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A Primer to Prepare for the Connected Airport and the Internet of Things (2018)

Chapter: Chapter 3 - Discovering the Impacts of IoT

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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3 - Discovering the Impacts of IoT." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. A Primer to Prepare for the Connected Airport and the Internet of Things. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25299.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3 - Discovering the Impacts of IoT." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. A Primer to Prepare for the Connected Airport and the Internet of Things. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25299.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3 - Discovering the Impacts of IoT." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. A Primer to Prepare for the Connected Airport and the Internet of Things. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25299.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3 - Discovering the Impacts of IoT." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. A Primer to Prepare for the Connected Airport and the Internet of Things. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25299.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3 - Discovering the Impacts of IoT." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. A Primer to Prepare for the Connected Airport and the Internet of Things. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25299.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3 - Discovering the Impacts of IoT." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. A Primer to Prepare for the Connected Airport and the Internet of Things. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25299.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3 - Discovering the Impacts of IoT." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. A Primer to Prepare for the Connected Airport and the Internet of Things. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25299.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3 - Discovering the Impacts of IoT." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. A Primer to Prepare for the Connected Airport and the Internet of Things. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25299.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3 - Discovering the Impacts of IoT." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. A Primer to Prepare for the Connected Airport and the Internet of Things. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25299.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3 - Discovering the Impacts of IoT." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. A Primer to Prepare for the Connected Airport and the Internet of Things. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25299.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3 - Discovering the Impacts of IoT." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. A Primer to Prepare for the Connected Airport and the Internet of Things. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25299.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3 - Discovering the Impacts of IoT." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. A Primer to Prepare for the Connected Airport and the Internet of Things. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25299.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3 - Discovering the Impacts of IoT." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. A Primer to Prepare for the Connected Airport and the Internet of Things. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25299.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3 - Discovering the Impacts of IoT." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. A Primer to Prepare for the Connected Airport and the Internet of Things. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25299.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3 - Discovering the Impacts of IoT." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. A Primer to Prepare for the Connected Airport and the Internet of Things. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25299.
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29 Because IoT uses existing technologies, airport operators are often very familiar with the component technologies. They use some of these technolo- gies, such as Wi-Fi or sensors, every day. However, airport operators often do not understand how these component technologies can combine to meet business needs. This chapter describes (1) the current awareness, knowledge, and opinions airport stakeholders have about IoT; (2) the current state of IoT activities; and (3) where IoT is likely to create value for airports. IoT Awareness, Knowledge, and Opinions Information about the current state of knowledge, attitudes, and expe- rience with IoT comes from a data-gathering activity that involved repre- sentatives of airports; aviation industry and management consultancies; IoT suppliers; airlines and airline vendors; transportation planning and engi- neering firms; airport investors; and law firms. About half of the respondents were airport operators. While awareness of IoT was high, knowledge of IoT’s true capabilities and its potential helpfulness to an organization was much lower (Figure 13). Few airport representatives reported that their organizations were very prepared to benefit from IoT applications: • 12% said their organizations were very prepared to benefit from IoT applications (i.e., doing this now). • 36% said their organizations were moderately prepared (i.e., exploring opportunities). • 42% said their organizations were somewhat prepared (i.e., building foundational knowledge). • 10% said their organizations were not prepared at all (i.e., not exploring IoT yet). Only a small percentage of airport employees responding to the online survey felt strongly (i.e., “totally true” in Table 3) that their organization has the capabilities and flexibility to currently benefit from IoT solutions. Few airport stakeholders believed their organizations have clear leadership for IoT efforts and the processes needed to support IoT. On the other hand, most believed that control to begin IoT activities is within the airport’s authority, so their organizations could start such activities. About half believed they relied on external stakeholders to begin IoT initiatives, which may slow progress. The bottom line is that the vast majority are only beginning to C H A P T E R 3 Discovering the Impacts of IoT Source: Vasin Lee/Shutterstock.com.

30 A Primer to Prepare for the Connected Airport and the Internet of Things 0 10 20 30 40 50 Familiarity Knowledge Preparedness % o f A ir po rt R es po nd en ts Very Moderately Somewhat Not at all Figure 13. IoT familiarity, knowledge, and preparedness from the ACRP Project 01-33 online survey (N = 103). Statement about Airport Totally True Somewhat True We have the organizational capabilities needed to support our work with IoT. 10% 51% We have defined a clear leadership for our IoT efforts. 10% 42% We are reliant on external stakeholders to begin IoT initiatives. 6% 40% We lack the necessary control in an airport environment to begin IoT initiatives. 6% 34% We have the processes needed to support our work with IoT. 2% 44% Table 3. Airport sentiments on IoT from the ACRP Project 01-33 online survey (N = 103). think about and prepare for the connected airport, so progress toward implementation may be gradual. Yet most believed that the potential of IoT in an airport environment was “very significant” and that the ability to leverage IoT will be crucial for their organizations to achieve their strategic goals in the next 1 to 3 years. The online survey pinpointed which application areas respondents thought were the most important in airports. Respondents thought the following IoT application areas would be “crucial” in an airport environment: • 61% for emergency/security response. • 55% for traveler information systems. • 43% for baggage systems. • 43% for facilities management. • 40% for aircraft controls and alerts. Important application areas were examined in more depth during the qualitative interviews. In the short term, interviewees identified the following areas that IoT could impact: • Customer service. • Asset management. • Systems integration. Examples include the following: • Customizable ads for retailers targeting specific customers. • The ability to order food and products from anywhere in the terminal. Leveraging IoT The ability to leverage IoT will be crucial for airports to achieve their strategic goals in the next 1 to 3 y.

Discovering the Impacts of IoT 31 • Advance information on security queues. • Better resource management from RFID in employee identification badges (e.g., information about positioning and what the employee is doing and for how long). • Improved baggage-handling technology to prevent theft and improve efficiency. • Improved management of resources including oil, gas, and HVAC systems. In the long term, the benefits of IoT could prove to be a game changer. More real-time data could enable increased passenger metrics and real-time boarding numbers, which could help in managing congestion at security and throughout the terminal. When all equipment has embedded sensors, failures can be predicted and avoided, maintenance costs reduced, and carry-ons monitored. Columbus John Glenn International Airport (CMH) The initial motivation for the Aruba Airport Wireless System was to improve Airport Service Quality ratings for public Wi-Fi and cellular connectivity, which were consistently rated low quality. CMH had significant recurring outages as a result of ad-hoc installation and patching of wired equipment. However, CMH has spent the past several years establishing a base layer of wired and wireless infrastructure that will support basic IoT solutions and deployments. The total cost to install the Aruba Airport Wireless System was $1.5 million. The system ties together four user groups and their access needs: • Airport customers. • Concessionaires and tenants. • Airlines. • Employees. Orlando International Airport (MCO) The single factor most contributing to the successful implementation of IoT is the airport’s culture of innovation. The chief business goal of MCO management is to improve customer services. MCO staff are encouraged (and given resources) to try new ways to address issues through technology and contribute to a better experience for customers. Failure of a pilot project does not end an IoT initiative—staff are allowed to continue until a feasible and effective solution is found. IoT remains an evolving technology, and the path to achieve a specific goal at a specific airport may not be immediately apparent, requiring several small pilot projects. A culture of innovation will facilitate the acceptance of and learning from the failure of any one project in the search for solutions.

32 A Primer to Prepare for the Connected Airport and the Internet of Things Current State of IoT Activities Some airport operators are currently involved in IoT activities (Table 4). Most are involved in more than one application area, indicating that while early adopters may be a small percentage of the overall airport population, they may drive a significant percentage of new technology uses. The following are key classes of benefits from IoT implementation: • Operational effectiveness. Operational effectiveness hinges on IoT allowing operators to (a) reduce costs, (b) achieve more with the same costs, and (c) drive continuous improve- ments that are sustainable. Delta Air Lines In 2016, Delta Air Lines became the first carrier to implement an RFID- based baggage tracking system on a global scale. This IoT investment not only allows Delta to track each RFID-tagged bag, it also enables the pre- vention of mis-loaded bags as well as the automatic redirecting of bags when passengers’ routes are interrupted or changed. Initial results of RFID-tagged items show they are tracked at a 99.9% success rate. A key enabling factor was Delta’s strategic $50 million investment in RFID technology including the following: • 380 RFID bag tag printers. • 4,600 scanners. • RFID readers on 1,500 belt loaders (with green and red lights that flash for each scanned bag, indicating proper or incorrect routing, respectively). • 500 pier and claim readers for hands-free scanning of baggage throughout the handling process. IoT Application Area Number of Respondents Passenger traffic monitoring 28 Traveler information systems 27 Baggage systems 23 Facilities management 21 Parking management controls 19 Retail-based advertising to passengers 16 Staff management/asset management 13 Emergency and security response 9 Knowledge management 7 Coordinated IoT systems 6 Off-system airport transportation integration or open data- sharing hub 5 Traveler security automation 4 Aircraft controls and alerts 1 Table 4. Number of survey respondents indicating involvement in a specific IoT application area from the ACRP Project 01-33 Online Survey (N = 103).

Discovering the Impacts of IoT 33 • Strategic differentiation. Strategic differentiation can stem from an improvement in customer experience or a more differentiated product. • New revenue. IoT can generate entirely new sources of revenue by creating new products or services to attract new customers or by using IoT to sell more to existing customers. Operational Efficiency Examples Most current uses of IoT in airports focus on operational efficiency. For example, one airport representative said that the airport has “a new online inspection system managed through a private contract with Siemens, which uses a tool provided to maintenance grounds crew that is connected to the Internet with GPS functionality. The purpose of this tool is to digitally connect maintenance crew inspection findings to a map of the airport grounds.” According to an interviewee, another airport has enabled Bluetooth beacons and has developed an app that assists passengers in way finding (Figure 14). Airport management and operations also use passenger analytics from the app, coupled with beacons, to assist in maintenance-related activities. The airport tracks use of a given airport asset and the location of airport staff to opti- mize staff resources. Airlines have access to the app so they can link their own systems to show gate changes and flight status in the app. Vendors also have access to the app and beacon systems, but many do not use the technologies. Due to privacy concerns, the effectiveness of the app in directing passengers to vendors is not tracked. According to another interviewee, an airport is planning a smart bathroom pilot test. The air- port will install IoT sensors on various bathroom assets, including faucets, toilets, lighting, soap dispensers, air freshener sensors, toilet paper dispensers, and other equipment, in one of its busiest bathrooms. These sensors will transmit data to facilities management to alert it in real time of various shortages and breakdowns. As part of this pilot, the bathroom will have a people counter and a customer input button with a sensor to capture perceptions of bathroom cleanliness, which will enable facilities management to gauge perceptions of cleanliness against actual use. The literature review also revealed some current IoT initiatives in airports. Japan Airlines is providing airport staff with an Apple Watch combined with Bluetooth beacons to monitor staff locations within the airport and to direct staff to areas where resources are needed (Babu 2016). Source: Sorbis/Shutterstock.com. Figure 14. Way-finding technology in the form of a terminal map.

34 A Primer to Prepare for the Connected Airport and the Internet of Things When paired with other information, the real-time data on employees can also help improve core operational tasks. The data can be stored for trends analysis and visualization of queuing, and then used to solve bottlenecks based on time of day and flight departures. For example, Terminal 4 of John F. Kennedy International Airport (JFK) in New York uses iBeacon tech- nology to collect passenger movements from Bluetooth signals and relay queue wait times to smartphone applications. In the event of a disruption, this allows arriving passengers to know in real time what the wait will be to clear the check-in and security process (Babu 2016). Ques- tions remain about how to effectively share these new data between stakeholder groups such as airlines, transportation network companies such as Uber, onsite retail vendors, and roadway traffic navigation applications for travelers arriving at the airport. Terminal 4 at JFK is also exploring how to incorporate vendor-based proximity advertising into this iBeacon system (Samuely 2018). An example of how other industries have successfully overcome these barriers to information sharing and integration appears in the section “Sample Solution: Data Efficiency at the Port of Hamburg” in Chapter 2. Long-Term Horizon Efforts to integrate data from many different stakeholders to improve the efficiency of each can be the gateway to larger applications. The long-term horizon for IoT applications supporting efficiency at airports can include autonomous vehicles, tenders, and baggage carts. If integrated with other data sources such as schedules, push back times, and gate numbers, these data could come together in a fully automated tarmac where robots and autonomous vehicles deliver baggage, fuel planes, clear debris, and perform other tasks—all faster and to closer tolerances than human drivers. The result would be that airports could conduct surface operations more efficiently, fitting more planes onto the same physical ramps and taxiways. While something like the fully automated tarmac is still years away, the technology needed for such uses is already being proven on roadways today (Levin and Harris 2017). Strategic Differentiation and New Revenue Very few current applications of IoT in airports aim to provide strategic differentiation or new revenue. This same trend is seen in many other industries and is due to a variety of factors. Things such as lack of investment capital, unease over technical complexity, and organizational concerns can play a role in an executive’s decision to pursue efficiency over differentiation or new revenue. Another key concern is the challenge of coordinating with multiple stakeholders. While IoT applications aimed at differentiation are more challenging, they do offer the opportunity for greater return. So, while few airports are currently using IoT to create differ- entiation, interviews with subject matter experts indicate that airport stakeholders do see the value in such uses and may pursue them in the future. One example is the advertising of off-airport transit recommen- dations personalized to an individual passenger. Another example is partnerships with vendor management companies (VMCs). According to a VMC representative, these organizations focus on deploying IoT solely to tailor the service to meet customer needs at a time, place, and price that are right for customers. This can be an easy way to create location-based applications that improve customer experience—for example, the delivery of food directly to customers seated at a gate or, somewhat more advanced, the ability to find the nearest wheelchair or customer service agent who speaks a customer’s native language. IoT and Operational Efficiency Most current uses of IoT in airports focus on achieving operational efficiency. For example, real-time data on staff locations can help improve core operational tasks. IoT’s Potential Value Few IoT applications in airports aim to provide strategic differentiation or new revenue, but airport stakeholders see IoT’s potential value to support their airport’s brand through a variety of applications.

Discovering the Impacts of IoT 35 Differentiation is often a watchword for advertising or customer experience, but it can be much more. Differentiation is fundamentally about supporting the brand of an airport. IoT applications that support differentiation can come in various forms—aimed at passenger satisfaction or even environmental causes. For example, Heathrow Airport (LHR) set the goal of reducing nitrogen dioxide emissions to help improve local air quality. The airport realized that a major—and avoidable—source of ground-level nitrogen dioxide emissions is aircraft using auxiliary power units (APUs) while parked at the gate rather than plugging into the power grid. LHR deployed an IoT solution to help improve air quality. Microphones positioned around the apron pick up the telltale sound of APUs running. These data are cross-referenced with schedules and other data to determine whether an aircraft is running its APU instead of being plugged into the power grid. The airport can then share these data with airlines and remind aircraft to plug in and switch off the APU—not just saving money for the airline but also improving local air quality for all. Moreover, just because an airport makes one IoT choice now does not mean it is locked into that specific IoT composition or configuration forever. In fact, even simple IoT solutions grow and evolve over time. Quite often, a solution designed only for efficiency can to support differen- tiation or even generate new revenue as it gains capabilities. One example is IoT-enabled board- ing. Instead of having passengers standing, lined up by number or boarding zone, passengers could stay seated or continue to enjoy a final beverage in the lounge or airport restaurant until receiving their personalized notification telling them it is time to board (Steffen and Hotchkiss 2012; Nyquist and McFadden 2008). This individualized boarding time is calculated based not only on seat location, but also on carry-on bag, premium status, fare class, load factor, and so forth. While such an application of IoT may initially be aimed at improving passenger experience by eliminating standing around the gate, it could soon do more. Speeding up boarding allows an airline to generate faster gate turns, increase aircraft utilization, and therefore improve the return on assets for the airline. Where IoT Is Likely to Create Value for Airports As described in Chapter 2, IoT creates value by creating, communicating, analyzing, and aggregating digital information about the physical world to support a new business decision or action. Therefore, IoT can create value by supporting a business’s numerous daily decisions or operational actions. For an airport, these typically cluster into one of two categories (1) passen- ger experience or (2) airport operations. In each of these categories, airport operators can import lessons learned from other business sectors. By examining how IoT developed and created value in industries such as retail, CRE, Singapore Changi Airport (SIN) The newly built SIN Terminal 4 will support the International Air Transport Association’s Fast and Seamless Travel initiative. The IoT applications will enable the design of self-service terminals and systems across the airport travel journey. The passenger will control check-in, bag drop, immigration, and departure gate check-in procedures. Common-use kiosks will enable passengers to use any part of the airport to conduct their check-in process and to conduct themselves along a path of their choosing up to and beyond the central security gate.

36 A Primer to Prepare for the Connected Airport and the Internet of Things and transport and logistics (Chapter 2), airport operators can use IoT to generate different types of business value. An airport could use IoT to improve the efficiency of actions that support pas- senger experience. For example, by gathering data on the highest traffic areas, the airport could proactively direct cleaning staff to those areas to maintain the highest state of cleanliness, even with the same staff. Similarly, an airline could use IoT to differentiate itself from competitors by providing faster ramp servicing to aircraft, saving money for the airline by enabling faster gate turns and making the airport a more attractive option. Trends in IoT Adoption Industries generally have a typical development progression with IoT. The expected benefit of an IoT application varies with the scope, and therefore complexity, of the project. As a result, most industries begin by pursuing small-scope IoT projects aimed at efficiency because these can often be managed entirely within the control of an organization. Differentiation requires expanding that scope to interact with other stakeholders, and new revenue requires expand- ing the scope further to include consumers/customers. Therefore, in most industries, IoT applications aimed at efficiency are the most common, followed by differentiation and then new revenue. In one recent survey, 34% of companies—the top response—said they anticipated gains in efficiency from IoT technology (Groopman and Jeambon 2016). On the other hand, only 6%— the lowest response—anticipated realizing new revenue as a result of IoT technology. Another survey of companies already using IoT found similar results when comparing internal uses of IoT aimed at efficiency (52%) versus customer-facing IoT that combined IoT applications aimed at differen- tiation and new revenue (40%) (Gartner 2016). Overall, airports follow these trends in IoT adoption as well. In this survey, 76% of respondents using IoT indicated they used it for efficiency/optimization, compared with 58% for customer experience/ differentiation, and 35% for new revenue. However, while many airports may follow the typical IoT devel- opment trends (moving from efficiency to differentiation to new Dallas Fort Worth International Airport (DFW) In 2011, DFW developed an overarching strategy, the Terminal Renewal and Improvement Program (TRIP), to remodel the airport’s terminals. In 2012, DFW launched free Wi-Fi service, in partnership with AT&T, as part of the TRIP strategy. The service is multi-use, providing Wi-Fi to customers, data for the airport, and infrastructure for operations. The primary motivator was to provide free Wi-Fi to customers. The secondary motivation was the need for Wi-Fi access over the entirety of the airport opera- tional field. While free Wi-Fi does not directly produce revenue from passengers who use the service, it is an important enabler of IoT. Reliable, ubiquitous Wi-Fi can serve as the backbone of numerous IoT applications, which can later generate efficiencies or new revenue. Pathways to IoT Most industries begin by pursuing small- scope IoT projects aimed at efficiency. However, unique forces in the aviation industry also open other pathways (e.g., improving passenger experience) to IoT adoption.

Discovering the Impacts of IoT 37 revenue), unique forces in the aviation industry also open other pathways to IoT adoption. The aviation industry maintains high standards for passenger experience. Although IoT applications that improve passenger experience at an airport are more challenging than those dealing only with internal efficiency, airports may find it easier to begin with differentiation and move to internal efficiency. As Jack Loop of indoor mapping company Locus Labs puts it: “Very often [airports] begin with the consumer-facing side. Consumer-facing projects need to meet a higher bar of usability, so it is actually easier to take a slick consumer-facing project and use it internally, than it is to take a purely functional internal tool and bring it up to consumer-facing standard.” These sentiments were echoed by other interviewees from airlines and airports, who indicated that future IoT plans were largely focused on improving customer experience. Cultivating an Ecosystem of Partners As airports pursue more complicated IoT applications aimed at differentiation or new rev- enue, they will increasingly be forced to work with other stakeholders both on and off the airport. Therefore, cultivating and cooperating with different partners are crucial to the success of IoT. The diverse nature of technologies needed to make IoT work means that even the largest orga- nizations typically do not have all the technical expertise required at every stage of the Informa- tion Value Loop. Some may have expertise in analytics in their internal IT department but lack needed experience with physical sensors. Others, such as maintenance organizations, may have great experience with sensors and machinery but lack the expertise to aggregate the collected data to gain relevant insights. As a result, nearly every IoT project will feature some level of technical collaboration. The exact mix of technology manufacturers, software creators, and technology integrators will be determined by the needs of the specific airport involved and its IoT needs. As airports continue to develop IoT and seek differentiation and new revenue, these partnerships will expand beyond mere technology enablers and begin to involve other airport stakeholders. The greater the goal of IoT becomes, the more information that is required to support the ultimate decision or action. For example, the data needed to move custodial staff to high-traffic areas are London Gatwick Airport (LGW) LGW aims to become more attractive to passengers and, at the same time, improve operational efficiency. To achieve these goals, the air- port is experimenting with a competitive procurement between three companies. The objective is to establish a cloud-based IoT platform the airport can offer to stakeholders as a service. The envisioned platform would support many different IoT applications, each serving a different task around the airport and used by a different stakeholder. For example, current test applications include sensors measuring the fill level in trash cans, tracking water flows through pipes from pump stations, and monitor- ing seat occupancy in the check-in area. The goal is to provide the infrastructure needed for airport stakeholders to use in developing new applications that align with their (or their customers’) needs. At the end of the procurement competition, the best platform will be selected and the managed service provider retained on an ongoing contract.

38 A Primer to Prepare for the Connected Airport and the Internet of Things relatively simple and can be collected and managed by the airport operator alone. However, a larger goal such as providing real-time flight status information to passengers requires much more data— some owned by the airport and some owned by airlines, air traffic control, and other organizations. This means that data from (or cooperation with) other stakeholders are essential for IoT applica- tions to create the most value. Given the complex and often competing interactions between airport stakeholders (Figure 15), gathering data from them can be challenging. For example, an airline may be unwilling to provide data on aircraft arrival times to an airport operator in the belief that such information could give away competitive secrets to other, competing airlines. Collaboration Crucial for IoT The greater the IoT goal, the more infor- mation required to support the ultimate decision or action. Since most IoT proj- ects feature some level of collaboration with other airport stakeholders, cultivat- ing relationships and cooperating with different partners are crucial to success- ful IoT implementation. Source: Schaar and Sherry (2010) Figure 15. Complex and overlapping relationships among airport stakeholders.

Discovering the Impacts of IoT 39 However, a few common factors determine how different stakeholders approach IoT, for example: • Some stakeholders operate in the airport in essentially the same way they would operate in another non-airport location. Retail tenants, for example, run their stores at airports in the same manner as stores in shopping malls or elsewhere. Other stakeholders are so tied to avia- tion that they operate solely at airports, or their operations at airports differ unique from those at other locations. • Some stakeholders may be motivated by revenue, while others are governmental or non-profit organizations motivated by accomplishment of an assigned mission. Research from other industries has shown these factors have a great impact on how an orga- nization pursues IoT. Figure 16 shows a simplified framework for IoT based on the airport/ non-airport orientation and the stakeholder’s mission to help in IoT planning. Since the greatest value from IoT comes from the aggregation of data from multiple stake- holders, this framework can be helpful for designing the most valuable future IoT applications. Note: TSA = Transportation Security Administration, FAA = Federal Aviation Administration, TNC = transportation network company. Figure 16. Airport stakeholder framework for IoT.

40 A Primer to Prepare for the Connected Airport and the Internet of Things Research from other industries suggests that the greatest value is likely to be created when stakeholders from different categories work together toward a common goal. This framework can help airport operators understand the various motivations and incentives of stakeholders. Creating an IoT implementation that meets the business need of both the airport and the stake- holders contributing data or expertise is essential to the long-term success of any IoT initiative. Challenges and Benefits of Cooperation Sharing Data For large IoT projects to succeed, airport operators need to find ways to encourage stakeholders to cooperate—creating an environment where stakeholders can share enough data to allow IoT to succeed but doing so in a manner that does not reveal any of their business secrets. The airport industry is not the first or only one to confront this challenge. The Port of Hamburg faced it when determining how to more efficiently route trucks and containers through the port. The Hamburg Port Authority needed data about shipments from the ship- ping lines, but the shipping lines could not reveal that information to other lines without losing competitive advantage. The solution was a system that displayed only the information needed to each user. So, drivers for one shipping line saw only data related to their next pickup and could not access information from other shipping lines. Airports are already working on designing similar systems in the form of airport collaborative decision-making (ACDM) tools. Such tools combine information from the airport, airlines, air traffic control, and other sources to support more efficient surface movement and other opera- tional needs. For example, YYZ is investigating ACDM to help speed operations and reduce environmental impact. Proactive and predictive scheduling methods reduce taxi time and allow aircraft to take off without waiting in line at the runway (Gupta et al. 2012). Data Definitions Defining data terms is a key barrier to implementation. For example, the term as arrival time can mean something different to each stakeholder: • To air traffic control, it may mean the time when the wheels touch the ground. • To an airline, it may mean the time when the aircraft is chocked at the gate and the boarding door is open. Before progress in sharing data can be made, common data definitions must be in place so that when one user shares an arrival time, other users know exactly what that means. A col- laborative process involving all stakeholders is required to reach standard definitions for every term. Successful implementation does not end with a good project design. Rather, stakeholder engagement must continue to ensure that all stakeholders are properly using the system and having their goals and needs met. Stakeholder Engagement Stakeholder engagement is not solely the province of large airports that need complex ACDM systems to support operations. Engagement is crucial even at small airports. In fact, in an industry where relationships with airlines and vendors are key to generating revenue, small airports with less staff may benefit most from formal stakeholder engagement programs (Elliot et al. 2015). For IoT specifically, these programs can help identify which stakeholders have the information an airport needs for a particular IoT project. Stakeholder engagement programs can also help in understanding the needs and equities of stakeholders so the right incentives can be found to motivate a project to completion. Keeping

Discovering the Impacts of IoT 41 lines of communication open throughout the development process is key to successful IoT adoption, and stakeholder engagement helps keep parties talking. For more specifics about how to create or run a stakeholder engagement program, see ACRP Synthesis 65: Practices to Develop Effective Stakeholder Relationships at Smaller Airports. Stakeholder engagement programs may also begin to uncover deeper industry trends. Per- ceived or assumed competition may not actually be competition but rather a potential ally in IoT or other data-sharing projects. For example, airport operators may assume the competitor from which they must differentiate themselves is the closest airport of similar size. However, in many cases, the largest competitor to an airport is not another airport at all but a different mode of travel. The decision of which airport to use is typically based on the price of travel for passengers and the price of operations for cargo (Loo 2008; Gardiner 2006). While airports do have some control over final ticket and transit prices in the form of landing fees, these fees are a small percentage of passenger travel cost (Plush 2016). The majority of a ticket price is determined by the operational cost of the airline (International Civil Aviation Organization 2017). As a result, airports may have little direct leverage on travel choices. This means that the most direct competi- tion facing an airport may not come from a neighboring airport but rather from other forms of transport or even other forms of leisure spending. Airports may often be better served by collaborating with other airports to present a differen- tiated picture of air travel (i.e., its benefits compared with other travel modes such as rail) than by competing to differentiate themselves from other airports. From an IoT perspective, assuming that another airport is a competitor may cause airport leaders to overlook that other airport as a source of data or a potential partner for an IoT project that may help the first airport improve its own customers’ travel experience. A seamless door-to-door experience—regardless of the airport used—may promote air travel instead of other travel options such as train or personal vehicle, thereby helping ensure air travel as the mode of choice by consumers. In summary, IoT is not just about connecting things. It is also about the connections that it cre- ates between organizations, customers, vendors, and competitors. Benefiting from IoT applications is strongly associated with sharing data with other organizations. The following examples are Toronto Pearson Airport (YYZ) YYZ is implementing an ACDM program to more effectively assign gates and departure windows to create the most efficient, flexible schedule possible. The program begins with data from NavCanada, the air traffic control authority; the FAA System Wide Information Management program; and other sources. Data on the major milestones of a flight are auto- matically generated from various sources, including airlines, ground handlers, and air traffic control. The data can then be transmitted to other stakeholders so that, for example, fueling tractors can react quickly to a gate change for a departure or customs agents can adjust schedules for a large delayed international arrival. After the first phase goes live in 2017, a dashboard will provide stakeholders with the ability to share important information and to view information needed for stakeholders’ own operations. To allow data to be available to any stakeholder that may need it without overwhelming them with nonapplicable information, the ACDM solution uses a publish/subscribe pattern with a central message broker.

42 A Primer to Prepare for the Connected Airport and the Internet of Things data-sharing models from different industries. What these models have in common is the aggrega- tion of data in data-sharing (often cloud-based) platforms that are typically under the stewardship of third-party aggregators. Data stewards ensure consistent formats as well as de-identification and confidentiality. Best Practices for Data Sharing The following examples from the transportation, public health, agriculture, and energy sectors describe best practices for data sharing. Data Sharing in the Transportation Sector. The Metropolitan Area Transportation Operations Coordination (MATOC) program is a partnership between transportation agencies in the District of Columbia, Maryland, and Virginia. Their aim is to improve safety and mobility in the region through information sharing, planning, and coordination. Clearing a road quickly requires responders to work together efficiently. The MATOC program accomplishes its data- sharing mission primarily through the Regional Integrated Transportation Information System (RITIS)—an automated operations data-sharing platform. RITIS software collects, standardizes, and disseminates data to thousands of operations personnel throughout the region. (More information is available from Pack, M., and N. Ivanov. NCHRP Synthesis 460: Sharing Operations Data among Agencies. Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, Washington, DC, 2014, pp. 27–29.) The Washington State GPS Freight Performance Measures project uses data from commercial fleet management GPS devices in trucks to develop a statewide freight performance measure program. Private commercial fleet management GPS vendors, who were initially reluctant to share their clients’ data with the public sector, agreed to discuss data sharing after the state trucking associations stated that the data would support improved freight infrastructure deci- sions. The DOT assured the vendors that the GPS data would be used for freight performance measurement only and not for regulatory or enforcement purposes. This assurance addressed the concerns about an individual company’s business-sensitive information, but the vendors still required privacy protection in the form of a nondisclosure agreement. (More information is available from Cambridge Systematics, Inc., North River Consulting Group, and University of Washington. NCFRP Report 25: Freight Data Sharing Guidebook. Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, Washington, DC, 2013, pp. 48–49.) Data Sharing in the Public Health Sector. DataSphere, an initiative of the CEO Round- table on Cancer, was designed as an ideal data-sharing system—simple, systematic, publicly accessible, and respectful of privacy issues. The CEO Roundtable on Cancer consists of chief executive officers (CEOs) of companies involved in cancer research and treatment who seek to accomplish what no single company can do alone. DataSphere relies on CEOs, together with support from patients and advocacy groups, to secure and provide data. De-identification is standardized, and DataSphere works with third-party data aggregators to pool the data in mean- ingful ways—a significant challenge when hundreds of cancer drugs are being developed at any given time and thousands of studies are registered in ClinicalTrials.gov. (More information is available from Olson, S., and A. S. Downey. “The DataSphere Project.” Sharing Clinical Research Data Workshop Summary, Institute of Medicine of the National Academies, Washington, DC, 2013, pp. 31–32. https://www.nap.edu/read/18267/chapter/5#31. Accessed January 30, 2018.). Data Sharing in the Agricultural Sector. Data sharing in the agricultural sector helps farmers evaluate their management practices. Monitors on combines accurately measure and report crop yields. Farmers then share data with farmers’ networks to improve crop production practices, which increases profitability. The creation of standardized protocols, especially for confidentiality and sharing of data, enabled many networks to combine their results into

Discovering the Impacts of IoT 43 one secure database. A combined database facilitates analyses across space and time that pro- vide much more useful and robust answers to many applied questions about crop production practices. The results are increased profitability and decreased environmental pollution caused by food production. (More information is available from Research Data Alliance. “On-Farm Data Sharing (OFDS) WG.” https://www.rd-alliance.org/groups/farm-data-sharing-ofds-wg. Accessed January 30, 2018.) Data Sharing in the Energy Sector. The U.S. Electric System Operating Data Tool, spon- sored by the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), provides hourly electricity operat- ing data, including actual and forecast demand, net generation, and the power flowing between electric systems. The tool features nearly real-time demand data, plus analysis and visualizations of hourly, daily, and weekly electricity supply and demand. The data are provided on a national and regional level for the 66 electric system balancing authorities that make up the U.S. electric grid. Although electric system balancing authorities have released public, nearly real-time information on grid operations since the late 1990s, EIA’s tool expands the availability of data to the entire contiguous 48 states and makes it available in a consistent format from a single source. (More information is available from the U.S. Government. “Hourly Information on U.S. Electricity Supply, Demand, and Flows Now Available from the U.S. Energy Information Administration.” https://www.data.gov/energy/. Accessed January 30, 2018.)

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TRB's Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Research Report 191: A Primer to Prepare for the Connected Airport and the Internet of Things introduces the concept of the Internet of Things (IoT) within the airport environment to leverage current and emerging technologies. IoT can be used to provide information and services to airport passengers with current and evolving technologies. Airports, airlines, and other stakeholders can use these innovative technologies and data to enhance the user experience and add value. Airport operators and their stakeholders can use this primer to understand the IoT environment and plan for implementation.

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