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Suggested Citation:"CONTENTS." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Legal Implications of Video Surveillance on Transit Systems. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25055.
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CONTENTS I. Introduction, 3 II. Transit Agencies’ Use of Video Surveillance, 6 A. Purposes of Video Surveillance, 6 B. Transit Agencies’ Policies Applicable to Video Surveillance, 6 C. Notice of Video Surveillance, 6 III. Privacy Risks Associated With Transit Agencies’ Use of Video Surveillance, 7 A. Standards and Guidelines for Video Surveillance, 7 B. Long-Duration or Permanent Video Surveillance, 8 C. Recording and Archiving of Video Surveillance Data, 9 D. Use of Technology to Identify and Track an Individual, 10 IV. Whether There Is a Right to Privacy Under the United States Constitution That Applies to the Use of Video Surveillance, 11 A. Evolution of Privacy Rights, 11 B. The Fourth Amendment and a Constitutional Right to Privacy, 14 C. Whether a Person in Public Retains a Right to Anonymity, 17 V. The Right to Privacy Under State Constitutions, 18 A. State Constitutions Recognizing a Right to Privacy, 18 B. States Recognizing an Implied Cause of Action for a Violation of a State Constitutional Provision, 19 VI. Whether There Are Federal and State Statutes That Apply to Video Surveillance, 20 A. Evolution of Federal Statutory Privacy Rights , 20 B. Privacy Act of 1974, 21 C. State Statutes Applicable to Video Surveillance, 22 D. Whether State Data-Collection Statutes Apply to Video Surveillance Data, 23 VII. Regulation of Any Audio Portion of Video Surveillance, 25 A. Federal Wiretap Act, 25 B. Stored Communications Act, 26 C. Whether One Party or All Parties to a Communication Must Consent to Audio Surveillance, 27 VIII. Video Surveillance and the Right to Privacy in the Workplace, 29 A. Whether a Public Employee Has Fourth Amendment Rights in the Workplace, 29 B. Video Surveillance and Violation of Collective Bargaining Agreements, 30 C. State Statutes on Video Surveillance in the Workplace, 31 D. Whether Transit Agencies Have Immunity for Searches in the Workplace, 33 E. Video Surveillance of Transit Operators, 33 F. Use of Video Surveillance to Deter or Prevent Assaults on Transit Workers, 34 G. Transit Agencies’ Policies on Employees’ Activation or Deactivation of Surveillance Equipment, 34 IX. Remedies at Common Law for Invasion of Privacy, 35 A. States That Recognize an Invasion of Privacy at Common Law, 35 B. Public Disclosure of Private Facts, 36 C. Claims for Misappropriation or False Light, 36 D. Intrusion Upon Seclusion, 36 X. Use of Video Surveillance in Tort Litigation and Accident and Criminal Investigations, 37 A. Use of Video Surveillance in Tort Litigation, 37 B. Use of Video Surveillance in Accident and Criminal Investigations, 38 C. Effect of 23 U.S.C. § 409 on the Admissibility of Video Surveillance, 38 XI. Disclosure of Video Surveillance Records Under the Federal or a State Freedom of Information Act or Equivalent Law, 39 A. Federal and State FOIAs or Other Public Records Disclosure Laws and Video Surveillance Data, 39 B. Transit Agency Policies and Practices on Release to a Requestor of Video Surveillance Data, 41 C. Agency Waiver of Privacy Exemption, 41 XII. Conclusion, 42 Appendices, 44

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TRB's Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP) Legal Research Digest 52: Legal Implications of Video Surveillance on Transit Systems explores the use of video surveilance systems on buses, trains, and stations. The widespread use of such video surveillance systems has generated numerous legal issues, such as a system’s ability to utilize video to discipline union and non-union employees, safety issues associated with such use, public access to such video, and retention policies regarding video, among others. This digest explores federal and state laws to address these issues, along with the current practices employed by transit agencies to comply with those laws.

The report appendicies are available online:

Appendix A: List of Transit Agencies Responding to the Survey

Appendix B: Survey Questions

Appendix C: Summary of Transit Agencies’ Responses to Survey Questions

Appendix D: Compendium of Federal and State Statutes on Audio and Video Surveillance

Appendix E: Documents Provided by Transit Agencies

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