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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Assessing the Environmental Justice Effects of Toll Implementation or Rate Changes: Guidebook and Toolbox. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24991.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Assessing the Environmental Justice Effects of Toll Implementation or Rate Changes: Guidebook and Toolbox. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24991.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Assessing the Environmental Justice Effects of Toll Implementation or Rate Changes: Guidebook and Toolbox. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24991.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Assessing the Environmental Justice Effects of Toll Implementation or Rate Changes: Guidebook and Toolbox. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24991.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Assessing the Environmental Justice Effects of Toll Implementation or Rate Changes: Guidebook and Toolbox. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24991.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Assessing the Environmental Justice Effects of Toll Implementation or Rate Changes: Guidebook and Toolbox. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24991.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Assessing the Environmental Justice Effects of Toll Implementation or Rate Changes: Guidebook and Toolbox. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24991.
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Below is the uncorrected machine-read text of this chapter, intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text of each book. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

2018 N A T I O N A L C O O P E R A T I V E H I G H W A Y R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M NCHRP RESEARCH REPORT 860 Assessing the Environmental Justice Effects of Toll Implementation or Rate Changes Guidebook and Toolbox Lawrence Pesesky Deborah Matherly Leigh Lane Louis Berger New York, NY David Aimen Deva Deka Michael Smart ALAn M. Voorhees TrAnsporTATion CenTer ruTgers, The sTATe uniVersiTy of new Jersey New Brunswick, NJ Asha Weinstein Agrawal sAn Jose sTATe uniVersiTy San Jose, CA Bruce Brown prr Seattle, WA Anne Morris Anne Morris And AssoCiATes, LLC Columbia, SC Subscriber Categories Highways  •  Policy Research sponsored by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials in cooperation with the Federal Highway Administration

NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM Systematic, well-designed research is the most effective way to solve many problems facing highway administrators and engineers. Often, highway problems are of local interest and can best be studied by highway departments individually or in cooperation with their state universities and others. However, the accelerating growth of highway transportation results in increasingly complex problems of wide inter- est to highway authorities. These problems are best studied through a coordinated program of cooperative research. Recognizing this need, the leadership of the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO) in 1962 ini- tiated an objective national highway research program using modern scientific techniques—the National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP). NCHRP is supported on a continuing basis by funds from participating member states of AASHTO and receives the full cooperation and support of the Federal Highway Administration, United States Department of Transportation. The Transportation Research Board (TRB) of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine was requested by AASHTO to administer the research program because of TRB’s recognized objectivity and understanding of modern research practices. TRB is uniquely suited for this purpose for many reasons: TRB maintains an extensive com- mittee structure from which authorities on any highway transportation subject may be drawn; TRB possesses avenues of communications and cooperation with federal, state, and local governmental agencies, univer- sities, and industry; TRB’s relationship to the National Academies is an insurance of objectivity; and TRB maintains a full-time staff of special- ists in highway transportation matters to bring the findings of research directly to those in a position to use them. The program is developed on the basis of research needs identified by chief administrators and other staff of the highway and transporta- tion departments and by committees of AASHTO. Topics of the highest merit are selected by the AASHTO Standing Committee on Research (SCOR), and each year SCOR’s recommendations are proposed to the AASHTO Board of Directors and the National Academies. Research projects to address these topics are defined by NCHRP, and qualified research agencies are selected from submitted proposals. Administra- tion and surveillance of research contracts are the responsibilities of the National Academies and TRB. The needs for highway research are many, and NCHRP can make significant contributions to solving highway transportation problems of mutual concern to many responsible groups. The program, however, is intended to complement, rather than to substitute for or duplicate, other highway research programs. Published research reports of the NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM are available from Transportation Research Board Business Office 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 and can be ordered through the Internet by going to http://www.national-academies.org and then searching for TRB Printed in the United States of America NCHRP RESEARCH REPORT 860 Project 08-100 ISSN 2572-3766 (Print) ISSN 2572-3774 (Online) ISBN 978-0-309-44673-0 Library of Congress Control Number 2017961389 © 2018 National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. COPYRIGHT INFORMATION Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously published or copyrighted material used herein. Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permission is given with the understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB, AASHTO, FAA, FHWA, FMCSA, FRA, FTA, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Research and Technology, PHMSA, or TDC endorsement of a particular product, method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the material in this document for educational and not-for-profit uses will give appropriate acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of the material, request permission from CRP. NOTICE The research report was reviewed by the technical panel and accepted for publication according to procedures established and overseen by the Transportation Research Board and approved by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The opinions and conclusions expressed or implied in this report are those of the researchers who performed the research and are not necessarily those of the Transportation Research Board; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; or the program sponsors. The Transportation Research Board; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; and the sponsors of the National Cooperative Highway Research Program do not endorse products or manufacturers. Trade or manufacturers’ names appear herein solely because they are considered essential to the object of the report.

The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, non- governmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Marcia McNutt is president. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to bring the practices of engineering to advising the nation. Members are elected by their peers for extraordinary contributions to engineering. Dr. C. D. Mote, Jr., is president. The National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine) was established in 1970 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to advise the nation on medical and health issues. Members are elected by their peers for distinguished contributions to medicine and health. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president. The three Academies work together as the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to provide independent, objective analysis and advice to the nation and conduct other activities to solve complex problems and inform public policy decisions. The National Academies also encourage education and research, recognize outstanding contributions to knowledge, and increase public understanding in matters of science, engineering, and medicine. Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine at www.national-academies.org. The Transportation Research Board is one of seven major programs of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The mission of the Transportation Research Board is to increase the benefits that transportation contributes to society by providing leadership in transportation innovation and progress through research and information exchange, conducted within a setting that is objective, interdisciplinary, and multimodal. The Board’s varied committees, task forces, and panels annually engage about 7,000 engineers, scientists, and other transportation researchers and practitioners from the public and private sectors and academia, all of whom contribute their expertise in the public interest. The program is supported by state transportation departments, federal agencies including the component administrations of the U.S. Department of Transportation, and other organizations and individuals interested in the development of transportation. Learn more about the Transportation Research Board at www.TRB.org.

C O O P E R A T I V E R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M S AUTHOR ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The authors would like to acknowledge the contributions of the case study participants, who gener- ously provided time and supplementary documents, and the panel members for their time and guidance. The authors would also like to thank Adrienne Heller, Laura Hodgson, Al Racciatti, Dane Ismart, Illika Sahu, Kerri Snyder, Leo Tidd (Louis Berger technical support); Kelly Glenn, Jasmine Jones-Bynes, Nigel Grembowski (Alan M. Voorhees Transportation Center technical support); and Paul Bonaventura, Megan Heuer, Emily Johnson, and Deborah Mandell (Louis Berger graphic and editorial support). CRP STAFF FOR NCHRP RESEARCH REPORT 860 Christopher J. Hedges, Director, Cooperative Research Programs Lori L. Sundstrom, Deputy Director, Cooperative Research Programs Gwen Chisholm-Smith, Senior Program Officer Robert Turner, Senior Program Assistant Eileen P. Delaney, Director of Publications Sreyashi Roy, Editor NCHRP PROJECT 08-100 PANEL Field of Transportation Planning—Area of Forecasting Allison L. C. de Cerreno, Port Authority Bus Terminal, New York, NY (Chair) Ying Bao, Steer Davies Gleave, Boston, MA Keisha L. Jackson, Atkins, Atlanta, GA Chris Margaronis, Infra Associates, Manhattan Beach, CA Byron J. “Barney” O’Quinn, Fuquay-Varina, NC Jonathan R. Peters, The City University of New York, Staten Island, NY Christopher Scott Pomento, Maryland Transportation Authority, Baltimore, MD Carol Lee Roalkvam, Washington State DOT, Olympia, WA Elizabeth B. “Libby” Rushley, Lawhon & Associates, Ashville, OH Chris Schmidt, California Department of Transportation, Sacramento, CA Guohui Zhang, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI Angela Jacobs, FHWA Liaison

NCHRP Research Report 860: Assessing the Environmental Justice Effects of Toll Implemen- tation or Rate Changes: Guidebook and Toolbox provides a set of tools to enable analysis and measurement of the impacts of toll pricing, toll payment, toll collection technology, and other aspects of toll implementation and rate changes on low-income and minority populations. The Guidebook shows the practitioner when and how to apply the tools in the Toolbox through an eight-step process framework corresponding to the typical transportation project planning and development process. The Guidebook and Toolbox together provide an assess- ment framework and supporting tools to measure the impacts of tolling on such factors as mobility, access, and household expenditures, as well as tools to engage low-income and minority populations. In providing step-by-step instructions, the Guidebook cross-references to the tools in the Toolbox. The Toolbox has five sections: Tools, Case Examples, Reference Tables, Checklists, and Scenarios. Additional information about each of the featured tools and case examples is found at the beginning of the respective Tools and Case Examples sections of the Toolbox. The checklists include a description and instructions. The reference tables are briefly described within their respective steps, with a brief explanation at the beginning of each table. Each of the three scenarios—two generic example toll implementation projects and one rate change project—addresses how tools may be applied at every step and is self-explanatory. The process framework and application of tools are scalable depending on the potential for disproportionately high and adverse effects of the toll implementation or rate change on minority and low-income populations. The results of this research may be used by federal, state, and local transportation offi- cials, policy makers, and practitioners concerned with evaluating the impact of toll imple- mentation or rate changes on minority and low-income populations. NCHRP Web-Only Document 237: Environmental Justice Analyses When Considering Toll Implementation or Rate Changes—Final Report presents valuable information gathered in the development of the Guidebook and the Toolbox. This web-only document summarizes the technical research and presents the technical memorandum that documents the literature, existing case studies, resource documents, and other reports compiled. Tolling has become more prevalent as a funding mechanism as well as an operations strategy for transportation facilities. Tolling can have an impact on low-income and minor- ity populations, but the extent of the impact is unclear. As a result of Executive Order 12898, U.S. DOT Order 5610.2(a), and Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the U.S. DOT requires transportation agencies to take into consideration environmental justice (EJ) in all transportation programs, policies, and activities. The challenge for many practitioners is F O R E W O R D By Gwen Chisholm-Smith Staff Officer Transportation Research Board

how to best incorporate environmental justice analysis in assessing equity concerns in the context of pricing. Further, there is little consensus about what types of mitigation mea- sures are appropriate to be used to offset the effects of tolling on minority and low-income populations. The result of this research provides a resource to help practitioners assess the impact of toll implementation or rate changes on low-income and minority populations. Louis Berger prepared this report in association with the Alan M. Voorhees Transportation Center at Rutgers University under NCHRP Project 08-100. The primary objective of this research was to develop a toolbox that can be used to assist transportation decision-makers with how to assess, mitigate and offset any potential impacts on minority and low-income populations as a result of implementing tolls or rate changes. To accomplish this objective, the research team performed a comprehensive literature review, conducted interviews, and developed case studies. In addition, the research team investigated applied methods and practice used in assessing environmental justice impacts of tolling or congestion pricing.

1  Summary P a r t 1 Guidebook P a r t 2 Toolbox 79 Section 1 Tools 267 Section 2 Case Examples 333 Section 3 Reference Tables 361 Section 4 Checklists 377 Section 5 Scenarios C O N T E N T S Note: Photographs, figures, and tables in this report may have been converted from color to grayscale for printing. The electronic version of the report (posted on the web at www.trb.org) retains the color versions.

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TRB's National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP) Research Report 860: Assessing the Environmental Justice Effects of Toll Implementation or Rate Changes: Guidebook and Toolbox provides a set of tools to enable analysis and measurement of the impacts of toll pricing, toll payment, toll collection technology, and other aspects of toll implementation and rate changes on low-income and minority populations.

The guidebook shows the practitioner when and how to apply the tools in the toolbox through an eight-step process framework corresponding to the typical transportation project planning and development process. The guidebook and toolbox together provide an assessment framework and supporting tools to measure the impacts of tolling on such factors as mobility, access, and household expenditures, as well as tools to engage low-income and minority populations.

This report is accompanied by NCHRP Web-Only Document 237: Environmental Justice Analyses When Considering Toll Implementation or Rate Changes—Final Report. This report presents information gathered in the development of the guidebook and the toolbox. This web-only document summarizes the technical research and presents the technical memorandum that documents the literature, existing case studies, resource documents, and other reports compiled.

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