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A Primer to Prepare for the Connected Airport and the Internet of Things (2018)

Chapter: Chapter 2 - Understanding IoT

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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 2 - Understanding IoT." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. A Primer to Prepare for the Connected Airport and the Internet of Things. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25299.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 2 - Understanding IoT." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. A Primer to Prepare for the Connected Airport and the Internet of Things. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25299.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 2 - Understanding IoT." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. A Primer to Prepare for the Connected Airport and the Internet of Things. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25299.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 2 - Understanding IoT." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. A Primer to Prepare for the Connected Airport and the Internet of Things. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25299.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 2 - Understanding IoT." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. A Primer to Prepare for the Connected Airport and the Internet of Things. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25299.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 2 - Understanding IoT." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. A Primer to Prepare for the Connected Airport and the Internet of Things. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25299.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 2 - Understanding IoT." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. A Primer to Prepare for the Connected Airport and the Internet of Things. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25299.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 2 - Understanding IoT." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. A Primer to Prepare for the Connected Airport and the Internet of Things. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25299.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 2 - Understanding IoT." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. A Primer to Prepare for the Connected Airport and the Internet of Things. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25299.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 2 - Understanding IoT." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. A Primer to Prepare for the Connected Airport and the Internet of Things. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25299.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 2 - Understanding IoT." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. A Primer to Prepare for the Connected Airport and the Internet of Things. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25299.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 2 - Understanding IoT." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. A Primer to Prepare for the Connected Airport and the Internet of Things. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25299.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 2 - Understanding IoT." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. A Primer to Prepare for the Connected Airport and the Internet of Things. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25299.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 2 - Understanding IoT." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. A Primer to Prepare for the Connected Airport and the Internet of Things. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25299.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 2 - Understanding IoT." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. A Primer to Prepare for the Connected Airport and the Internet of Things. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25299.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 2 - Understanding IoT." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. A Primer to Prepare for the Connected Airport and the Internet of Things. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25299.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 2 - Understanding IoT." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. A Primer to Prepare for the Connected Airport and the Internet of Things. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25299.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 2 - Understanding IoT." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. A Primer to Prepare for the Connected Airport and the Internet of Things. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25299.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 2 - Understanding IoT." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. A Primer to Prepare for the Connected Airport and the Internet of Things. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25299.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 2 - Understanding IoT." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. A Primer to Prepare for the Connected Airport and the Internet of Things. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25299.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 2 - Understanding IoT." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. A Primer to Prepare for the Connected Airport and the Internet of Things. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25299.
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8 What Is IoT? In IoT, different applications and devices must work together seamlessly across and within different sectors, enabling new capabilities and processes. This chapter introduces airport operators and their stakeholders to the definition, features, and enabling technologies of IoT, as well as ways in which IoT creates value. Beginnings of IoT In 1991, Mark Weiser of Xerox PARC first described how objects of all types could sense, communicate, analyze, and act or react to people and other machines autonomously—as easily as we turn on a light or open a water tap (Raynor and Cotteleer 2015). He developed a framework that became the basis for understanding how IoT works (Figure 1). The framework relies on three basic steps: 1. A sensor captures data about an action in the world. 2. The sensor communicates that data, and the system aggregates sensor data across time and space. 3. Analysis of the sensor data enables future acts to be modified. From these basic beginnings, IoT has evolved to encompass different devices, technologies, and uses. Evolving Definition As IoT has evolved, so too has its definition. Finding one term to describe it can be challeng- ing. It can be the Internet of Things, Internet of Everything, Industrial Internet, machine-to- machine communication, or even the fourth industrial revolution. The following are only some of the ways to describe IoT: • From a general perspective, Deloitte defines IoT as “technology that connects objects (including people) to a network (such as the Internet) to provide access to information about that object’s con- dition, position, or movement” (Eckenrode 2015). • From a sensor and operating system perspective, Texas Instruments defines IoT as “Things, people, and cloud services getting connected via the Internet to enable new use cases and business models” (Texas Instruments 2018). C H A P T E R 2 Understanding IoT Source: Philip Pilosian/Shutterstock.com. Definition: Internet of Things IoT is a network of connected devices embedded with sensors. The sensors capture data, and the IoT system architecture enables these devices to communicate, aggregate, and analyze data to achieve results.

Understanding IoT 9 • One airport representative interviewed for this research report defined IoT as “the intelligent connectivity of smart devices by which objects can sense one another and communicate, thus changing how, where, and by whom decisions about our physical world are made.” Components of IoT A multitude of terms are also used to describe today’s smart technologies: IoT, wearables, connected devices, and ubiquitous computing, for example. As a result, it can be difficult to distinguish between them. However, several components are common to all these terms: 1. IoT requires physical objects. 2. Those objects need to be smart objects—physical objects that are instrumented to collect data about their location, state, or other activities. 3. If those data are to move from the objects to where they can be used, connectivity is required. Connectivity is the glue that binds all the sensors and devices in a system together, providing pathways to transfer and gather data for analysis. 4. Analysis provides information that leads to an appropriate conclusion or response (Figure 2). While having representative technologies from each of these categories may be necessary to create IoT, they alone are not sufficient. All these technologies must work together to create a successful IoT solution. Connected Airports This primer aims to help airport operators and stakeholders understand the impacts of IoT technology and prepare for a connected airport environment. The connected airport brings together a variety of technologies through IoT, with the goal of improving the passenger experience and bringing monetary benefits to the host airport. Achieving this goal requires significant work behind the scenes in airport operations. People interviewed for this research described the concept of the connected airport in the following ways: • An IoT expert stated, “A connected airport would be one that has a fully digital interactive system that allows passengers to explore, travel, and be monetized. By be monetized, I mean being able to move passengers through the airport to learn what’s around them so that they can explore and buy stuff.” • The things themselves, such as a person, luggage, or boarding pass Physical Object • A smart component: a sensor or other data collection system Instrumentation • A network-based device facilitating the interconnection between an object, its environment, and data management system Connectivity • Actionable information gained from the analysis of data created Analytics Figure 2. Fundamental components of IoT.

10 A Primer to Prepare for the Connected Airport and the Internet of Things • An airport representative offered an operations-oriented definition: a connected airport has “airport systems that are connected to the Internet, and capable of displaying the current operating state, in a manner that is both temporal and geospatial.” • A representative of an airline industry association described a connected airport as “connecting processes and data more centrally.” • An airport vendor also took a data perspective: “You’ve got connec- tivity into every aspect of the airport operation—security, baggage, passenger processing. You’ve got data at your fingertips.” IoT Enabling Technologies IoT enables physical objects to see, hear, think, and perform jobs by having them exchange information and coordinate decisions. IoT does this through two basic categories of technolo- gies: sensors and communication protocols. Sensors At its core, IoT is about using digital information about the physical world to make better decisions and actions. This means that every IoT application, regardless of purpose or location, must begin with a physical object and a sensor measuring something about it. Figure 3 provides examples of common airport sensor systems. Definition: Connected Airport The term connected airport refers to a wide variety of IoT technologies and applications deployed at airports. Proximity. Also known as tracking sensors, these sensors include radio frequency identification (RFID) tags, beacons, and Wi-Fi sensors. Sensors identify the presence or absence of an object within a defined distance limit. When the object is detected in the vicinity, a signal is sent to the controlling system to initiate an action once the data are received. Typical uses in airports are in parking availability and lighting on/off systems, and radar and electromagnetic radiation systems that detect wildlife on airport grounds. Pressure. These sensors detect the variation in the pressure against some standard range and send data to the controlling system when any change is found so that proactive, timely action can be taken. Typical uses in airports are in heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems and other liquid- and gas-oriented asset monitoring. For example, the airport operator may not need to employ an engineer to examine infrastructure on a regular basis for building maintenance when pressure sensors are embedded in the terminal. Optical. These sensors measure the amount of light in the surrounding environment with electromagnetic energy monitoring and then convert it into a form that can be easily read by digital devices. Fiber optics, infrared, pyrometer, and photodetector are key types of optical sensors for IoT application. Optical sensors are often deployed in digital cameras to determine biometrics, apply security settings, and even perform queue management and passenger flow analytics (Denman et al. 2015). Motion sensors. These sensors detect the physical motion in an area and then send the information to the controlling device by transforming the motion into the signal. These sensors are used in intrusion detection systems, smart cameras, automatic door controls, and boom barriers where they can detect a presence with passive infrared rays, ultrasonic waves, and microwaves. In airports, they include door sensors, beacons, and earthquake sensors (Hui 2008). Figure 3. Examples of common sensors in airport IoT applications.

Understanding IoT 11 As noted in Figure 3, there are many varied types and uses of sen- sors in airports, but currently proximity sensors are most common in airports. The most common types of proximity sensors are as follows: • RFID tags. • Beacons. • Wi-Fi access points as sensors. RFID Tags RFID tags use radio frequency signals to transmit data about the tag to RFID readers. RFID tags can be active or passive: • An active RFID tag uses internal battery power to transmit directly to an RFID reader. • A passive RFID tag reflects the energy that an RFID reader directs at the tag (Jovix 2018). Active RFID systems are typically deployed in tracking an asset’s location, movement about the airport, current functional status, and lifetime remaining, such as for wheel chairs, baggage carts, and flight displays (Figure 4) (Adelte 2016). Because active RFID tags have their own power source, they can contain a variety of sensors and have enough data storage capacity to transmit and communicate data and position. Beacons Beacons are sensors that report the location or presence of an object or person in a certain area. Among the most common beacons are those operating via Bluetooth®. Bluetooth low energy held a major beacon technology market share in 2016 and is expected to dominate the market in the future, according to Global Market Insights. It is a low-cost wireless technol- ogy alternative to Wi-Fi, near field communication, and GPS technologies for location-based services. Definition: Sensor Sensors are mechanical or electrical devices that translate a physical phenomenon into useful signals—most often electrical impulses interpreted by computers. Figure 4. Example of an RFID tag: a Delta baggage tag (left) and the RFID tag embedded in it (right).

12 A Primer to Prepare for the Connected Airport and the Internet of Things Bluetooth beacons are small, low-cost, battery-operated devices that emit Bluetooth signal pings to other Bluetooth-enabled mobile devices, typically within a 70-m radius. The beacon senses these pings and estimates the relative proximity of nearby mobile devices to the beacon (Smartwhere 2015). Beacons can be used as part of either one-way or two-way communication: • In a one-way system, the beacon merely counts or tracks people or objects in an area. • In a two-way system, the beacon can transfer information to an application on a device. The beacon can also ping an application to respond with information. For example, the application could show the user a relevant message based on how close the user is to the beacon (Figure 5). Users of the application agree to this transfer of information in a user agreement. Wi-Fi Access Points as Sensors Wi-Fi access points provide the Wi-Fi signal for passengers and airport stakeholders. While most people think of Wi-Fi as a resource, like a water fountain, even Wi-Fi access points can become sensors. Wi-Fi-enabled devices continually transmit signals to detect available networks in the area (typically every 15 to 30 s) (Mattson 2016). Wi-Fi access points can collect and process these signals to count how many people moved through an area. By triangulating a user’s location between multiple access points, the system can even provide navigation or other location-depen- dent services. Airports are using this sensing capability of Wi-Fi access points to support functions such as optimization of staff allocations, queue management, directions and way finding, and real-time passenger flow analytics. Figure 5. Example of a beacon: SITA lab technology.

Understanding IoT 13 Communication Protocols Communication is a key element of IoT. Data are useless if they remain trapped on the physical object and cannot be sent where they can be used. A number of communication protocols are designed to transmit data over wired and wireless networks (Table 2). The performance and cost of these protocols can vary depending on the use. Therefore, there is no single best communications network or protocol. As a result, airports can use any of the protocols listed in Table 2. Finding the right connectivity option involves comparing the cost, bandwidth, range, reliability, and other factors of each protocol to the requirements for the specific IoT application. A useful technical reference is Internet of Things (IoT) Communication Protocols: Review (Al-Sarawi et al. 2017). For example, when LGW built its IoT infrastructure, it considered two types of low-power communication protocols: • Narrow-band IoT (NBIoT). NBIoT is built on a licensed spectrum, meaning that it oper- ates on a reserved slice of the electromagnetic spectrum. The result is less interference from outside sources, so connectivity can be more reliable, especially in a crowded radio-frequency environment like an airport. The downside is that because NBIoT relies on a licensed spec- trum, airports need a contract with a telecommunications company, just like a monthly cell phone contract. • Low-power wide area network (LoRaWAN). In an interview conducted on July 25, 2017, Abhilash Chacko, head of information technology (IT) commercial and innovation for LGW, LoRaWAN offers the inverse. It operates on an unlicensed spectrum, so no tele- communications company is needed. Once an airport sets up a network, it owns that network, so there are no recurring costs. The downside is the possibility of interference issues in certain areas. LGW decided to use LoRaWAN in its IoT platform competition, but other options may be best for other airports. Typically, these communications protocols bring data from sensors to a centralized repository where they can be combined with other data and analyzed. While some data can be processed and analyzed on the sensor itself, more complicated analysis for larger business problems usually requires aggregation of data. The specifics of how aggregation and analysis are performed vary widely depending on the specific use. Data can be brought together and parsed for uses that require immediate responses, Table 2. Broad network classes with sample communication protocols.

14 A Primer to Prepare for the Connected Airport and the Internet of Things or data can be stored and analyzed over time. Some airports may host these systems in-house, while others outsource the handling of data to a cloud-service provider. Again, there is no single, best solution but many options from which to choose. How IoT Creates Value Improvements and advances made to IoT technologies have accelerated in the past few years. However, technological improvement alone is not at the core of what makes IoT so power- ful and revolutionary. Interest in IoT did not increase until after all of these technologies were readily available (Figure 6). This is not because there was no need for IoT before or because interest was still building, but rather because industry was still determining exactly how the tech- nologies should all be connected to work together. Those connections between the technologies, also called architecture, are the key to how IoT creates value. IoT as a Technology Architecture While new devices are easy to identify, technology alone cannot create significant value. New technologies can be useful but can also be easily copied by competitors. Only an archi- tecture such as IoT can create sufficient value to give a business a strategic advantage over its competitors. Enduring strategic advantage can only come from new architectures, that is, new ways of connecting technologies, people, and business processes. As a result, these architectures are essentially entirely new ways of thinking. While introducing an entirely new architecture is challenging because of the system reengineering that may be required, if done correctly, it can be incredibly difficult for competitors to copy or defeat. For example, in the 1990s, Southwest Airlines created a revolutionary architecture. Other airlines could easily see the technology Southwest used—operating only one type of aircraft to keep maintenance costs low—but they could not see how that technology connected to other technologies. They could not see all the operating processes and strategies such as fuel hedges, employee culture, and so forth. In short, other companies could not see the architecture that Definition: Architecture Architecture means the connections among IoT technologies. Source: Google (2016) (Google Trends using the search term Internet of Things from 2004 to 2016). All components available loT “takes off” Figure 6. Relative search trends for Internet of Things.

Understanding IoT 15 allowed Southwest to be such a successful low-fare airline (Elliot 2002). The result was that when major airlines copied Southwest with in-house low-fare brands in the mid-1990s, every single one was out of business and folded back into the parent airline by 2003 (Kumar 2006). Architectures are hard to create but do make a difference. Information Value Loop Concept But how exactly do the enabling technologies come together to form an architecture? The architecture of IoT is explained by the Information Value Loop (Figure 7). The loop begins when an action—the state or behavior of things in the real world—generates information, which then gets manipulated to inform future action. For information to complete the loop and create value, it passes through the loop’s stages, each enabled by the following specific technologies: 1. Sensors. A sensor creates digital information about the physical world. 2. Network. The network communicates the digital information. 3. Standards. Standards—technical, legal, regulatory, or social—allow those data to be aggre- gated with many other types of data across time and space. 4. Augmented intelligence. Tools such as augmented or artificial intelligence analyze the data to find key insights. 5. Augmented behavior. The loop is completed when a human or machine uses those insights to act in a manner that leads to improved action. Figure 7. The Information Value Loop describing the architecture of IoT.

16 A Primer to Prepare for the Connected Airport and the Internet of Things Making an improved decision or action is how IoT creates value. Information completes the loop and enables a new action—an impos- sibility without the combined efforts of all the technologies around the loop. Packages can be routed more efficiently, workers can be directed to where need is greatest, or maintenance can be conducted only when equipment requires it. All these actions save money or increase the value of a product or service because the enabling tech- nologies of IoT have come together to process digital information about the physical world. But most important, because IoT creates value from information, a mere change of the type of information it collects can significantly alter how it benefits a business. For example, the same architecture that gathers information about the location of luggage carts to improve efficiency can also locate passengers’ baggage to create a better customer experience. The fundamentals of IoT remain the same; only the benefits a business realizes from IoT change. Example of an Information Value Loop The following example of an Information Value Loop from an air- port illustrates how IoT creates value from information: 1. The airport needs to locate its nonmotorized ground service equipment so maintenance can be performed more regularly. GPS tags affixed to the equipment function as sensors, creating a thread of digital information about the location of a specific piece of equipment. 2. A network of radios communicates that information back to a central server. 3. The server aggregates the location of the one cart with the location, type, and maintenance schedule for all the other carts. 4. All these data are analyzed together to create a plan for which carts need to be retrieved and undergo maintenance. 5. With that information in hand, workers act, bringing in the right pieces of equipment for maintenance on time. With the completion of the loop, the digital information has created value in the real world— in this case, proper maintenance and greater uptime for ground service equipment. The exact amount and type of value created by IoT are limited only by the business problem airports use IoT to solve. Benefits of IoT Applications The three principal classes of benefits from IoT are as follows: • Operational efficiency. • Strategic differentiation. • New revenue. IoT is already in use in airports in many different ways, especially traveler information systems, passenger traffic monitoring, baggage systems, and facilities management. Most of these uses focus on increasing efficiency. Other uses of IoT, such as improving security, often fit within either efficiency (maintaining throughput with fewer machines or staff) or differentiation (shorter and faster lines for a better traveler experience). As a result, these three categories are helpful guides to what IoT can achieve at an airport. How Much Value Does IoT Create? The amount of value IoT creates varies. In general, analyzing the value drivers (shown in the center of Figure 7) can determine the amount of value created from the information passing through the loop. The value drivers fall into three general categories: • Magnitude: how much data are needed (scope, scale, and frequency). • Risk: how reliable and accurate must those data be (security, reliability, and accuracy). • Time: how quickly or how often the data are needed (latency and timeliness).

Understanding IoT 17 The following examples illustrate the ways in which diverse industries—aviation, finance, sanitation, surface transportation—are leveraging IoT-derived information to produce opera- tional efficiencies, strategic differentiation, and new revenue. Operational Efficiency The majority of current airport uses of IoT focus on operational efficiency. For example, an airport representative shared that one airport has “a new online inspection system managed through a private contract with Siemens, which uses a tool provided to maintenance grounds crew and connected to the Internet with GPS functionality. The purpose of this tool is to digitally connect maintenance crew inspection findings to a map of the airport grounds.” Automatic teller machines. Other industries demonstrate the potential for gains in effi- ciency. Diebold, a leader in the automatic teller machine (ATM) industry, provides an example of increasing efficiency through connectivity. Diebold uses smart, connected products to conduct remote diagnostics and issue resolution procedures across its network of 5,000 ATMs. Results show a 17% increase in remote issue resolution, a 15% reduction in equipment downtime, and average downtime responses reduced to less than 30 min (PTC 2018). Waste Management. In Barcelona, Spain, IoT is improving the efficiency of waste man- agement. Sensors are embedded in garbage cans, and capacity—rather than fixed collection schedules—determines waste collection frequency. Barcelona is projected to save more than $4.1 billion in the next decade (Thomson 2014). Transportation. IoT is currently being used in other transportation modes to improve operations (Figure 8). For example, container traffic at the Port of Hamburg was projected to grow from 9 million containers in 2013 to 25 million in 2025, while physical space at the port remained limited (Banker 2016). Hamburg addressed this problem by placing sensors on bridges, containers, trucks, and parking spaces. Then, a single data system connected all stake- holders in the port, including the port authority, ships, and shipping companies. Now, port managers collect and aggregate information about bridge closures, terminal congestion, and available truck parking. Information is then shared with other stakeholders so that trucks arrive Source: Travel Mania/Shutterstock.com Figure 8. IoT in port operations.

18 A Primer to Prepare for the Connected Airport and the Internet of Things in the port when their assigned container is ready and then depart using the fastest route. To address companies’ unease about sharing information with competitors, the system gathers all information in the port but shares only what is relevant to each stakeholder. With this system, the Port of Hamburg reduced wait times by 5 min per truck, saving more than 5,000 h per day and increasing throughput by 7% to 20%, depending on the port location (SAP 2018a). Strategic Differentiation While gains in efficiency can be significant, IoT can also provide a more differentiated product or better customer experience. Differentiation can be much broader, especially for airports where the greatest competition comes not from other airports but from other modes of travel. For example, limiting greenhouse emissions, reducing noise levels over neighboring areas, or even responsibly maintaining an airport’s open space can all be differentiators that make the airport an integral part of the community and an attractive brand. In fact, smart products used as part of IoT can even gather information about customer preferences, providing a deeper understanding of what does and does not differentiate travel options. Currently, very few applications of IoT in airports provide strategic differentiation. This trend is seen in other industries as well. A lack of investment capital, unease over technical complexity, and organizational concerns can play a role in an executive’s decision to pursue efficiency over differentiation. One crucial factor is that, unlike operational efficiency deploy- ments, differentiation requires changes that extend outside the organization and involve per- ceptions of, or transactions with, other stakeholders. In a multi-stakeholder landscape like the modern airport, involving external stakeholders in a rapidly changing technology implemen- tation can be extremely challenging. New Revenue IoT can also create entirely new sources of revenue. This can come from creating new products or services to attract new customers or by using IoT to sell more to existing customers. While IoT solutions aimed at new revenue are often the largest and most complex, they can also build on existing solutions and generate efficiency gains. The following are some examples from rail and logistics industries. Rail. European cargo rail consortium Deutsche Bahn AG used IoT to generate new revenue from previously untapped customers. Deutsche Bahn installed a network-wide track-monitoring system of over 1 billion nodes—collecting data on each segment of track, railcar, station, engine, switch, and signal—that span its global operating network (see Figure 9) (Optasense 2014). The system monitors the condition of all these physical objects in real time. Data flow back to a control tower that aggregates them every 5 s to provide near-real-time information across the entire fleet. Deutsche Bahn uses these data to improve operational efficiency by rerouting traffic around congested nodes to increase on-time arrivals. Deutsche Bahn then integrated the monitoring system with planned customer orders and billing information. This aggregation of diverse datasets enabled the company to create dynamic cost-to-serve pricing models. In contrast to traditional cost-plus pricing, Deutsche Bahn generates a price specific to a customer’s needs by examining traffic patterns, network usage, freight type, destination, and a customer’s desired timetable. In the past, many customers may have been quoted prices that seemed too high for their needs and moved their freight by road or other means. Now those customers see better value in rail, and Deutsche Bahn captures a larger portion of the market for moving passengers and freight (Bonsall et al. 2007). Logistics. Companies can also use IoT to create entirely new products or services. Often a company may realize that data it is already gathering for the company’s own internal efficiency

Understanding IoT 19 can be used by another, external group that is willing to pay for it. For example, DHL gathers data across the world from its sensorized shipping fleet. DHL used that data to create an entirely new product to offer to customers. Airports may not have the global reach of data that a company like DHL has, but they can compile significant amounts of data about the passengers, aircraft, and cargo that move through them. These data could be significant to advertisers seeking to more accurately segment customers, to economists and traders seeking to predict economic trends, or even to academic researchers analyzing everything from climate to crowd dynamics. Airports should keep an open mind about finding other possible uses for their large volume of data gathered with IoT. Introduction to the Case Studies The fact that no particular device or piece of technology defines IoT makes it remark- ably flexible. IoT has applications for consumer wearables and for in-home functions, in every industry and sector, both visible and behind the scenes. Because the architecture of IoT remains constant, airports can learn important lessons about how to harness IoT from other industries. Three case studies examined IoT’s use in three industries with direct parallels to airports: • Retail. • CRE. • Transport and logistics. Case Study: IoT in Retail Airports can take advantage of best practices and lessons learned from IoT in retail. Significant parallels can be drawn between the needs and challenges of airports and those of retail, including growing demands for improving the customer experience with e-commerce platforms. Airport operators can learn from the IoT proofs of concept executed by retailers as they define and develop their own IoT strategies to increase nonaeronautical revenue and improve security, efficiency, and overall operations. While retailers have made tentative forays into IoT, most applications of IoT have focused on providing customer-facing applications as a way to gain new or retain existing customers. For Source: Tupungato/Shutterstock.com Figure 9. Deutsche Bahn AG train station.

20 A Primer to Prepare for the Connected Airport and the Internet of Things example, some grocery retailers such as Sam’s Club or Giant Food Stores offer a smartphone app that enables customers to scan item barcodes as these items are put in a cart and pay for them (with a pre-entered credit card) without ever going through a checkout line. This reduces the need for check-out personnel and provides time savings to customers. However, the true value of IoT comes from retailers combining both backroom and customer-facing applications. In this way, IoT is poised to transform the retail industry—helping retailers offer customized products for lower prices, find competitive advantages, and increase revenue by better understanding their customers and their preferences. Defining the Business Need for IoT Applications in Retail In general, retailers use one of two strategies to create value: high choice or low choice. High-Choice Vendors. For most of retailing’s history, customers made purchases by select- ing from the goods available on store shelves or in on-site stockrooms. Because retailers had few ways to accurately gauge who would want what when, the only way to provide customers with what they wanted was to physically stock the goods in store. Providing this higher level of choice meant increased inventory-related costs associated with sourcing, moving, and holding a larger variety of products. As a result, retailers required higher margins (achieved through higher prices) to attain a level of profitability comparable with that of retailers who offered fewer choices. High-choice retailers charge higher prices on exclusive goods and the same price as competitors on goods offered by both. Low-Choice Vendors. Alternatively, a retailer could provide fewer choices and enjoy lower overall inventory costs. It could then pass the savings on to consumers in the form of lower prices or keep the savings for itself with higher margins. Comparison of High- and Low-Choice Strategies. A company’s strategy is determined, in part, by how it chooses to address the costs and benefits of carrying inventory (Figure 10). One choice is not better or worse than the other, only different in its execution. The choices simply Low-Price Leader One-Stop Shop Mass Customization Source: Deloitte analysis. Graphic: Deloitte University Press⎟ DUPress.com Figure 10. IoT can break the traditional trade-off of retail strategy, balancing cost versus choice.

Understanding IoT 21 represent different business strategies, each of which can be success- ful. In fact, the long-term performance of both low-price leaders and one-stop shop retailers is extremely close (Figure 10). Therefore, what is needed to be innovative is not a change from a low-price leader to a one-stop shop or vice versa, but to break the trade-off between them entirely. IoT Option. Through IoT, technology may finally break that trade-off and create a third choice. The decreasing cost of sensors and computing power means that IoT is more widely deployed than ever. The result is that, if properly applied, IoT can drive the creation of business models that enable retailers to offer a wide array of goods, customized to a customer’s unique needs, at a low price. The concept of mass customization shows how technology can help make this new business model a reality. Sample Solution: Mass Customization of Athletic Shoes Nike has used three-dimensional (3D) printing in its supply chain to shorten delivery times and reduce costs. Nike is now combining 3D printing with IoT to print shoes customized to individual customers (Burris 2014). Adidas is also pursuing this strategy and committed to make 5,000 3D-printed Futurecraft 4D shoes by the end of 2017, and an additional 100,000 by the end of 2018 (Yurieff 2017). A smaller competitor, Feetz, is also applying IoT to use smartphones as the sensors for IoT. Customers create a 3D model of their feet from three different pictures taken using the com- pany’s app (Feetz 2017). Customers can then select from among the entire Feetz line of shoes and have a pair 3D-printed specifically to fit their feet. For the customer, this model offers a level of customization never before possible. For the manufacturer and retailer, the result is lower cost because only those shoes ordered are actually produced, lowering the inventory that must be kept on hand. IoT has made the mass customization business model feasible for the first time, and that model, in turn, has broken the age-old trade-off of retail: choice versus cost. Enabling Factors Mass customization requires both customers and the supply chain itself to have significant computing power at their disposal. When the size and cost of computing were both high, such distribution of technology was all but impossible. However, the declining cost—specifically of sensors and Internet communications—has enabled mass customization. The cost and size reductions in computing are well documented, but even in recent years, improvements have been substantial. The cost of an accelerometer has fallen from $2.00 in 2006 to less than 40 cents in 2015 (Holdowsky et al. 2015). Similar trends have made other types of sensors small, inexpensive, and robust enough to place almost everywhere—from detecting fetal heartbeats via conductive fabric in the mother’s clothing to sensing jet engine performance at 35,000 ft. The cost to transmit that information over the Internet has also declined. In 2003, it cost $120.00 to transfer 1 Mbps in the United States. As of 2015, the cost has come down to 63 cents (Holdowsky et al. 2015). Together, these two trends mean digital information could be created anywhere anytime and transmitted to where it can be used efficiently and cost-effectively. Barriers to Success Technology adoption preferences. Many initial retail forays into IoT focused on cre- ating a new channel to customers by using beacons to track customers in stores and push relevant notifications to them. Generally, these applications have been commercial failures Choice versus Cost The declining costs for IoT-enabling devices can enable mass customization in retail.

22 A Primer to Prepare for the Connected Airport and the Internet of Things (Grennan 2016). The problem is that customers do not see any benefit from them and find the push notifications annoying. Research from the marketing firm Kahuna indicates that, on average, 60% of users opt out of push notifications (Brian 2018). In retail, just over 10% of customers use that feature. This is a rate of use 3 to 4 times lower than in leading industries such as ride sharing and financial services. These industries succeed because they offer customers urgent, real-time information such as when a ride-share car has arrived or the gate for an airline flight has changed. Resistance to internal organizational change. The challenge for retailers is that to create real-time information that customers care about, they must have real-time knowledge of their supply chain. A survey of United Kingdom customers indicated that 87% want retailers to provide real-time product availability (Friedlein 2016). Retailers need to know exactly where every product is at any time so they can answer customer questions; however, with the rate at which items are lost, broken, or stolen, obtaining a real-time inventory can be challenge (Smith 2016). Often, it requires not only technology upgrades but also significant organizational change within retailers. Successful IoT applications might require working in new teams and across traditional boundaries. In many retail organi- zations, marketing is focused on the consumer, while operations is focused on making existing processes more efficient. The two groups seldom cross paths. But in an IoT era, groups across the organization need to work together in new ways. What’s Next The mass customization business model enabled by IoT has begun with small retailers and in pilot projects such as those at Nike and Adidas. The next step is the scaling of those efforts that prove successful. The most immediate form of scaling is in terms of the size of the applications. For example, Adidas plans to move from 5,000 3D-printed shoes to 100,000 within 1 year. Similarly, scaling can also increase the scope of IoT applications. For example, Amazon’s grocery store without checkout lines, Amazon Go, relies on the same ubiquity of sensors— both within the store and on its customers—to provide the basic data needed for its complex algorithms to determine what merchandise customers have selected and then bill them for it. That creation, analysis, and action on digital data about the real world is the core of IoT, and through mass customization and queueless stores, IoT is creating entirely new retail experiences. Mass Customization Barriers The following are two significant barriers to successful implementation of mass customization via IoT: • Technology adoption preferences. • Resistance to internal organizational change. From Retail to Airports: Using IoT to Improve the Customer’s Shopping Experience The automated collection, aggregation, and analysis of data provide a way for retailers to offer a customized experience for consumers while still drawing from a large pool of product options. For retailers in an airport, where space and inventory are often limited, this may mean that customers begin to demand greater choice at the same low costs. This would require IoT throughout the retail supply chain to achieve the visibility and flexibility needed to have what customers want, where they want it, and when they want it. For an airport, this can mean increased revenue from increased retail sales but it can also be applied to the airport itself—offering customized travel experiences to passengers.

Understanding IoT 23 What does this mean for the future of retail in airports? Mass customization could provide useful information, such as flight boarding status (as some restaurants already provide on monitors), to relieve stress and allow for more shopping time. Mass customization could also adapt to each traveler’s particular travel type. For example, retailers next to a flight to Hawaii could help passengers plan a vacation experience by offering products attuned to that destination— leis, sunscreen, or novels. For an early morning business flight to New York City, retailers could offer coffee, toiletries, business books, and other amenities. Rapid shifts, complete inventory visibility, and knowledge of the customers and the world around them are the hallmarks of IoT-enabled retail. Case Study: IoT in CRE Use of IoT in CRE is now more than just sensors that turn lights on and off. New IoT enhancements create sustainable solutions that drive bottom-line cost- saving efficiencies, develop collaborative and productive work environments, and make buildings safer and more secure. As these advances improve the work experi- ence of tenants, they also create new business opportunities for CRE companies. Airports can apply CRE successes to their own IoT implementations—in many ways, airports as structures share many commonalities with CRE. Defining the Business Need for IoT Applications in CRE As technology and the workplace evolve, CRE is looking at new technologies and applications to transform physical spaces, increase building efficiency, and enhance productivity of tenants. Using IoT solutions to create smart buildings enables personalized solutions for tenants, cost savings for building operators, and sustainability through resource reduction. IoT solutions for physical real estate were simple at first, such as motion sensors to turn off unused lights and temperature sensors to more precisely control heating and cooling. These early efforts can be tied to cost and energy savings, and encouraged the creation of smart build- ings, bringing the broad capabilities of IoT solutions to all aspects of real estate management. Emerging IoT applications in CRE now focus on both tenant-facing IoT solutions and operational IoT solutions. Tenant-Facing IoT Solutions. These solutions can create healthy working environments through customizable time-of-day lighting, temperature, oxygen flow, and other attributes that make a working environment healthy and productive. CRE companies are also transforming workspace layouts that create new ways to collaborate. Operational IoT Solutions. These solutions can improve building management. Data from the wearables of staff and Wi-Fi can help building management better understand workflow. Data from wearables and sensors that monitor building health can create a more secure envi ronment for both building management and tenants. IoT can enable proactive maintenance that reduces breakdowns and other disruptive events. For example, sensors can measure when building parts are broken and need to be repaired. Some systems can even predict when equipment will need to be fixed by measuring usage and benchmarking wear and tear. This allows buildings to avoid downtime and decreases costs associated with systems such as HVAC. IoT applications in smart buildings allow building owners to distinguish themselves from their peers through specialization such as eco-friendly efficiencies. This differentiation in the market keeps buildings competitive and allows owners to charge higher rents. However, rather than causing a race among real estate companies to have the latest gadget or technology, new IoT

24 A Primer to Prepare for the Connected Airport and the Internet of Things solutions may actually help companies keep costs down and productivity up, resulting in greater collaboration in the industry to achieve success. Sample Solution: Creating a Smart Workplace at the Edge in Amsterdam Located in Amsterdam’s Zuidas business district, the Edge is the world’s most sustainable office, with over 28,000 sensors working to inform and analyze building efficiency (see Figure 11). Sensors work to detect light, motion, temperature, humidity, and carbon dioxide levels. The building currently has the highest ever accreditation score from the Building Research Estab- lishment and produces more electricity than it consumes from the solar panels installed on the roof (Deloitte 2018). The building has not only been used as an example of what is possible for smart buildings, but also as a recruitment tool for tenants to attract top talent. Upon arrival at the Edge, workers can identify parking spaces available from the parking meter sensors. If workers choose to bike to work, they can identify a spot to store their bike in the 500-bike garage. The building helps workers with way finding based on their calendars and provides route options to get from meeting to meeting. The building also enables connectivity of personal wearables that track the health and fitness of staff in the building. The Edge is a global leader and trendsetter in the application of IoT in CRE and was designed to ensure it is not only an exceptional place to work for tenants, but also easy and cost-effective to operate for building management. Enabling Factors The design of the Edge is crucial to its success. Constructed and managed by OVG Real Estate, the building was always intended as a showpiece for smart and environmentally friendly tech- nology (Randall 2015). The Edge features more than 21 never-before-tried innovations in design and construction (Future of Construction 2017). One of these new techniques is two 129-m wells that allow storage of thermal energy deep underground for reuse later (PLP Architecture 2017). However, the true innovation was designing the building with technology in mind from the Figure 11. The Edge in Amsterdam, the Netherlands.

Understanding IoT 25 outset. Integration of technologies with each other was a prime consideration from the start. As a result, the connected parts and pieces in the building come together to create helpful ways for workers to better use its spaces and amenities. At a technical level, this connectivity requires common data definitions and standards so that all equipment can cooperate effectively. The OASIS Open Building Information Exchange is one global industry-wide effort to define standard web protocols for communication between various building management systems (OASIS oBIX Technical Committee 2015). Buildings are designed to last for decades, if not centuries, while even the best technology can be obsolete in only a few years. Therefore, a smart building must be designed with a modular approach to technology so that components can be upgraded or new devices incorporated without the need to update or replace all other systems as well (Krawiec et al. 2015). Creating a smart building requires building for the future. Barriers to Success Magnitude of Data. Within any IoT solution, making unstructured data into structured data is a challenge. Roughly 10% of collected IoT data are structured and useful for analysis and application. The Edge and other CRE properties seeking to implement or expand their IoT capabilities must adapt and reevaluate their data strategy to make use of unstructured data and to protect employees’ privacy when doing so. Privacy Risk. Even seemingly innocuous data points can reveal very personal information about an individual when linked with other sources of data. While collecting one piece of data may not pose a chal- lenge or threat, procedures for properly aggregating and storing every byte of data are key to avoiding privacy concerns, security breaches, and legal issues. Smart buildings must consider the workforce as well as the company. By helping to address the needs of users—and involving them in the design process to identify those needs—CRE companies can cre- ate truly novel IoT applications while avoiding privacy concerns. What’s Next Smart buildings are becoming more prevalent as IoT capabilities evolve. Technology for buildings is moving beyond merely providing light and temperature sensors to creating work environments that are healthy for the tenants, eco-friendly, and less costly to operate. To prevent technological progress from becoming simply a race to provide tenants with the newest gadgets, CRE companies should articulate the core business case for the deployment of IoT. This can include saving costs, attracting higher-margin tenants, and creating entirely new sources of revenue or community engagement. The specific business case will be different for each business but should be clearly articulated. Technical solutions are more integrated than ever before and will continue to grow with demand for better, smarter ways to manage CRE. This means that where initial applications of IoT in CRE were stand-alone efforts targeting lighting or HVAC, future efforts will increasingly integrate sensor-based knowledge of a building’s systems into one building management system (BMS). Far from being simply another tool, a fully integrated BMS can create new opportunities, such as integrated storage and analysis of diverse information on common platforms, intelligent decision-making, full integration in enterprise Barriers to IoT in Buildings The following are two significant barriers to successful implementation of IoT in physical buildings: • The magnitude of data that IoT creates requires large capacities to store them. • Privacy risk is inherent in monitoring individual movements of people. From Real Estate to Real Life: The Applicability of CRE Lessons to Airports Lessons learned about traditional CRE apply directly to airports and airport operators, and lessons learned about interoperability apply to airport opera- tors and airlines. Designing for users will help protect the privacy of passengers and airport staff in much the same way it does for tenants in traditional CRE.

26 A Primer to Prepare for the Connected Airport and the Internet of Things resource planning (ERP) systems, deeper focus on tenant and end-client experience, and enhanced revenue by generating new services for tenants (e.g., infrastructure analysis). For an airport, such a BMS can link actions in the real world, such as tenant sales or cab arriv- als, directly to an ERP system to allow for event-based billing. A BMS can provide a rich source of data about how tenants use spaces so that building managers can design services to meet the needs tenants never even knew they had. In doing so, a fully integrated BMS can open up yet another potential benefit of IoT—the possibility of new revenue—and provide both a business case for IoT and a strong incentive for cooperation across real estate properties or airports. Case Study: IoT in Transport and Logistics To improve logistics, more information about the real-time location and status of goods and equipment is needed. In today’s complex logistical environment, this means multiple stakeholders must share and aggregate data. While many have resisted such information sharing, IoT and its technologies make such data aggregation possible by providing value to every stakeholder. As they realize the value of this collaboration, public and private entities work internally and externally to implement solutions, scaled to meet other needs, and ultimately find new ways to create revenue. Defining the Business Need for IoT Applications in Transport and Logistics At their core, transport and logistics are the process of matching the demand of those with goods to move, with the supply of those who can move, store, and deliver those goods. Effi- ciently matching these needs is what defines the success and profitability of a logistical enterprise. Because logistics deals with the physical movement of tangible goods, having real-time, reliable information about the world is crucial to matching supply and demand. Thus, IoT, with its ability to gather digital information about the physical world, can play a key role in improving transport and logistics operations. Specifically, IoT can supply logistics providers with information about when and where a specific product must move, where the assets are to move it, and the most efficient route to take—reducing scheduling time, cutting movement costs, and improving energy efficiency. Further, by aggregating information across many departments and stakeholders, IoT can create even greater value for those stakeholders and additional benefit for customers (via better security and traceability) and the environment (via reduced emissions). Sample Solution: Data Efficiency at the Port of Hamburg A prime example of IoT’s impact is at the Port of Hamburg (Figure 12). Similar to airports, ports have a wide range of companies, stakeholders, and special interests that make operating efficiency a challenge. Hamburg is the third busiest port in Europe, handling 9 million containers and 10,000 ships per year in 2013. Given its proximity to the heart of Europe, the Hamburg Port Authority expects demand to increase to 25 million by 2025 (Banker 2016). However, this poses a significant business problem. The port is located near the heart of the city, which limits its ability to expand and grow. As a result, the Hamburg Port Authority needed to find a way to double the throughput of the port while using the same physical footprint. To solve problem, the authority turned to IoT. To optimize space and increase capacity, the Hamburg Port Authority needed to aggregate data from all system stakeholders. The solution was the SmartPORT system, which captures logistics data from shippers and physical sensors spread throughout the port via SAP Hana, a single technology platform that enables aggregation of data from multiple sources. With this information, the Authority knows which containers are ready for offload from which ships, sees

Understanding IoT 27 the traffic conditions and parking availability near these ships, and adjusts the dispatch time and route for each truck sent to pick up each container. This allows the port to achieve increased efficiency in container loading and offloading, avoid traffic jams, and decrease pollution. Doing this, the Port of Hamburg reduced wait times for every trip of every truck by 5 min. This adds up to more than 5,000 truck h saved per day (SAP 2018a). Within just 6 months of going live, the port achieved a 12% increase in overall efficiency (SAP 2018b). Enabling Factors The Port of Hamburg’s available technology and organizational structure enabled the suc- cess of IoT at the port. Technologically, the decreased cost of sensors and improved communica- tions protocols made it feasible and cost-effective to add sensors to many aspects of the port’s operations. For example, every parking space features a combination of magnetic and infrared sensors to determine whether or not a truck is parked in that space. Gathering those data and communi- cating them from the lots back to the central port office are crucial to orchestrating the port’s complex movement of containers and trucks. The Port of Hamburg was able to accomplish this project because of its central operational approach. By serving as the sole owner and operator of the facility, the Hamburg Port Authority gained and maintained the trust of stakeholders. Strong leadership and emphasis on security enabled the Authority to overcome the barriers public transportation and logistics entities face when implementing cross-cutting solutions that require broad input. Barriers to Success The largest barrier to the success of IoT at the Port of Hamburg was the initial reluctance of stakeholders to share information. The port itself could create data on the traffic and parking conditions in the port, but without access to the demand information from the shipping lines that used the port, it could not efficiently orchestrate movements. While the shipping lines could benefit from the efficiency gains at the port, they were also worried about releasing potentially sensitive data about their operations to competitors that also operated at the port. To build and maintain the trust of stakeholder companies, the Hamburg Port Authority only provides information back to stakeholders that Figure 12. Port of Hamburg. Barrier to IoT in Transport and Logistics A significant barrier to successful implementation of IoT in transport and logistics is the reluctance of stakeholders to share information.

28 A Primer to Prepare for the Connected Airport and the Internet of Things have a valid reason to know. Thus, while the Authority is able to see a full picture of the port, each shipping line is only able to see information relevant to its operations. This allows companies to trust the system and have confidence in sharing information. After the initial project, efficiency increased significantly and, in turn, created faster turnaround and more profit for participating companies. Because of the positive results, these companies are now more willing to cooperate with additional updates and data requests to support ongoing enhancements. Evolution of IoT After IoT solutions are implemented, they can continue to grow and evolve to fit new needs and business objectives. While the majority of IoT solutions initially aim at efficiency, owners can—and should—look for ways IoT can create new business opportunities and even new sources of revenue. One example of how this transition can take place is shown by the package delivery company DHL. Like other delivery companies, DHL was an early adopter of package tracking to help improve the efficiency of package sorting in its facilities. Later, DHL realized that the same tracking information used internally could also enhance how DHL served customers. As a result, DHL made tracking numbers publicly available so customers could see where their package was at any time, providing a source of differentiation over any competitors who did not do the same. Eventually, DHL realized that it was gathering enough data from the tracking of its packages, vehicles, and aircraft that it could create a system that visualizes traffic jams, construc- tion, and other risks that impede on-time delivery. Such a system is invaluable to companies that operate large, multinational supply chains or use just-in-time delivery of parts and inventory. As a result, DHL is able to sell this information as a service through its Resilience360 supply chain risk management tool, providing DHL with a source of revenue based on information, not just package delivery. As IoT evolves in transport and logistics, solutions will likely explore the means to create new business opportunities and revenue. Airports have an opportunity to leverage similar capabilities to consolidate the way they track not only the movement of aircraft through their airports, but also the people, goods, and tools required to support the entire end-to-end operation. From Ports to Airports: The Applicability of Transport and Logistics Lessons to Airports Like land and sea ports, airports feature a complex mix of stakeholders, each with its own particular goals. Like the Port Authority, airport operators are in a position to increase efficiency for all stakeholders by acting as trusted brokers of aggregated information. A prime example of this is airport collaborative decision-making. Much like the IoT application by the Port of Hamburg, airport collaborative decision-making gathers information from stakeholders and the physical world to improve the efficiency of surface movements at the airport. Therefore, the lessons from the Port of Hamburg about sharing and masking information are applicable to airports.

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TRB's Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Research Report 191: A Primer to Prepare for the Connected Airport and the Internet of Things introduces the concept of the Internet of Things (IoT) within the airport environment to leverage current and emerging technologies. IoT can be used to provide information and services to airport passengers with current and evolving technologies. Airports, airlines, and other stakeholders can use these innovative technologies and data to enhance the user experience and add value. Airport operators and their stakeholders can use this primer to understand the IoT environment and plan for implementation.

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