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72 As with other aspects of traditional airport business practices, this Guidebook does not go into great detail on construction and activation activities routinely performed by an airport opera- tor. Only those few items critical to the successful implementation of an ACC will be discussed in this section. 6.1 ACC Design Section 5 presented design considerations for the ACC. The design decisions identified will be further detailed in the plans and specifications found in the typical construction project. Having a solid base of detailed plans, specifications, and documents enable parties to communicate and ensure that appropriate designs, materials, and construction techniques are used. Airport opera- tors should use their normal processes for creating a fully informed design package that can then be passed to the internal or external entity to any necessary construction. Many airport operators have chosen to use the Construction Specifications Institute (CSI) MasterSpec specification process or have supplemented those standards with local factors and requirements. Regardless, developing CSI-based designs is an iterative process, with progres- sively detailed submittals at the 30, 60, 90, and 100% development milestones for the end user and other appropriate stakeholders to review. Two CSI specification sections (Division 27, Com- munications, and Division 28, Safety and Security Systems) are especially useful for specifying the design of an ACC. The CSI process begins with the BoD report for developing detailed specifications and design drawings. The BoD serves as a bridge between the airportâs operational and functional goals as established in the CONOPS and the detailed technical design necessary to meet those goals. 6.2 Construction Oversight The airport operator probably has a construction oversight and monitoring process. Typically, the actual construction of an ACC is a sub-project of the entire ACC initiative. This is a good approach, given that construction management principles and techniques will likely not blend well with many of the special requirements of an ACC project, such as developing a CONOPS. Nevertheless, close coordination between the ACC project manager and the construction project manager is essential, and the best possible scenario is one where the construction schedule is integrated into the total project schedule and regular written progress reports are provided from the construction management team to the ACC project manager. The ACC PM will also play an important role in coordinating the integration of the construc- tion schedule with the implementation schedule of technology components. There can be a great Construction and Activation Activities S E C T I O N 6
Construction and Activation Activities 73 deal of inter-related activity between construction and technology, especially where the new cen- ter is incorporating new or extended technology components. Section 7 outlines considerations for technology-heavy ACC projects. 6.3 Pre-Opening During the construction or renovation process, it can be helpful to provide the projected ACC personnel with a walk-through of the future facility. This walk-through helps to famil- iarize personnel long before training, orientation, and opening day occur and increases their comfort level. 6.4 Periodic Construction Monitoring In addition to the regular construction inspections that are a normal part of a construction project, the ACC managers and key ACC stakeholders should conduct periodic walk-throughs of the space. One of the most important roles of monitoring is spotting the initial (often dif- ficult to monitor/observe) indications of potentially negative consequences for the success of a construction project. Conducting a walk-through helps to ensure that there are no âsurprisesâ when construction is complete and gives the ACC team a greater feeling of comfort when they move into the space. Walk-throughs are not intended to turn the construction process into a continual design effort. However, some âtweaksâ that will enable the future team to feel more comfortable in their work space often can be accomplished without affecting time and budget. 6.5 Commissioning and Activation For the ACC to open successfully, all equipment, systems, and utilities must be working prop- erly. When the ACC opens, airport personnel must be able to function solely on the new work flows, communications, and processes that have been developed. Two activities should be con- sidered before opening the ACC: (1) commissioning, which is the verification that all physical systems are operable, and (2) activation, which is the validation that all systems meet the business needs of the ACC. 6.5.1 Commissioning Commissioning is the process of verifying all (or some, depending on scope) of the subsys- tems for mechanical (HVAC), plumbing, electrical, fire/life safety, building envelopes, interior systems, co-generation, utility plants, sustainable systems, lighting, wastewater, controls, and building security as specified in the design package. Commissioning is necessary for both non-complex and complex ACC construction projects. The airport operator probably has a commissioning process, but, if not, the following process is recommended. A commissioning team and team leader should be selected to perform the testing. Ideally, this team will have been involved with the ACC project since project initiation. Although each airport handles commissioning differently, the basic formula for a successful building commis- sioning process involves a full understanding of the design document and includes a specifically tailored commissioning scope and plan that incorporates benchmarks for success, a review of design documents, and checklists for achieving the intended design. Review and approval of the commissioning activity by the ACC PM (and ultimately airport management) should precede activation.
74 Guidance for Planning, Design, and Operations of Airport Communications Centers 6.5.2 Activation Activationâthe process of preparing for the new facilityâs opening dayâis critical in the open- ing of an ACC. Activation requires many activities and the engagement of airport management, operations, and maintenance staff as the facility moves from construction to operation. A suc- cessful activation includes accounting for operations and maintenance preparedness in contracts, schedules, and budgets during the early phases of the project; implementing orientation and tech- nical familiarity training; completing staffing and training; concluding business arrangements such as leases; and preparing and conducting operations and emergency simulations and trials. Developing an activation plan that tests every system as though it were being used in normal operations is the most important element of activation. The activation plan seeks to ensure that â¢ Staff are properly trained on the new systems and operational procedures. â¢ All personnel working in the facility are familiar with the ACCâs physical layout. â¢ New processes, systems, and procedures work as anticipated. â¢ Construction and infrastructure are 100% complete and commissioned. More information can be found in ACRP Synthesis 20: Airport Terminal Facility Activation Techniques which explores lessons learned during terminal activations at 13 domestic and inter- national airport facilities. Although not specifically for ACCs, the techniques and processes out- lined in ACRP Synthesis 20 can be applied to an ACC. 6.6 Training and Orientation Training and ACC orientation are critical components in the pre-opening activities of the ACC. Although the actual training and orientation are not, in themselves, difficult to conduct, scheduling such events is often challenging. All of the personnel who need the training and orien- tation are likely to be engaged in critical airport management activities. Therefore, scheduling staff while giving consideration to maintaining airport operations is important. It must be made clear to all personnel that scheduled training is mandatoryâsometimes staff are under pressure from a given situation and decide not to attend training. Arrangements must be made for a reduced staffing composition that meets airport operational needs, but allows for essential training. Like training, orientation is essential. Orientation for a new ACC has many components that are similar to the orientation for a new employee. A detailed orientation may seem unneces- sary for personnel who are longtime employees of the airport. However, this could be the last opportunity for airport management to ensure that all employees are fully aware of the goals, objectives, and expectations of the ACC. At the least, the following items should be discussed in an orientation (depending on the facility, the functions being consolidated, and the number of new systems and technologies): â¢ Mission, goals, and objectives of the ACC. â¢ Expected culture, vision, and values of the new facility. â¢ Logistics of the new facility (e.g., parking and access control and break rooms). â¢ Organizational relationships, reporting hierarchy, and inter-organizational communications. Situational awareness and its importance and how the situational awareness template works. Each new technology system, how they are integrated, and what is expected from each system in a properly working environment. â¢ Emergency situations and irregular operations and how the ACC will function in such circumstances. â¢ Use of workspaces, hygiene requirements, locker etiquette (where provided), kitchen rules, and other factors important to employees.
Construction and Activation Activities 75 In addition, the ACC CONOPS should be provided, along with an explanation of the docu- mentâs structure and the documentâs importance in ensuring that the ACC is successful. 6.7 Warranties ACC contractors should provide all post-installation services and equipment necessary to maintain the installed system equipment and software in an operational state. The warranty period should be specified in the supply contracts and should begin after formal written accep- tance of the system by the airport. The warranty period should include all labor and preven- tive maintenance traditionally included in the maintenance period at no additional cost to the end user.