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Suggested Citation:"Summary ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. A Primer to Prepare for the Connected Airport and the Internet of Things. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25299.
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Suggested Citation:"Summary ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. A Primer to Prepare for the Connected Airport and the Internet of Things. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25299.
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Suggested Citation:"Summary ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. A Primer to Prepare for the Connected Airport and the Internet of Things. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25299.
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Page 4
Suggested Citation:"Summary ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. A Primer to Prepare for the Connected Airport and the Internet of Things. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25299.
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1 What Is the Internet of Things? The Internet of Things (IoT) is not a technology itself but rather a concept. IoT is a way of bringing together enabling technologies in a specific way to do something new. It is a way of looking at disparate systems and asking: what if those two machines could talk to each other? IoT enables physical objects to see, hear, think, and perform jobs by having them share information and coordinate decisions. IoT transforms conventional physical objects into smart ones through various sensing devices and analytic functionalities (Figure 1). While the enabling technologies and functionalities in IoT are not new, the architecture that connects them and enables them to work together is new. How Does IoT Bring Value to Airports? Information Value Loop An Information Value Loop describes how IoT creates value. For information to complete the loop and create value, it must pass through the loop’s five stages: 1. A sensor creates digital information about the physical world. 2. The information is then communicated across a network. 3. Standards—technical, legal, regulatory, or social—allow that data to be aggregated with many other types of data. 4. Intelligence can analyze the aggregate data to find key insights. 5. The loop is completed when a human or machine uses those insights in a manner that leads to improved action. With the completion of the loop, the improved decision or action is the value created by IoT. Example: Using IoT to Increase Airport Equipment Maintenance Frequency Let’s use a real-world example from an airport to illustrate how IoT creates value from information input into the Information Value Loop. First, there must be a business need or problem to be solved. s u m m a r y A Primer to Prepare for the Connected Airport and the Internet of Things Source: Anucha Maneechote/Shutterstock.com

2 a Primer to Prepare for the Connected airport and the Internet of Things For example, an airport needs to locate its nonmotorized ground service equipment so that maintenance can be performed more often. Global positioning system (GPS) tags affixed to the equipment function as sensors, creating a thread of digital information about the equipment’s specific location. That information is communicated via a network of radios back to a central server. At the server, one cart’s location is aggregated with the location, type, and maintenance schedule for all other carts. All these data can then be analyzed to identify which carts need to be retrieved for maintenance. Finally, with that information in hand, workers can act, bringing in the right pieces of equipment for maintenance on time. With the completion of the loop, the digital information has created value in the real world— in this case, increasing the efficiency of equipment maintenance. Defining IoT Value for Airports The exact amount and type of value created by IoT are limited only by the business prob- lem to which IoT is applied. Airports are complex spaces—not only in terms of aircraft and passenger movement, but also in terms of the large number of stakeholders necessary to make the airport work. The value of IoT is determined by the volume and quality of the information handled. The more stakeholders an IoT application meaningfully connects, the more information there is for aggregation and analysis, and the more human or machine uses there can be that lead to improved decisions or actions. Various airport stakeholders (e.g., airlines, conces- sionaires, commercial tenants, vendors, and parking) each have different organizational structures, business models, profit motives, and goals. This means that each stakeholder will not only approach IoT differently but will accrue different benefits and face different challenges during implementation. Where Are the Opportunities for Value at an Airport? IoT can create value for an airport by supporting daily decisions or longer-term trends in operations. These typically cluster into one of two categories: passenger experience and airport operations. The passenger experience includes 12 separate stages that describe a passenger’s move- ments through an airport (the passenger experience journey map, described in Chapter 4). Airport operations also includes 12 stages, from arrival to ground and apron (the airport Data captured by sensor Sensor data communicated and aggregated Sensor data analyzed to modify future acts Figure 1. Basic IoT framework.

summary 3 operations journey map and is described in Chapter 4 as well). Some IoT solutions track to one point in the journey map, while others track across virtually the entire airport experience. Some IoT solutions engage a widespread group of stakeholders in the airport environment, while others engage a more limited group. To get the most from IoT, airport operators can review the case studies from other industries such as retail, commercial real estate (CRE), and transport and logistics. Lessons learned from these case studies show how IoT can improve efficiency, increase differentiation, or create entirely new sources of revenue. For example, an airport could use IoT to improve the efficiency of actions that support passenger experience by gathering data on the highest traffic areas in the airport and proactively direct cleaning staff to those areas. Or an airport could use IoT to distinguish itself from competitors by providing faster ramp servicing to aircraft, which saves money for airlines by allowing faster gate turns and making the facility a more attractive option. How Should IoT Be Implemented at an Airport? Regardless of the technology or application involved, IoT will have the biggest impact on airports when the technology is driven by the core business model. What business goals will an IoT solution support? The stakeholders and journey maps can determine all the possible IoT applications at an airport, as well as categorize known IoT appli- cations currently under way. This offers airports that are investigating possible IoT projects a view of where proven solutions exist as well as where untapped value may lie. The next step, then, is to assess the current as-is capabilities of the airport and under- stand where they may fall short of the requirements for the potential IoT solution. This assessment of required and as-is capabilities should include at least the following criteria: • The size and complexity of the data that the potential IoT solution will produce versus current capabilities to house and analyze data. • The communications and other infrastructure required for the potential solution versus what already exists at the airport. • The cost of the solution itself versus available funds. • Stakeholder groups that can achieve benefits from the potential solution versus the security and privacy procedures that must be in place to secure their cooperation or use. Assessing potential IoT solutions against these qualifiers can con- firm (or disprove) the overall fit for the defined needs of the airport before moving toward implementation. More important, the gaps between required and as-is capabilities seen in each of these criteria offer guideposts to the first steps that must be taken in an implemen- tation roadmap. Using This Primer to Apply IoT at Airports Implementing IoT must be a strategic process. The key is to remember that IoT solutions are tailored to the individual airport’s specific business problem. Identifying upfront what an airport’s IoT solution is meant to achieve is of paramount importance. (If you do not know where you are heading, how can you map the path to get there?) Implementation Checklist  Select the IoT solution that supports your business goals.  Determine the technical and organi- zational maturity needed to success- fully implement the chosen solution.  Assess your current technical and organizational maturity.  Craft an implementation roadmap to address the gaps between current and needed maturity.

4 a Primer to Prepare for the Connected airport and the Internet of Things This primer provides a resource for airport operators and their stakeholders to use in assessing the right IoT fit for their facility. It can be useful to airport staff at any level in their organizational hierarchy. Suggested focus areas for different kinds of personnel are noted as follows (with chapters in parentheses): • Leadership and management: – How IoT creates value (Chapter 2). – Where IoT is likely to create value for airports (Chapter 3). – Strategies for successful IoT implementation (Chapter 4). – Barriers to IoT implementation (Chapter 4). – Importance of scalability (Chapter 5). • Marketing, operations, facilities, or information technology: – IoT enabling technologies (Chapter 2). – Benefits of IoT applications (Chapter 2). – IoT in passenger and operations experiences (Chapter 4). – Strategies for successful IoT implementation (Chapter 4). – Implementation roadmap (Chapter 4).

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TRB's Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Research Report 191: A Primer to Prepare for the Connected Airport and the Internet of Things introduces the concept of the Internet of Things (IoT) within the airport environment to leverage current and emerging technologies. IoT can be used to provide information and services to airport passengers with current and evolving technologies. Airports, airlines, and other stakeholders can use these innovative technologies and data to enhance the user experience and add value. Airport operators and their stakeholders can use this primer to understand the IoT environment and plan for implementation.

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