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Suggested Citation:"3.0 Literature Review Summary." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Research on Creating and Sustaining a Culture of Innovation for Departments of Transportation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25308.
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5 3.0 – LITERATURE REVIEW SUMMARY The research team conducted a literature review to assess the current state of innovation across the public and private sectors and inform the development of the Transportation Innovation Lab modules, which are organized around leadership, collaboration, and empowerment. This section highlights specific areas where the research suggests adjustments should be made to the module content. In general, the findings from the literature review supported the team’s original approach. However, as a result of the research, the team recommended expanding the scope of several modules and adding one new module: Leadership – Process Definition. These changes are highlighted in the “before” and “after” graphics on the next two pages. Those graphics are followed by a summary of the literature the team reviewed, organized by module. It should be noted that several organizations and sources provided content that informed more than one module. The complete list of literature review references is presented in Appendix A. Key Themes for Embracing Innovation LEADERSHIP ► Be willing to commit to a long-term strategy. ► Make the case for change. ► Define innovation, and be clear it can be found at all levels. ► Create a name brand for the agency-wide initiative. ► Protect the dissenters. ► Track innovations and use metrics. COLLABORATION ► Include stakeholders and partners beyond the agency. ► Explore ways to cultivate and gather ideas from diverse sources. EMPOWERMENT ► Decentralize decision making. ► Make innovation part of performance reviews. ► Push employees to escape self-limitations, such as “we’ve always done it this way.” ► Give employees the tools they need to be successful. ► Give employees a safe environment to try … and fail. ► Give employees the freedom to pursue other interests. PUBLICATION TYPES 24 Journals 18 Websites 7 Studies/Books/Reports 3 Newsletters/Blogs

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TRB's National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP) Web-Only Document 248: Research on Creating and Sustaining a Culture of Innovation for Departments of Transportation documents the research process and provides key guidance to implement the research produced in

NCHRP Research Report 885

: Guide to Creating and Sustaining a Culture of Innovation for Departments of Transportation. This guide provides insight on encouraging and sustaining a culture of innovation within the organization, its partners, and other stakeholders. A culture of innovation supports agency managers and staff efforts to encourage and accept innovation as a means to enhance the agency’s success. This guide is designed to assist agencies in assessing their culture with respect to innovation, identifying ways to make the organization more adaptable and open to beneficial change, and sustaining the organization’s adaptability to respond effectively to evolving technology, workforce, and public priorities.


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