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Suggested Citation:"Figure Sources." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Environmental Engineering for the 21st Century: Addressing Grand Challenges. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25121.



FIGURE 1-1 FAO Aquastat database,

FIGURE 1-2 Priya Shyamsundar. The Nature Conservancy.

FIGURE 1-3 AeroFarms LLC.

FIGURE 1-4 Adapted from High Level Panel of Experts. 2014. Food Losses and Waste in the Context of Sustainable Food Systems. A Report by the High-Level Panel of Experts on Food Security and Nutrition of the Committee on World Food Security. Rome: FAO.

FIGURE 1-5 Adapted from Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. 2012. OECD Environmental Outlook to 2050: The Consequences of Inaction.

FIGURE 1-6 Gassert, F., M. Luck, M. Landis, P. Reig, and T. Shiao. 2015. Aqueduct Global Maps 2.1: Constructing Decision-Relevant Global Water Risk Indicators. Working Paper. Washington, DC: World Resources Institute.

FIGURE 1-7 Courtesy of Liang Dong, Iowa State University.

SIDEBOX FIGURE Pamela Burroff-Murr, Purdue University in Gençer, E., C. Miskin, X. Sun, M. R. Khan, P. Bermel, M. A. Alam, and R. Agrawal. 2017. Directing solar photons to sustainably meet food, energy, and water needs. Scientific Reports 7: 3133.

FIGURE 1-8 National Research Council. 2010. Electricity from Renewable Resources: Status, Prospects, and Impediments. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.


FIGURE 2-1 Berkeley Earth. 2018. Global Temperature Report for 2017. Available at:

FIGURE 2-2 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 2018. Inventory of U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks: 1990-2016. Available at

FIGURE 2-3 U.S. Global Change Research Program. 2017. Climate Science Special Report: Fourth National Climate Assessment, Vol. 1. D. J. Wuebbles, D. W. Fahey, K. A. Hibbard, D. J. Dokken, B. C. Stewart, and T. K. Maycock, eds. Washington, DC: USGCRP.

FIGURE 2-4 Gasparrini, A., Y. Guo, F. Sera, A. M. Vicedo-Cabrera, V. Huber, S. Tong, M. de Sousa Zanotti Stagliorio Coelho, P. H. Nascimento Saldiva, E. Lavigne, P. Matus Correa, N. Valdes Ortega, H. Kan, S. Osorio, J. Kyselý, A. Urban, J. J. K. Jaakkola, N. R. I. Ryti, M. Pascal, P. G. Goodman, A. Zeka, P. Michelozzi, M. Scortichini, M. Hashizume, Y. Honda, M. Hurtado-Diaz, J. C. Cruz, X. Seposo, H. Kim, A. Tobias, C. Iñiguez, B. Forsberg, D. O. Åström, M. S. Ragettli, Y. L. Guo, C.-F. Wu, A. Zanobetti, J. Schwartz, M. L. Bell, T. N. Dang, D. D. Van, C. Heaviside, S. Vardoulakis, S. Hajat, A. Haines, and B. Armstrong. 2017. Projections of temperature-related excess mortality under climate change scenarios, The Lancet Planetary Health 1(9).


BOX 3-1 Hoornweg, D., and P. Bhada-Tata. 2012. What a Waste: A Global Review of Solid Waste Management. Washington, DC: World Bank.

FIGURE 3-2 Data from GBD 2016 Risk Factors Collaborators. 2017. Global, regional, and national comparative risk assessment of 84 behavioural, environmental and occupational, and metabolic risks or cluster of risks, 1990-2016: A systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016. The Lancet 390(10100): 1345-1422.

FIGURE 3-3 Adapted from Procurement Opportunities in the Circular Economy. Anthesis News + Insights [blog]. Available at:


FIGURE 4-1 ©Nic Lehoux for the Bullitt Center.

BOX 4-2 Sidewalk Labs.


BOX 5-1 Goldstein, J., G. Caldarone, T. K. Duarte, D. Ennaanay, N. Hannahs, G. Mendoza, S. Polasky, S. Wolny, and G. C. Daily. 2012. Integrating ecosystem service tradeoffs into land-use decisions. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 109(19): 7565-7570.

FIGURE 5-1 Adapted from Moss, R., P. L. Scarlett, M. A. Kenney, H. Kunreuther, R. Lempert, J. Manning, B. K. Williams, J. W. Boyd, E. T. Cloyd, L. Kaatz, and L. Patton. 2014. Decision support: Connecting science, risk perception, and decisions. Pp 620-647 in Climate Change Impacts in the United States: The Third National Climate Assessment, J. M. Melillo, T. C. Richmond, and G. W. Yohe, eds. U.S. Global Change Research Program. Available at:

FIGURE 5-2 Wikimedia Commons.


Suggested Citation:"Figure Sources." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Environmental Engineering for the 21st Century: Addressing Grand Challenges. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25121.
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Environmental engineers support the well-being of people and the planet in areas where the two intersect. Over the decades the field has improved countless lives through innovative systems for delivering water, treating waste, and preventing and remediating pollution in air, water, and soil. These achievements are a testament to the multidisciplinary, pragmatic, systems-oriented approach that characterizes environmental engineering.

Environmental Engineering for the 21st Century: Addressing Grand Challenges outlines the crucial role for environmental engineers in this period of dramatic growth and change. The report identifies five pressing challenges of the 21st century that environmental engineers are uniquely poised to help advance: sustainably supply food, water, and energy; curb climate change and adapt to its impacts; design a future without pollution and waste; create efficient, healthy, resilient cities; and foster informed decisions and actions.

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