and (3) public safety. If the airport operator wants to relocate an existing call center or create a new one for its planned ACC, additional planning will be necessary and, for new call centers, this planning will likely involve the addition of new call center technology. Sophisticated call center technology is available to operate a call center. The challenge is to select the right technology, implement it properly, and then optimize daily performance. The correct technology reflects the call centerâs purpose, size, and location, and how requests are received (e.g., phone calls, emails, faxes, and grey mail). Technology options to consider include â¢ Automatic call distributors and/or dialers. All call centers need a system to process calls and other interaction types like email and chat. Automatic call distributors (ACDs) and/or dialers are core call center systems; all other applications are intended to complement and improve the performance of these two underlying systems. Inbound call centers use an ACD to manage the flow of incoming calls and route them to the most appropriate agent. Outbound call centers need a dialer to place and complete calls. â¢ A crew resource management (CRM) application/call center servicing application. A CRM application provides a database of the tenants, concessionaires, airlines, and other parties likely to contact the airportâs call center. Call takers use the servicing application to respond to customers with an understanding of their contact information and relationship to the airport.
Components of an ACC 23 Call takers can also use the servicing application to document customer issues or requests and steps taken to address those issues. This creates a record of interactions that can be accessed the next time the customer asks for help. â¢ Call recording systems. Most customer service environmentsâinbound or outboundâ require recording systems to capture all interactions so that they can be replayed if there is a question about an interaction. Some systems just capture calls; others capture both the call and related screens used to serve the customer. â¢ Interactive voice response systems/speech recognition systems (IVR). IVR systems are self- service tools that automate the handling of incoming customer calls. Advanced interactive voice response systems use speech-recognition technology to enable customers to interact with the IVR by speaking, instead of pushing buttons on their phones. IVR/speech recognition systems can help airports reduce the number of staff necessary to take calls by automating the handling of 40% to 85% of all incoming calls. Using an IVR may mean that airport stakeholders are disappointed they are not getting a âliveâ person to answer their question. â¢ Quality management applications. Quality management applications are used to measure how well call center agents adhere to internal policies and procedures. These applications are increasingly considered mission-critical for inbound call centers, because they give manage- ment insight into call center performance. This application would only be necessary in an airport with a high volume of calls. â¢ Computer telephony integration (CTI). CTI connects the ACD to any of the other appli- cations or to the airportâs internal work order system. At the most basic level, it delivers a âscreen pop,â bringing up the customerâs account on the agent desktop when it delivers a call. This saves the call taker from wasting time looking up customer information and it saves the customer the aggravation of having to provide redundant identification or account numbers. CTI is a major productivity tool for many call centers. Most airports will use their IP network for transporting call center communications. Devel- oping a new call center will require a review of the existing network to ensure that it has the stability, scalability, redundancy, and flexibility to handle this new function. 2.3 Technology Technology is discussed in depth in Section 7 of this Guidebook. When either extending legacy applications to a new ACC or acquiring new applications, the airport operator should use the traditional method of developing a functional requirements document (FRD) to ensure that the technology selected meets the needs of the users and stakeholders and the objective of the ACC. A typical FRD will contain the following information: â¢ An outline of the business objectives and business processes â¢ A complete set of requirements which will be matched to various applications â¢ A description of the capabilities the application(s) must provide in business terms â¢ Criteria by which the success of the software and hardware can be measured In addition, for an ACC, the CONOPS is a critical document for specifying the functionality that will be considered in an FRD. Both documents should be consistent in their basic informa- tion, but the FRD focuses on a specific technology application, whereas the CONOPS looks at a specific business process. Once the FRD is complete, the airport operator will use its normal procedure for acquiring and implementing the software. Although an integrator is often a desirable external resource, because of the complexity of meshing so many non-integrated systems, it is not always necessary.
24 Guidance for Planning, Design, and Operations of Airport Communications Centers When considering technology, airport management should ensure a thorough search for the technology that best suits the airportâs needs and be wary of marketing material claiming to provide everything necessary for the ACC in one suite. Often, these systems require the airport to have a substantial number of underlying âfeederâ systems for the technology to reach its promised potential. 2.4 Human Resources Perhaps the most potentially difficult aspect of developing a new ACC is ensuring that the personnel who will be in the ACC are fully aware of the mission, goals, and objectives of the ACC. First, the ACCâs mission, goals, and objectives need to be developed, approved by airport management, and clearly stated in a documented format available to all personnel. In-person meetings where management and ACC personnel can discuss the direction that management is planning to take the ACC are helpful. Enabling employees to ask questions and clarify direction is essential to creation of a cohesive operating ACC. This is particularly important where the ACC is bringing together airport operational units not previously co-located. The most chal- lenging aspect of ACC development is ensuring that all of the parties take advantage of the new technology through collaboration, interaction, and enhanced communication. A second critical component regarding human resources, especially when developing a new ACC, is ensuring that all personnel get extensive training on all new software and hardware prior to the opening of the ACC. This is often overlooked, frequently because the personnel may indi- cate they are too busy with daily activities to undergo training. However, without training, the ACC, at best, is likely to take an extended period to reach its intended goals and, at worst, could fail. This is especially true where new technology is being implemented that had not previously existed in the airport. As part of the training, the airport operator must emphasize that the newly purchased technology is mandatory and that personnel must use it. Creating a new organizational structure is a third critical component which may be necessary, depending on the number and type of functions included in the ACC. In some cases, the ACC becomes a new integrated organizational structure within the airport environment and existing reporting relationships must take into account this new entity. Daily activities may need to be managed by an ACC manager or director who does not normally have supervisory or manage- ment authority over all of the personnel housed in the ACC. Establishing means for command and control outside the normal organization is important to ensure that daily activities are planned, communicated, conducted, and reported. It must be clear who is authorized to direct operations and provide guidance. Breaking down âorganizational silosâ is the fourth and, often, the most vexing of the human factors to address. Traditional airport organizations already have formal and informal com- munication channels in place. Existing working relationships, friendships between personnel, social interactions, and even internal rivalriesâall will complicate formation of new collab- orative relationships in an ACC. Airport management must be sensitive to how best to meld these long-standing silos into a single entity in its new ACC. Unfortunately, no single approach ensures success. However, promoting continuous and meaningful communication, sharing of organizational successes among all groups, frequent interpersonal interactions and joint owner- ship in initiatives will go a long way in creating that unified environment airport management desires. (See Section 2.9 for more discussion on this topic.) Finally, new ACC technology may require job redefinition of some ACC personnel. Technol- ogy is least effective when it is only used to automate existing procedures. At least some degree of organizational change is needed, in the form of âbusiness process-reengineering.â Every new
Components of an ACC 25 technology added to the ACC should be considered in light of the potential changes that could be made in terms of the existing procedures and processes and for the staff involved. One final issue is the there is the danger for âinformation overload,â and, in serious cases, âemployee burnoutâ may be induced by the new environment, because of the possibility of bombarding employees with ever more data. 2.5 External Agencies When considering developing an ACC, the airport operator needs to consider three areas of potential communication channels. The first (and most obvious) is the internal airport organi- zation. The second is other airport stakeholders (e.g., airlines, tenants, concessionaires, vendors, ground transportation organizations, ground services, and catering). The third group consists of entities external to the airport, including the immediate community (where applicable); the airport board; and federal, state, and local agencies (particularly those that have direct oversight or input into airport operations). Determine to what extent each of them will have either a direct connection to the ACC or participate in some ancillary manner. For the airportâs internal organization, the answer may seem obvious and relate solely to those entities with a specific role in the ACC. However, there may be some consideration necessary of other airport organizations which, although not directly involved in daily operations, may have an active interest in ACC activities, share in the generated data, and even be called to the ACC during special circumstances. A good example of this is media relationsâstaff from which may be called on to present airport operational activities to the media and public. Other airport stakeholders must be given consideration to ensure that can easily provide input and receive generated information, on a need-to-know basis. In some airports, especially where one airline is the overwhelmingly predominant carrier, that carrier may have personnel who work in the ACC as the airport-airline interface. Although it is unlikely that any other intra-airport entity will be large enough to merit consideration for a physical presence in the ACC, all stakeholders must have the same understanding of the mission, goals, and objectives of the ACC and how it will interact with each stakeholder during normal, heightened, and emergency periods. Finally, careful consideration needs to be given to all potential external entities that may have an interest in the airport, particularly when there is an emergency or special activity of some kind. Planning for extending communication channels to these entities is important from the onset of ACC planning. Such channels may be as simple as an audiovideo conferencing arrangement with the local government or EOC or as detailed as including these parties in an emergency communication application. Once airport management determines the level of participation of all non-airport groups, a memorandum of agreement (MOA) should be created between the airport operator and the external entity to determine what the relationship will be with the ACC. Simple things such as the use of outside technology (e.g., flash drives and laptops) must be regulated to prevent malware from non-airport equipment being accidently imported into the ACC, especially in times of emergency. An MOA should also include information on when the external parties are expected to be present in the ACC, and, just as important, when external parties are not permitted. Each airport operator will have its own unique set of rules between itself and its external stakeholders and these requirements need to be considered, documented, and agreed on before a situation arises where they might be needed.
26 Guidance for Planning, Design, and Operations of Airport Communications Centers 2.6 ACC as a Component in the National Incident Management System (NIMS) Depending on the size and scope of an airportâs ACC, it may have numerous elements that are also important components in the NIMS Incident Command System (ICS). In fact, the FEMA definition for ICS as a âstandardized approach to the command, control, and coordination of emergency response providing a common hierarchy within which responders from multiple agencies can be effectiveâ is remarkably similar to a large-scale ACCâs mission statement. As such, an airport operator should consider if or when the ACC may be made available during emergencies or âevents,â as defined by ICS. Perhaps the most compelling connection between an ACC and ICS is the technology included in the ACC. In both cases, converged communications are essential for the successful execution of the operation. ICS requires that an integrated voice and data communications system, includ- ing equipment, systems, and protocols, be established prior to an incident; this is exactly what is implemented when establishing an ACC. Using an already-established technology platform for both the ACC and for ICS may produce benefits for the airport operator in terms of consistency, cost, uniformity, and readiness for use in the event of an incident. Other reasons to consider the relationship between an airport ACC and the ICS are as follows: â¢ Both the ACC and ICS establish new organizational hierarchies to control personnel, facilities, equipment, and communications (although in the case of ICS it is temporary for the duration of an incident). These hierarchies are superimposed on the normal organizational structure. â¢ Both the ACC and ICS are interdisciplinary (depending on the functions within the ACC) and organizationally flexible to collect data, develop information and situational awareness, meld personnel from different organizations, use a common terminology, reduce duplication of effort, and provide a mechanism for collaboration, communication and cooperation. â¢ Although an airport ACCâs main focus is daily operations, both the ACC and ICS deal with incidents (defined as unplanned situations necessitating a response) and events (defined as planned situations). Incident command is increasingly applied to events both in emergency management and non-emergency management settings and it is not uncommon for an airport ACC to be a focal point for communications for planned events. â¢ One of the benefits of both an ACC and ICS is that both entities are based on the principles of coordinating a set of organizations that may otherwise work together only occasionally. â¢ The ACC operates based on a CONOPS and established policies and procedures, according to a mission statement, goals, and objectives. Similarly, the ICS creates an Incident Action Plan to ensure that everyone is working in concert toward the same goals set for that operational period by providing direction for the actions to be taken during the duration of its operational lifecycle. In both cases, the goal is to reduce freelancing and ensure a coordinated approach to operations and communications. â¢ The ACC could act as an Incident Command Post (ICP) if the ACC is in the geographic loca- tion of the incident or as an ICP for planned airport events. â¢ Although not an official part of the ICS, an EOC is a permanently established facility and operation for a political jurisdiction or agency. EOCs often, but not always, follow the general ICS principles. For many jurisdictions, the EOC is where elected officials will be during an emergency but does not provide command during an incident or event. An EOC is respon- sible for the strategic overview, or âbig picture,â of the disaster and does not normally directly control field assets, instead making operational decisions and leaving tactical decisions to lower commands. Critical to an EOC is its communications system. In most cases, such a system is a sophisticated encrypted communications networks with a redundant path to ensure that both situational awareness information and strategic orders can pass through the facility without
Components of an ACC 27 interruption. Given the important similarities between an ACC and an EOC, an airport operator should consider the potential of a relationship. 2.7 Joint Information Center (JIC) A JIC is an official part of the ICS and is the facility where an incident, agency, or jurisdic- tion can support media representatives. Frequently co-located in an EOC, the JIC provides the location for an interface between the media and the public information officer. The JIC often provides the space and technical assets (e.g., Internet, telephone, and power) necessary for the media to perform their duties. A JIC also often becomes the âfaceâ of an incident because the JIC is where press releases are made available and where many broadcast media outlets interview incident staff. A permanently established JIC can be co-located with an EOC or, in this case, an airport ACC. If an airport operator decides to include its ACC as part of the ICS or even just for planned events, the operator may want to include a JIC to handle media inquiries and act as the primary outgoing communication channel for the airport. A JIC will likely include additional hardware and software dedicated for media outreach purposes. Some displays, desktop PCs, telephones, and printers may be needed to support the media relations personnel. A more advanced JIC could include a soundproof room where audio/video recordings and/or interviews can be con- ducted. For interviews, special lighting and a background would also be required. If a JIC is being considered for an ACC, the project team should work closely with the media relations staff to determine their needs. 2.8 Eliminating Organizational Silos One of the most challenging aspects of creating a multi-function ACC is melding numerous airport organizations into a cohesive, cooperative, and communicative entity. The ACC may have its own organizational structure that blends different airport divisions into a combined unit just for the operation of the ACC. Airport management should not assume that co-location is all that will be necessary to ensure the various airport operational components act as a team. An airport operator can take the following steps to ensure that the ACC functions as intended and that desired collaboration and communication are achieved: â¢ Develop a common, objective understanding of the purpose of the ACC and how it is to oper- ate. Much of this information is included in the CONOPS, but it is important to communicate with all ACC personnel to ensure they all understand the CONOPS in the same way. A critical element of this is emphasizing the interests of the enterprise over the individual. â¢ Establish a clear manager for the ACC. Whether it is the duty manager or someone else, decisions need to be made and someone must be authorized to take charge in case of disputes or incidents. â¢ Clearly defined roles are important. Although roles and responsibilities may seem obvious, airport management needs to realize that the ACC is creating new functions in terms of facility management, systems, data collection, and information production. Someone needs to determine who will do these tasks. â¢ Airport management must emphasize that success is defined collectively, not individually. Although individual recognition is important for morale, every opportunity to celebrate the accomplishments of the ACC as a whole should be taken.
28 Guidance for Planning, Design, and Operations of Airport Communications Centers â¢ In smaller airports, which may have less flexibility in this area, choosing the right people to work in the ACC environment is important. Not every staff member works well in a team and just one person working out of sync can reduce the effectiveness of the ACC. â¢ In airports with a strong union presence, airport management would be wise to include formal union representation from the onset to ensure that organized labor sees that their membersâ rights and needs are being considered. Even where this may not be required by a collective bargaining agreement, formal inclusion of labor in the process will likely contribute to a better outcome. â¢ Once the mission, goals, and objectives are established; and policy and procedures are cre- ated, find opportunities where ACC personnel can use their skills and knowledge to act inde- pendently. Although consistency in action is important, allowing some ability for individual action promotes creativity and initiative. â¢ Finally, monitor progress regularly according to some commonly established metrics. In a perfect world, airport management will have chosen the right people for the team, imple- mented the correct technology, developed a workable mission statement, and developed clear policies and procedures. However, in the real world, management should verify that the team is working well together and that the ACC is accomplishing what was expected. This can be done by simply holding a quarterly all-hands meeting where ACC personnel can share sug- gestions, recommendations, concerns, successes, and even failures. 2.9 Data Management Managing the data that will flow through the ACC is critical to ensuring that the data used is accurate, timely, complete, and, most importantly, not redundant or contradictory. The official definition provided by the Data Management Association, the professional organization for those in the data management profession, is: âData Resource Management is the development and execution of architectures, policies, practices and procedures that properly manage the full data lifecycle needs of an enterprise.â Although an ACC initiative probably will not encompass a full data management exercise if one has not already been conducted at the airport, the ACC project management team can undertake several tasks to ensure that data management is carried out so as not to increase proj- ect risk. These tasks are as follows: 1. Inventory all systems and databases that will be used in the ACC. Identifying the system and each of its data elements is critical because this inventory is the basis for everything in data management. Once all of the data elements in every database are identified, each ele- ment should be named, defined, and its structure described (i.e., size and type), along with its source and how it may be used in output reports. For confidential or sensitive information, information about who may view and/or edit the data should be included. Typically, an Excel spreadsheet can be used to create this type of data matrix. If the airport has already engaged in sound data management practices, this inventory will have already been taken. For ACC purposes, it will simply be necessary to identify the data to be used in the ACC. 2. Create an illustration depicting all of the types of data and how they flow through the ACC. One of the more challenging aspects of data management in an ACC is the wide variety of data formats that will flow into the center. In addition to normal text data (e.g., email and data files), there may be recorded visual images from CCTV, recorded audio files from interactive voice response (IVR) systems, radio communications and telephone conversations, digital alerts from access control devices and other sensor information, incoming social media feeds, and even manually created meeting minutes and notes. Capturing how these disparate sources work together is a topic too broad for this Guidebook; however, an airport might find
Components of an ACC 29 that a rudimentary data architectureâin the form of an illustration depicting all of the types of data and how they flow in and out of the ACCâis a useful tool. 3. Identify data owners. All of the data flowing into the ACC must have an identified owner. In many organizations there is a data owner and a data custodian. The data owner is responsible for the accuracy, timeliness, and completeness of the data. Typically, the data owner deter- mines who can have access to the data and how it may be used. In most organizations, the data owner is of a high level in the organization. For example, the director of Human Resources may be the data owner of all personnel data. Another individual, reporting to the data owner, is responsible for daily care and maintenance of the dataâthis is the data custodian. The data custodian is also responsible for working with all data users, the IT department, and most importantly, those entering data to ensure that all data quality standards are met. An airport may find that a formal data governance committee (composed of all data owners and custo- dians) where consistency on the use, maintenance, and access to data is agreed on is useful. Although this may be too much organization for a small or mid-sized airport, maintaining some semblance of data governance remains valid. 4. Develop data retention policies and procedures. The data lifecycle always includes cleansing or deletion of data when it is no longer necessary. An airport should have a data retention pol- icy in place that identifies when a particular data element, record, or file may be disposed of. In most cases, this policy will be sufficient for the purposes of the ACC. In a few cases, an ACC will be storing data. One exception is if the airport has implemented a physical security infor- mation management (PSIM) system. A PSIM system is a category of software that provides a platform and applications created by middleware developers. This software is designed to integrate multiple unconnected security applications and devices and control them through one comprehensive user interface. It collects and correlates events from existing disparate security devices and information systems (e.g., video, access control, sensors, analytics, networks, and building systems) to enable personnel to identify and resolve situations. PSIM integration provides numerous organizational benefits, including increased control, improved situational awareness, and better management reporting. Ultimately, these solutions allow organizations to reduce costs through improved efficiency and to improve security through increased intelligence.2 If the PSIM was implemented primarily for use by the ACC, storage of the data contained within it will likely be managed by the ACC and a determination will need to be made regarding disposal of routine data, and data that represents an incident that may have occurred and needs to be preserved for an extended period. In most cases, any data that could be the subject of litigation or continued analysis is kept indefinitely. Section 7 discusses maintaining the security of information. Always maintaining a secure environment for data is important. 2.10 Implementing an ACC at a Small Airport Although much of this Guidebook focuses on larger, multi-function ACCs, the basic approach, potential decisions that need to be made, broad range of functionality, are just as relevant to smaller airports. Developing a smaller ACC may not be commensurately easier than developing a large one. Small airports will have fewer assets (e.g., funding and staff ), less technology (and the IT staff available to support it), and less capacity to put necessary organizational infrastructure in place. Nevertheless, small airports can easily excerpt critical components from this Guidebook and use 2Wikipedia excerpt, dated April 5, 2017, from Physical Security Information Management system entry.
30 Guidance for Planning, Design, and Operations of Airport Communications Centers them in whole or in a reduced form. There is no reason why a smaller airport cannot develop and implement an ACC. Smaller airports may experience some advantages in developing an ACC. First, it may be easier because of the reduced size. Second, fewer processes may be automated, or less complex IT systems may be in use. Third, because personnel in smaller airports often wear âmore than one hat,â training and integration of team members may be easier to accomplish. The challenge for a small airport operator will likely be having the available internal resources necessary to complete the project. This challenge can be mitigated by acquiring external assis- tance or lengthening the project timeline to accomplish the project without overly taxing inter- nal resources. Section 5.9 outlines a sample ACC model for both a small and a medium-sized airport.