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Systemic Pedestrian Safety Analysis (2018)

Chapter: References

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Page 76
Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Systemic Pedestrian Safety Analysis. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25255.
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Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Systemic Pedestrian Safety Analysis. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25255.
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Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Systemic Pedestrian Safety Analysis. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25255.
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Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Systemic Pedestrian Safety Analysis. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25255.
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76 AASHTO. (2010). Highway Safety Manual. American Association of State Highway Transportation Professionals, Washington, D.C. Alluri, P., A. Gan, A., K. Haleem, S. Miranda, E. Echezabal, A. Diaz, and S. Ding. (2012a). CMF/CRF Details. CMF ID: 5076, Provide a Raised Median. Available at http://www.cmfclearinghouse.org/detail.cfm?facid=5076. Alluri, P., A. Gan, A., K. Haleem, S. Miranda, E. Echezabal, A. Diaz, and S. Ding. (2012b). Before-and-After Safety Study of Roadways Where New Medians Have Been Added. Final Report. Lehman Center for Transporta- tion, Florida International University, in collaboration with Research Department, Florida Department of Transportation, Tallahassee. Bahar, G. B., with Hauer, E. (2014). User’s Guide to Develop Highway Safety Manual Safety Performance Func- tion Calibration Factors. Contractor’s Report for NCHRP 20-07/Task 332. Transportation Research Board, Washington, D.C. Bertulis, T., and D. M. Dulaski. (2014). Driver Approach Speed and Its Impact on Driver Yielding to Pedestrian Behavior at Unsignalized Crosswalks. Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, No. 2464, pp. 46–51. Blackburn, L., C. Zegeer, and K. Brookshire. (2017). Guide for Improving Pedestrian Safety at Uncontrolled Cross- ing Locations. Publication No. FHWA-SA-17-072. Federal Highway Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation, Washington, D.C. Brunson, C., A. Getman, S. Hostetter, and R. Viola. (2017). Left-Turn Pedestrian and Bicycle Crash Study. Pre- sented at 96th Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board, Washington, D.C. Bullough, J. D., M. S. Rea, and X. Zhang. (2012). Evaluation of Visual Performance from Pedestrian Crosswalk Lighting. Presented at 91st Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board, Washington, D.C. Chen, L., C. Chen, and R. Ewing (2012). CMF/CRF Details. CMF ID: 4124, Install High-Visibility Crosswalk. Available at http://www.cmfclearinghouse.org/detail.cfm?facid=4124. Chen, L., C. Chen, and R. Ewing. (2014). The Relative Effectiveness of Signal Related Pedestrian Counter measures at Urban Intersections—Lessons from a New York City Experience. Transport Policy, Vol. 32, pp. 69–78. Chen, L., C. Chen, R. Ewing, R. McKnight, R. Srinivasan, and M. Roe. (2013). Safety Countermeasures and Crash Reduction in New York City: Experience and Lessons Learned. Accident Analysis and Prevention, Vol. 50, pp. 312–322. City of Boulder Transportation Division. (Nov. 2011). Pedestrian Crossing Treatment Installation Guidelines. City of Boulder Transportation Division, Boulder. Available at https://www-static.bouldercolorado.gov/ docs/pedestrian-crossing-treatment-installation-guidelines-1-201307011719.pdf. City of Seattle Bicycle and Pedestrian Safety Analysis. (Sept. 30, 2016). Report. Seattle Department of Trans- portation. Available at https://www.seattle.gov/Documents/Departments/SeattleBicycleAdvisoryBoard/ presentations/BPSA_Draft_Public_093016.pdf. Chu, X. (2006). Pedestrian Safety at Midblock Locations. Final Report No. BD544-16. Florida Department of Transportation, University of South Florida Center for Urban Transportation Research, Tampa. De Pauw, E., S. Daniels, S. Van Herck, and G. Wets. (2015). Safety Effects of Protected Left-Turn Phasing at Signal- ized Intersections: An Empirical Analysis. Safety, Vol. 1, No. 1, pp. 94–102. Ellis, R. D., R. Van Houten, and J.-L. Kim. (2007). In-Roadway “Yield to Pedestrian” Signs: Placement Dis- tance and Motorist Yielding. Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, No. 2002, pp. 84–89. Elvik, R., and T. Vaa (Eds.). (2004). The Handbook of Road Safety Measures. Elsevier, Oxford, United Kingdom. Fayish, A. C., and F. Gross. (2010). Safety Effectiveness of Leading Pedestrian Intervals Evaluated by a Before– After Study with Comparison Groups. Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, No. 2198, pp. 15–22. References

References 77 Feldman, M., J. G. Manzi, and M. F. Mitman. (2010). Empirical Bayesian Evaluation of Safety Effects of High- Visibility School (Yellow) Crosswalks in San Francisco, California. Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, No. 2198, pp. 8–14. Fitzpatrick, K., and E. S. Park. (2010a). CMF/CRF Details: Install a Pedestrian Hybrid Beacon (PHB or HAWK), CMF I.D. 2922. Retrieved June 6, 2017 from http://www.cmfclearinghouse.org/detail.cfm?facid=2922. Fitzpatrick, K., and E. S. Park. (2010b). Safety Effectiveness of the HAWK Pedestrian Crossing Treatment, Report No. FHWA-HRT-10-042. Office of Safety Research and Development, Turner–Fairbank Highway Research Center, Federal Highway Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation, McLean, Va. Fitzpatrick, K., M. Brewer, and R. Avelar. (2014). Driver Yielding at Traffic Control Signals, Pedestrian Hybrid Beacons, and Rectangular Rapid-Flashing Beacons in Texas. 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Florida Department of Transportation, Tallahassee. Gårder, P. E. (2004). The Impact of Speed and Other Variables on Pedestrian Safety in Maine. Accident Analysis and Prevention, Vol. 36, No. 4, pp. 533–542. Gates, T. J., P. T. Savolainen, S. Stapleton, T. Kirsch, and S. Miraskar. (2016). Development of Safety Perfor- mance Functions and Other Decision Support Tools to Assess Pedestrian and Bicycle Safety. Transportation Research Center for Livable Communities, Kalamazoo, Mich. Gibbons, R. B., C. Edwards, B. Williams, and C. K. Andersen. (2008). Informational Report on Lighting Design for Midblock Crosswalks. Report No. FHWA-HRT-08-053. Office of Safety Research and Development, Turner–Fairbank Research Center, Federal Highway Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation, McLean, Va. Grembek, O., Y. Zhang, A. Yavari, Z. Yang, and D. Ragland. (2013). Strategies for Reducing Pedestrian and Bicy- clist Injury at the Corridor Level. Publication No. CA13-2207. California Department of Transportation, Sacramento. Gross, F., T. Harmon, M. Albee, S. Himes, R. Srinivasan, D. L. Carter, and M. Dugas. (2016a). Evaluation of Four Network Screening and Performance Measures. Report No. FHWA-SA-16-103. Federal Highway Adminis- tration Office of Safety, U.S. Department of Transportation, Washington, D.C. Gross, F., T. Harmon, G. Bahar, and K. Peach. (2016b). Reliability of Safety Management Methods: Systemic Safety Programs. Report No. FHWA-SA-16-041. Office of Safety, Federal Highway Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation, Washington, D.C. Harkey, D. L., R. Srinivasan, J. Baek, B. Persaud, C. Lyon, F. M. Council, K. Eccles, N. Lefler, F. Gross, E. Hauer, and J. Bonneson. (2008). NCHRP Report 617: Crash Reduction Factors for Traffic Engineering and ITS Improvements. Transportation Research Board, Washington, D.C. Hauer, E. (2011). Computing What the Public Wants: Some Issues in Road Safety Cost–Benefit Analysis. 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78 Systemic Pedestrian Safety Analysis Kimley-Horn and Associates, Inc., Lee Engineering, and C. Zegeer. (2017). ADOT Pedestrian Safety Action Plan. Final Report. Kimley-Horn and Associates, Tucson, Ariz. King, M. R. (1999). Calming New York City Intersections. Presented at the Urban Street Symposium, Dallas, Tex. Knapp, K., B. Chandler, J. Atkinson, T. Welch, H. Rigdon, R. Retting, S. Meekins, E. Widstrand, and R. J. Porter. (2014). Road Diet Informational Guide. Federal Highway Administration, U.S. Department of Transporta- tion, Washington, D.C. Koonce, P., L. Rodegerdts, L. Lee, S. Quayle, S. Beaird, C. Braud, J. Bonneson, P. Tarnoff, and T. Urbanik. (2017). Traffic Signal Timing Manual. Publication No. FHWA-HOP-08-024. Federal Highway Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation, Washington, D.C. Kump, R., R. Nuesmeyer, K. Harris, and K. Hanks. (2016). Calculating the Value of Arterial Safety Improvements: Before and After Study Shows Safety Improvements Reduced Crashes by 40 Percent. ITE Journal, Vol. 86, No. 4, pp. 34–39. Lagerwey, P. A., M. J. Hintze, J. B. Elliot, J. L. Toole, and R. J. Schneider. (2015). NCHRP Report 803: Pedestrian and Bicycle Transportation Along Existing Roads—ActiveTrans Priority Tool Guidebook. Transportation Research Board, Washington, D.C. Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices. (2009). Federal Highway Administration, U.S. Department of Trans- portation, Washington, D.C. Mead, J., A. McGrane, C. V. Zegeer, and L. Thomas. (2014). Evaluation of Pedestrian-Related Roadway Measures: A Summary of Available Research. No. DTFH61-11-H-00024. Pedestrian and Bicycle Information Center, Chapel Hill, N.C. Monsere, C., H. Wang, Y. Wang, and C. Chen. (2017). Risk Factors for Pedestrian and Bicycle Crashes. No. FHWA-OR-RD-17-13, SPR 779. Oregon Department of Transportation Research Section, Salem. Nambisan, S., S. Pulugurtha, V. Vasudevan, M. Dangeti, and V. Virupaksha. (2009). Effectiveness of Automatic Pedestrian Detection Device and Smart Lighting on Pedestrian Safety. Transportation Research Record: Jour- nal of the Transportation Research Board, No. 2140, pp. 27–34. National Center for Statistics and Analysis. (2018, March–Revised). Pedestrians: 2016 data. Traffic Safety Facts. Report No. DOT HS 812 493. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, Washington, D.C. Preston, H., R. Storm, J. D. Bennett, and B. Wemple. (2013). Systemic Safety Project Selection Tool. Report No. FHWA-SA-12-019. Federal Highway Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation, Washington, D.C. Pulugurtha, S. S., V. Vasudevan, S. S. Nambisan, and M. R. Dangeti. (2012). Evaluating the Effectiveness of Infrastructure-Based Countermeasures on Pedestrian Safety. Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, No. 2299, pp. 100–109. Retting, R. A. (2018). Pedestrian Traffic Fatalities by State: 2017 Preliminary Data. Governors Highway Safety Association., Washington, D.C. Road User Behaviors at Pedestrian Hybrid Beacons. (2016). TechBrief, Pedestrian and Bicycle Safety, FHWA Report No. FHWA-HRT-16-039. Turner–Fairbank Highway Research Center, Federal Highway Administra- tion, U.S. Department of Transportation, McLean, Va. Available at https://www.fhwa.dot.gov/publications/ research/safety/16039/16039.pdf Ryus, P., E. Ferguson, K. M. Laustsen, R. J. Schneider, F. R. Proulx, T. Hull, and L. Miranda-Moreno. (2014). NCHRP Report 797: Guidebook on Pedestrian and Bicycle Volume Data Collection. Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, Washington, D.C. Sanders, R. L., A. Frackelton, S. Gardner, R. Schneider, and M. Hintze. (2017). Ballpark Method for Estimat- ing Pedestrian and Bicyclist Exposure in Seattle, Washington: Potential Option for Resource-Constrained Cities in an Age of Big Data. 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References 79 Strong, C., and M. Kumar. (2006). Safety Evaluation of Yield-to-Pedestrian Channelizing Devices. Final Report. Pennsylvania Department of Transportation, Harrisburg. Thomas, L., N. J. Thirsk, and C. V. Zegeer. (2016). NCHRP Synthesis 498: Application of Pedestrian Crossing Treatments for Streets and Highways. Transportation Research Board, Washington, D.C. Thomas, L., B. Lan, R. L. Sanders, A. Frackelton, S. Gardner, and M. Hintze. (2017). Changing the Future? Develop- ment and Application of Pedestrian Safety Performance Functions to Prioritize Locations in Seattle, Wash- ington. Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, No. 2659, pp. 212–223. Toolbox of Countermeasures and Their Potential Effectiveness for Pedestrian Crashes. (2013). Report No. FHWA- SA-014. Federal Highway Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation, Washington, D.C. Available at http://www.pedbikeinfo.org/data/library/details.cfm?id=4922 Turner, S., I. Sener, M. Martin, L. D. White, S. Das, R. Hampshire, M. Colety, K. Fitzpatrick, and R. Wijesundera. (in press). Guide for Scalable Risk Assessment Methods for Pedestrians and Bicyclists. FHWA-SA-18-032. Federal Highway Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration, Washington, D.C. Van Houten, R. (2017). Pedestrian Safety Solutions: Roadway Design and Innovative Infrastructure: “New Research on the Gateway R1-6 Treatment.” Presented at 96th Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board, Washington, D.C. Van Houten, R., and J. Hochmuth. (2017). Evaluation of R1-6 Gateway Treatment Alternatives for Pedestrian Cross- ings: Follow Up Report. Roadway Safety Institute, Center for Transportation Studies, Minneapolis, Minn. Van Houten, R., R. Ellis, and J.-L. Kim. (2007). Effects of Various Minimum Green Times on Percentage of Pedestrians Waiting for Midblock “Walk” Signal. Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transporta- tion Research Board, No. 2002, pp. 78–83. Van Houten, R., R. A. Retting, C. M. Farmer, and J. Van Houten. (2000). Field Evaluation of a Leading Pedestrian Interval Signal Phase at Three Urban Intersections. Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transpor- tation Research Board, No. 1734, No. 1, pp. 86–92. Wei, F. Z. Wang, P.-S. Lin, P. P. Hsu, S. Ozkul, J. Jackman, and M. Bato. (2017). Safety Effects of Street Illuminance at Urban Signalized Intersections in Florida. Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, No. 2555, pp. 95–102. Williams, A. (2015). Pedestrian Traffic Fatalities by State: 2014 Preliminary Data. Governors Highway Safety Association., Washington, D.C. Zegeer, C. V., D. Nabors, P. A. Lagerwey, C. Sundstrom, D. Lovas, T. Huber, R. J. Eldridge, and M. Bushell. (2013). PEDSAFE: Pedestrian Safety Guide and Countermeasures Selection System. Turner–Fairbank Highway Research Center, Federal Highway Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation, McLean, Va. Zegeer, C. V., J. R. Stewart, H. H. Huang, and P. A. Lagerwey. (2002). Safety Effects of Marked Versus Unmarked Crosswalks at Uncontrolled Locations: Executive Summary and Recommended Guidelines. Turner–Fairbank Highway Research Center, Federal Highway Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation, McLean, Va. Zegeer, C. V., R. Srinivasan, B. Lan, D. L. Carter, S. Smith, C. Sundstrom, N. J. Thirsk, J. Zegeer, C. V. Lyon, E. Ferguson, and R. Van Houten. (2017a). Development of Crash Modification Factors for Uncontrolled Pedestrian Crossing Treatments. Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, No. 2636, pp. 1–8. Zegeer, C. V., R. Srinivasan, B. Lan, D. L. Carter, S. Smith, C. Sundstrom, N. J. Thirsk, J. Zegeer, C. V. Lyon, E. Ferguson, and R. Van Houten. (2017b). NCHRP Research Report 841: Development of Crash Modification Factors for Uncontrolled Pedestrian Crossing Treatments. Transportation Research Board, Washington, D.C.

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TRB's National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP) Research Report 893: Systemic Pedestrian Safety Analysis provides a safety analysis method that can be used to proactively identify sites for potential safety improvements based on specific risk factors for pedestrians. A systemic approach, as opposed to a “hot-spot” approach, enables transportation agencies to identify, prioritize, and select appropriate countermeasures for locations with a high risk of pedestrian-related crashes, even when crash occurrence data are sparse. The guidebook also provides important insights for the improvement of data collection and data management to better support systemic safety analyses.

The Contractor's Final Technical Report and a PowerPoint presentation summarizing the project accompany the report.

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