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Airport Management Guide for Providing Aircraft Fueling Services (2019)

Chapter: Part 2 - Evaluation of Fuel Services at the Airport

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Suggested Citation:"Part 2 - Evaluation of Fuel Services at the Airport." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Airport Management Guide for Providing Aircraft Fueling Services. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25400.
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Suggested Citation:"Part 2 - Evaluation of Fuel Services at the Airport." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Airport Management Guide for Providing Aircraft Fueling Services. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25400.
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Suggested Citation:"Part 2 - Evaluation of Fuel Services at the Airport." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Airport Management Guide for Providing Aircraft Fueling Services. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25400.
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Suggested Citation:"Part 2 - Evaluation of Fuel Services at the Airport." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Airport Management Guide for Providing Aircraft Fueling Services. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25400.
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Suggested Citation:"Part 2 - Evaluation of Fuel Services at the Airport." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Airport Management Guide for Providing Aircraft Fueling Services. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25400.
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Suggested Citation:"Part 2 - Evaluation of Fuel Services at the Airport." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Airport Management Guide for Providing Aircraft Fueling Services. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25400.
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Suggested Citation:"Part 2 - Evaluation of Fuel Services at the Airport." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Airport Management Guide for Providing Aircraft Fueling Services. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25400.
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Suggested Citation:"Part 2 - Evaluation of Fuel Services at the Airport." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Airport Management Guide for Providing Aircraft Fueling Services. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25400.
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Suggested Citation:"Part 2 - Evaluation of Fuel Services at the Airport." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Airport Management Guide for Providing Aircraft Fueling Services. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25400.
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Suggested Citation:"Part 2 - Evaluation of Fuel Services at the Airport." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Airport Management Guide for Providing Aircraft Fueling Services. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25400.
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Suggested Citation:"Part 2 - Evaluation of Fuel Services at the Airport." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Airport Management Guide for Providing Aircraft Fueling Services. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25400.
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Suggested Citation:"Part 2 - Evaluation of Fuel Services at the Airport." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Airport Management Guide for Providing Aircraft Fueling Services. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25400.
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Suggested Citation:"Part 2 - Evaluation of Fuel Services at the Airport." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Airport Management Guide for Providing Aircraft Fueling Services. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25400.
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Suggested Citation:"Part 2 - Evaluation of Fuel Services at the Airport." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Airport Management Guide for Providing Aircraft Fueling Services. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25400.
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Suggested Citation:"Part 2 - Evaluation of Fuel Services at the Airport." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Airport Management Guide for Providing Aircraft Fueling Services. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25400.
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Suggested Citation:"Part 2 - Evaluation of Fuel Services at the Airport." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Airport Management Guide for Providing Aircraft Fueling Services. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25400.
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Suggested Citation:"Part 2 - Evaluation of Fuel Services at the Airport." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Airport Management Guide for Providing Aircraft Fueling Services. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25400.
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Suggested Citation:"Part 2 - Evaluation of Fuel Services at the Airport." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Airport Management Guide for Providing Aircraft Fueling Services. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25400.
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Suggested Citation:"Part 2 - Evaluation of Fuel Services at the Airport." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Airport Management Guide for Providing Aircraft Fueling Services. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25400.
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Suggested Citation:"Part 2 - Evaluation of Fuel Services at the Airport." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Airport Management Guide for Providing Aircraft Fueling Services. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25400.
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Suggested Citation:"Part 2 - Evaluation of Fuel Services at the Airport." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Airport Management Guide for Providing Aircraft Fueling Services. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25400.
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Suggested Citation:"Part 2 - Evaluation of Fuel Services at the Airport." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Airport Management Guide for Providing Aircraft Fueling Services. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25400.
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Suggested Citation:"Part 2 - Evaluation of Fuel Services at the Airport." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Airport Management Guide for Providing Aircraft Fueling Services. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25400.
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Suggested Citation:"Part 2 - Evaluation of Fuel Services at the Airport." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Airport Management Guide for Providing Aircraft Fueling Services. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25400.
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Suggested Citation:"Part 2 - Evaluation of Fuel Services at the Airport." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Airport Management Guide for Providing Aircraft Fueling Services. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25400.
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Suggested Citation:"Part 2 - Evaluation of Fuel Services at the Airport." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Airport Management Guide for Providing Aircraft Fueling Services. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25400.
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Below is the uncorrected machine-read text of this chapter, intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text of each book. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

Evaluation of Fuel Services at the Airport 57 Chapter 4 Airport Self-Check 57 4.1 Introduction to the Self-Check 57 4.2 Airport Activity 61 4.3 History of Fuel Services and Sales at Airport 62 4.4 Airport-Owned Fueling Assets and Condition Report 62 4.5 Fuel Suppliers and Contract Terms 64 4.6 Anticipated Changes in Fuel Demand 64 4.7 References 65 Chapter 5 Airport Fuel Customers and Competitors 65 5.1 Fuel Customer Segments 66 5.2 Prospective Customers 67 5.3 Competing Airports 70 5.4 Fueling SWOT 70 5.5 Moving Toward a Brand Identity 72 5.6 References 73 Chapter 6 Clarifying the Airport Brand 73 6.1 Importance of an Airport Brand 74 6.2 Building a Brand 74 6.3 Brand Definition: Mission, Vision, and Values 76 6.4 Brand Development: Integrating the Brand into Business Practices 77 6.5 Brand Delivery: Brand Use in Fueling Services 80 6.6 Brand Nurturing: Evaluation and Fine Tuning 80 6.7 References Part 2 of the management guide includes discussions and worksheets to develop a baseline of information about the airport, fuel customers, and competitors, and to clarify the airport identity and brand as a way to keep and attract customers. P A R T 2

57 4.1 Introduction to the Self-Check 4.2 Airport Activity 4.3 History of Fuel Services and Sales at Airport 4.4 Airport-Owned Fueling Assets and Condition Report 4.5 Fuel Suppliers and Contract Terms 4.6 Anticipated Changes in Fuel Demand 4.7 References Part 2 of the management guide involves collecting and interpreting the current status of the airport with respect to airport activity, based aircraft, trends in aviation fuel sales, local and regional competition, and the airport brand. Chapters 4, 5, and 6 lay out a framework to collect infor- mation and evaluate it. The format of these chapters is more like a workbook where tables are explained and made available for use by airport fuel operators. These tables (Tables 4-1 through 4-4 and 4-6 through 4-10) can be downloaded from Appendix B on the TRB website as Excel work- sheets by searching on “ACRP Research Report 192” and can be customized for a specific airports. Chapter 4 discusses airport self-check on fueling operations and the information collected during this process. 4.1 Introduction to the Self-Check A thorough understanding of the airport, its customer base, and its fueling business is critical to setting a forward direction for fuel services. Many airports collect much of this information routinely to update their airport master plans, to prepare their 5010-1 Report for the FAA’s Air- port Master Record, or to create an annual report to be presented to the airport sponsor. This chapter focuses on the current status of FBO services at the airport, fuel supplier contracts, fuel sales, airport activity, based tenants, transient traffic, and catalysts for change. Once an airport self-check is completed, annual updates are easy and useful for planning the fueling operation. Regularly updated airport information is one of the most valuable tools fuel facility managers can use to forecast sales and develop plans for future investments in the facility. 4.2 Airport Activity While the focus for this management guide is general aviation airports, some commercial service airports may be readers as well. For this reason, the basic worksheets include commercial aviation activity. An airport can customize the worksheets to suit the appropriate mix of activity. C H A P T E R 4 Airport Self-Check

58 Airport Management Guide for Providing Aircraft Fueling Services 4.2.1 Based Aircraft Based aircraft are an airport’s most accessible fuel customers and for this reason alone, it is important to keep track of the make-up of based tenants and their local fuel buying practices. Table 4-1 shows an example of based aircraft by type; Table 4-2 shows based aircraft by category. This information is collected by airport staff as part of the airport’s 5010-1 Report for the FAA. A 5-year history is useful to discern changes in the composition of based aircraft fleet. Three measures of change are suggested in the next tables. The annual percent change column is the year-to-year percent change of total based aircraft (the sum of all based aircraft types for a specific year). The total percent change measures the percent change for each aircraft type over the entire 5-year period (or any other specific period longer than 1 year). The average annual growth is the average annual rate of change from year to year, over the 5-year period (or any other specific period longer than one year). This metric is applied to each aircraft type and uses the first and last year in the specified timeframe to calculate the average rate. 4.2.2 Airport Operations If an airport has an air traffic control tower, airport operations are tracked and a matter of record is filed in the FAA’s Air Traffic Data System. Many general aviation airports do not have a tower; consequently, operations are estimated and submitted as part of an airport’s 5010-1 Report for the FAA’s Airport Master Record. From a fueling perspective, the mix of Year Single- Engine Multi- Engine Jet Total Fixed Wing Helicopters Gliders Ultra- Light Total Based Aircraft Annual Percent Change 1 2 3 4 5 Total Percent Change Average Annual Growth *Available as an Excel worksheet in Appendix B. Search ACRP Research Report 192 at www.trb.org. Source: Prepared by KRAMER aerotek, 2018. Table 4-1. Based aircraft by type.* Year Piston Turbine Rotorcraft Experimental & Sport Other Total Based Aircraft Annual Percent Change 1 2 3 4 5 Total Percent Change Average Annual Change *Available as an Excel worksheet in Appendix B. Search ACRP Research Report 192 at www.trb.org. Source: Prepared by KRAMER aerotek, 2018. Table 4-2. Based aircraft by category.*

Airport Self-Check 59 local and transient operations are important. Transient aircraft are potential fuel customers; however, with tankering practices1 and contract rates established with fuel suppliers, not every transient aircraft is a prospective fuel customer. It is important to understand what individuals and companies are flying into the airport and which of these are potential customers. Table 4-3 provides a template to track airport operations. If there is an air traffic control tower, this data can be easily downloaded from the FAA’s Air Traffic Data System. Other airports can use internal estimates of airport operations from current airport master plans, the 5010-1 Reports submitted to the FAA, or the FAA Terminal Area Forecasts. 4.2.3 Airport Tenants and Transient Arrivals To develop the airport brand and competitive advantage, it is useful to evaluate the existing tenant base and customers that frequent the airport. Tenant Mix Table 4-4 is an example of a template an airport can use to list based tenants at the airport and describe flying or non-aeronautical activities for each tenant. Table 4-4 also calls for purchases of fuel at the airport during the last year. This information would be available in the fueling records kept by the on-airport fuel operator (airport or private FBO). If these records are not available, the airport could survey tenants with based aircraft to find out if they are buying fuel at the airport and how much; or if not, why they are not purchasing fuel. The results of a tenant survey or fueling records will help management understand how effectively the fueling operation is serving its most accessible customers. Transient Aircraft For airports with no air traffic control tower, there are flight tracking applications that collect information on general aviation aircraft when the operator of the aircraft files an IFR2 flight plan. *Available as an Excel worksheet in Appendix B. Search ACRP Research Report 192 at www.trb.org. Source: Prepared by KRAMER aerotek, 2018. Year Air Carrier Air Taxi GA Local GA Itinerant Military Local Military Itinerant Total Operations Annual Percent Change 1 2 3 4 5 TotalPercentChange Average Annual Change Table 4-3. Aircraft operations.* 1 Tankering fuel is an option for operators of long-range aircraft who want to ensure they are getting the best possible price. Typically, an operator will carry extra low-cost fuel for a trip and not purchase fuel en route. A number of software options— with varying degrees of specificity—are available to analyze the economics of tankering versus a fuel stop. 2 IFR stands for instrument flight rules, which are a set of rules that govern aircraft that fly in IMC, or instrument meteorological conditions. It’s called instrument flight because the pilot navigates only by reference to the instruments in the aircraft cockpit. Flying in the clouds (IMC or instrument meteorological conditions) requires an IFR flight plan and an instrument rating. VFR stands for visual flight rules, which refer to a set of rules created by the FAA for flight in VMC, or visual meteorological conditions. Air traffic controllers aren’t always required to keep VFR aircraft separated from each other as they do for IFR traffic. The responsibility for traffic separation lies solely with the pilot during VFR operations, which means the pilot needs to be able to see in front of and around the aircraft while in the air.

60 Airport Management Guide for Providing Aircraft Fueling Services This data includes arrival and departure airports, tail numbers, aircraft owner, type of aircraft, and past flights for individual aircraft. Current daily and weekly information is available for free; longer histories can be purchased. Airports can generate their own longer histories by regularly tracking daily and weekly information. This data, if aircraft pilots are filing IFR flight plans, can be quite informative about who is using the airport. Flight tracking data is immediately useful to discern the origin and destination patterns of IFR flights. Depending on whether this data is captured on Internet browsers or acquired in a special report will determine how much data analysis is needed to identify origin and destination patterns and regular transient aircraft that fly into the airport. Table 4-5 shows an example of flight tracking at Greeley-Weld County Airport (GXY) in Colorado. Type of Flying Fuel Purchases at Airport Non- Aeronautical Tenant Name Type of Aircraft Personal Business Use Commercial Military Other Gov't Type of Fuel Gallons Last Year Type of Business 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 *Available as an Excel worksheet in Appendix B. Search ACRP Research Report 192 at www.trb.org. Source: Prepared by KRAMER aerotek, 2018. Table 4-4. Profile of based tenants (year).* ARRIVALS Tail # Aircraft Type From Depart Arrive N182RF C182 Greeley-Weld County (KGXY) 11:08a MST 11:55a MST N63FM M20T Front Range (KFTG) 10:56a MST 11:15a MST N8341X PA44 Centennial (KAPA) 10:31a MST 11:05a MST N211EE BE35 Rocky Mtn Metropolitan (KBJC) 10:29a MST 10:46a MST N777DF PA24 Centennial (KAPA) 09:23a MST 09:54a MST N9229P PA24 Rocky Mtn Metropolitan (KBJC) 09:30a MST 09:53a MST N818SB PA31 Montezuma Muni (K17) 08:32a CST 09:17a MST DEPARTURES Tail # Aircraft Type To Depart Arrive N777DF PA24 Centennial (KAPA) 11:15a MST 11:51a MST N182RF C182 Greeley-Weld County (KGXY) 11:08a MST 11:55a MST N5327J C172 Centennial (KAPA) 09:40a MST 10:21a MST N8193P PA24 Front Range (KFTG) 08:11a MST 08:32a MST N412DK P28A Greeley-Weld County (KGXY) 07:41a MST 08:47a MST N808EH P28A Greeley-Weld County (KGXY) 04:45p MST 05:47p MST N758FV C72R Vance Brand (KLMO) 01:54p MST 02:13p MST Source: FlightAware, February 7, 2018. Table 4-5. Sample of arriving and departing flights at Greeley-Weld County Airport, Colorado.

Airport Self-Check 61 4.3 History of Fuel Services and Sales at Airport This portion of the airport self-check reviews the history of fuel services and sales. The infor- mation can be useful to estimate demand for Avgas and jet fuel for the upcoming years and serve as a baseline when preparing a business plan for the fueling operation. 4.3.1 Fuel Operators at the Airport A few airports are entering the fuel business for the first time; most airports have a history of fuel services that involve either airport staff or third parties providing fuel. It is useful to prepare a short history of the provision of fuel at the airport in order to scale and compare previous fueling operations. Table 4-6 suggests the information needed. This record can ensure that the information will carry across any management and staff changes. 4.3.2 Fuel Sales The history of fuel sales at the airport can provide critical benchmarks. Sometimes if an air- port is taking over from a failed FBO, it is not possible to know exactly how much fuel was sold. However, in these instances, there are other available sources of information to make an estimate of gallons of fuel sold. These include: • Fuel flowage fees paid on a per gallon basis to the airport sponsor, • Sales or excise taxes paid on fuel to local or state government, and • Fuel delivery histories from the fuel supplier. Airport Fuel Operator Current Previous Previous Name of Operator Service Dates Start End Branded or Unbranded Fuel Fuel Supplier Avgas Self-Service Full-Service Jet Fuel Self-Service Full-Service Line Services Passenger/Crew Services Aircraft Maintenance, Repair, Overhaul Checks and Inspections Line Maintenance Avionics/Instruments Modifications Painting & Refurbishment Flight Services Instruction Aircraft Rental or Charter Aircraft Management *Available as an Excel worksheet in Appendix B. Search ACRP Research Report 192 at www.trb.org. Source: Prepared by KRAMER aerotek, 2018. Table 4-6. History of fueling services at the airport.*

62 Airport Management Guide for Providing Aircraft Fueling Services Table 4-7 lays out a fuel volume history. If information is available that specifies gallons sold by self-service or full-service, this data would add to the assessment. 4.4 Airport-Owned Fueling Assets and Condition Report As described in Chapter 3, there are many components to a fuel system, including: • Storage tanks, • Fuel pumping systems, • Self-service dispensing units, • Fueling vehicles (trucks, hydrant servicer vehicles, and towable hydrant carts), • Fuel filtration, • Meters, • Pressure and flow control valves, • Fuel hoses and nozzles, • Bonding equipment, and • Cutoff switches and valves. In this part of the airport self-check, a condition report on the main components of the fueling system is prepared and will serve as a way to anticipate the need for upgrades, reconditioning, and replacement of components. The principal parts of the fueling system are listed in Table 4-8; however, the operator can edit the component list in the Excel worksheet. 4.5 Fuel Suppliers and Contract Terms This section of the airport self-check reports on the fuel supplier or suppliers that the operator uses. Some airport fuel operators do not have a contract with a fuel supplier and purchase fuel on the spot market as it is needed. Other aviation fuel operators sign a contract with a particular fuel distributor and purchase a branded product from the distributor (although sometimes the distributor also offers unbranded fuel). Table 4-9 summarizes key terms of the contract with a fuel supplier. This summary sheet can list important contract renewal dates and also contact information for fuel suppliers and airports in the region. Table 4-10 lists useful information for airport fuel operators with no contract that purchase fuel on the spot market. Avgas Jet Fuel Year Self- Service Full- Service Total Avgas Self- Service Full- Service Total Jet Fuel Total Fuel Sold Annual Percent Change 1 2 3 4 5 Total Percent Change Average Annual Change *Available as an Excel worksheet in Appendix B. Search ACRP Research Report 192 at www.trb.org. Source: Prepared by KRAMER aerotek, 2018. Table 4-7. Gallons of fuel sold.*

Airport Self-Check 63 Description Avgas Jet Fuel Capacity AST or UST Year Placed in Service Estimated Lifetime or Lease Duration Date of Next Upgrade Condition Notes Fuel Farm Tank 1 Fuel Farm Tank 2 Fuel Farm Tank 3 Fuel Farm Tank 4 Self-Service Unit 1 Self-Service Unit 2 Fueling Vehicle 1 Fueling Vehicle 2 Fueling Vehicle 3 Fueling Vehicle 4 On-Airport Pipelines Leased Assets Fueling Vehicle 5 Self-Service Unit 3 Fuel Management Software *Available as an Excel worksheet in Appendix B. Search ACRP Research Report 192 at www.trb.org. Source: Prepared by KRAMER aerotek, 2018. Table 4-8. Airport-owned fueling assets—condition report.* Contract with Fuel Supplier Fuel Supplier Date of Contract Term of Contract Renewal Options Notice to Terminate Requirements Minimum Avgas Order Minimum Jet Fuel Order Other Nearby Airports that Order Partial Loads Airport 1 Airport 2 Airport 3 Airport 4 Days Needed to Order a Partial Load Days Needed to Order a Full Load Participation in Fuel Supplier Programs Commercial Insurance Payment Credit Terms Credit Card Acceptance Program Brand Marketing Program Contract Fuel Equipment Leases *Available as an Excel worksheet in Appendix B. Search ACRP Research Report 192 at www.trb.org. Source: Prepared by KRAMER aerotek, 2018. Table 4-9. Summary of fuel supplier contract terms.*

64 Airport Management Guide for Providing Aircraft Fueling Services 4.6 Anticipated Changes in Fuel Demand The last item to consider in the airport self-check is potential catalysts of change that may affect fuel sales up or down in the near-term. This discussion may include: • Economic expansions or downturns; • Changes in the mix and quantity of based aircraft; • High volatility in fuel prices; • Low-price leadership for fuel offered at a nearby airport; • Relocation of corporate headquarters to/from the area; • Special events such as political conventions, regional events, or the Super Bowl; and • Natural disaster response such as fire or flood mitigation that would be based at the airport. While it is not always possible to calibrate how these catalysts will affect airport demand, awareness of potential impacts can inform near-term planning for the fueling operation. 4.7 References Aviation Management Consulting Group, KRAMER aerotek, and Shafer, G. ACRP Report 77: Guidebook for Developing General Aviation Business Plans. Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, Washington, D.C. 2012. Thurber, M. Tankering Benefits Tangible and Achievable. AINonline, October 12, 2015. Available: https://www. ainonline.com/aviation-news/business-aviation/2015-10-12/tankering-benefits-tangible-and-achievable. No Contract with Fuel Supplier Fuel Suppliers Operating in Region Fuel Supplier 1 Fuel Supplier 2 Fuel Supplier 3 Fuel Suppliers that Deliver Partial Loads Other Nearby Airports that Order Partial Loads Airport 1 Airport 2 Airport 3 Airport 4 Days Needed to Order a Partial Load Days Needed to Order a Full Load *Available as an Excel worksheet in Appendix B. Search ACRP Research Report 192 at www.trb.org. Source: Prepared by KRAMER aerotek, 2018. Table 4-10. Information for fuel operators with no fuel supplier contract.*

65 5.1 Fuel Customer Segments 5.2 Prospective Customers 5.3 Competing Airports 5.4 Fueling SWOT 5.5 Moving Toward a Brand Identity 5.6 References Chapter 5 places the airport fueling operation in the context of other airports that compete for the same customers. For an airport to retain or expand its fuel sales, it is important to examine the competition and candidly assess the airport’s strengths and weaknesses. As with the previous chapter, the tables (Tables 5-1 and 5-4 through 5-9) can be downloaded from Appendix B on the TRB website as Excel worksheets and customized for specific airports. Appendix B can be found by searching on “ACRP Research Report 192.” 5.1 Fuel Customer Segments In the past, airports have characterized their fuel customers primarily by the type of fuel purchased. When all segments of the industry were growing, most airports experienced growth in both Avgas and jet fuel sales. With a sustained decline in piston-engine flying, the opposite is now true for the Avgas market. Many airports that serve jet aircraft have seen increases in jet fuel sales, but piston aircraft remain the dominant, albeit declining, share of the general aviation fleet. Since prices for fuel are readily available on the Internet, competition amongst airports for fuel customers has grown intense. To retain or increase fuel sales, airport fuel operators must pay attention to their different customer segments and construct a pricing and marketing strategy that addresses the concerns and desires of the customers they wish to keep or attract. Table 5-1 lists general aviation and commercial customers that purchase fuel at airports. This worksheet can be customized to reflect current fuel customers at the airport and could also be used to identify customer segments the airport wishes to attract. Focus groups conducted at the 2017 National Business Aviation Association (NBAA) Sched- ulers and Dispatchers Conference indicated that corporate flight departments, managed char- ters, and fractional ownership tend to have existing fuel purchase agreements with fuel vendors at regularly frequented airports. For other destinations, they tend to prearrange fuel purchases in advance of a trip and highly value relationships with the fuel operator as well as quality customer service. C H A P T E R 5 Airport Fuel Customers and Competitors

66 Airport Management Guide for Providing Aircraft Fueling Services 5.2 Prospective Customers Developing new customers requires analysis and marketing effort. Airport fuel operators can reach out to each of these four groups of prospective customers: • Based aircraft owners that purchase fuel at other airports, • Aircraft based at other airports that might purchase fuel at your airport, • Transient aircraft that use the airport or nearby airports, and • Registered aircraft in the county. 5.2.1 Based Aircraft Purchasing Fuel at Other Airports The airport self-check discussed in Chapter 4 included collecting data on fuel purchases by based tenants either through sales records or surveys. Based tenants who purchase fuel at other airports are the first and best prospects because it is possible to find out their reasons for pur- chasing fuel elsewhere and then construct a plan to satisfy the aircraft owner’s service and price requirements. Sometimes if the aircraft owner has a source of very low-priced fuel at another airport, it may not be possible to offer fuel that is below the airport’s minimum fuel margins, but airports have other services and facilities to leverage such as hangar rates, ramp fees, and concierge services. 5.2.2 Local Aircraft Based at Other Airports Many aircraft owners are highly sensitive to fuel prices. If the airport chooses to be a low-price leader (some or all of the time) or offers unique maintenance, repair, or overhaul services, local pilots, though based at different airports, may choose to fuel at the airport. Fuel Purchase Practices Check as Appropriate Type of Customers Retail Contract Rates Negotiated or Volume Discounts Tankering Own Local Fuel Supply** Current Airport Customer Prospective Airport Customer Business Piston X Business Jet X X X Cargo X X Charters X X Commercial Airlines X X X X Corporate Flight Department X X X X Flight Schools X Fractional Ownership X X X Military*** X X Other Government X X Personal Jet X X X Personal Piston X X *Available as an Excel worksheet in Appendix B. Search ACRP Research Report 192 at www.trb.org. **Individual or consortia of commercial airlines and all-cargo airlines sometimes will purchase and maintain fuel supplies at an airport. ***Military fuel contracts are awarded through the Department of Defense. These contracts have specific quality control reporting required of the fuel vendor. Source: Prepared by KRAMER aerotek, 2018. Table 5-1. Fuel customer segments and fuel purchase practices.*

Airport Fuel Customers and Competitors 67 5.2.3 Transient Aircraft Flight tracking data is also a source of information that can be analyzed to identify transient aircraft that fly into the airport or nearby airports. This information, described in the previous chapter, identifies the aircraft owner, type of aircraft, and flight itinerary for flights arriving and departing from a particular airport whose pilots file an IFR flight plan. With data obtained for 6 months to 1 year, it is possible to identify aircraft frequenting the area and their origin and destination patterns. Table 5-2 highlights this information that can be obtained. 5.2.4 Registered Aircraft in the County The FAA maintains a database of registered aircraft that can be searched by state and county.1 Registered aircraft may not be based in the state or county where the aircraft is registered, nor is the aircraft necessarily an active aircraft. However, if an airport is recruiting aircraft owners to base at the airport or if they are marketing fuel services, this database is a starting point. Table 5-3 provides an example of the data contained in the aircraft registry. 5.2.5 Fuel Customers Based on this information, it is possible to construct a list of prospective fuel customers who can be targeted in future marketing campaigns. Table 5-4 provides an organized space to build a list of prospective fuel customers. 5.3 Competing Airports Airports compete for fuel customers with many different airports. For example, Eagle River Union Airport in Wisconsin, a destination airport for visitors from Chicago, competes directly with Chicago airports for fuel business. Pueblo Memorial Airport in Colorado competes with ARRIVALS Tail # Aircraft Type From Depart Arrive N182RF C182 Greeley-Weld County (KGXY) 11:08a MST 11:55a MST N63FM M20T Front Range (KFTG) 10:56a MST 11:15a MST N667LB P28A Greeley-Weld County (KGXY) 10:31a MST 11:05a MST DEPARTURES Tail # Aircraft Type To Depart Arrive N777DF PA24 Centennial (KAPA) 11:15a MST 11:51a MST N182RF C182 Greeley-Weld County (KGXY) 11:08a MST 11:55a MST N5327J C172 Centennial (KAPA) 09:40a MST 10:21a MST Example of Aircraft Information: Tail Number N667LB · Registration Link Owner CHRISTIANSEN AVIATION INC Aircraft Type Piper Cherokee (piston-single) (P28A) Source: FlightAware, February 7–8, 2018. Table 5-2. Sample of arriving and departing flights at Greeley-Weld County Airport, Colorado. 1 FAA Aircraft Registry. http://registry.faa.gov/aircraftinquiry/StateCounty_Inquiry.aspx.

68 Airport Management Guide for Providing Aircraft Fueling Services Salina, Kansas, for transcontinental refueling stops. Zephyrhills Municipal Airport, a low-price leader in the Tampa area, can draw fuel customers from surrounding airports including Lakeland Linder Regional, Plant City Airport, and Brooksville-Tampa Bay Regional Airport. Each of these airports are examples of different kinds of competition: • Local price competition in fuel and hangar rentals, • Competition at origin and destination points, and • Competition for long-haul refueling stops. Most airports already know their main local competitors or if the airport is a destination market, the origin cities are known. Competitors for long-haul refueling stops may be harder to identify. 5.3.1 Identifying the Competition To capture the character of the competition, the following worksheets will help to organize an evaluation of how the airport compares with its competition. Table 5-5 provides space to identify and rank the airport’s competitors. Five possible competitors are suggested; however, there are probably one or two main competitors that can serve as the focus of an airport’s effort to gain market share. N-Number Serial Number Name Manufacture Name Model Certificate Issue Date Aircraft Weight Type of Registration Address Year 10100 18281540 MCAIR AVIATION LLC 182T 6/3/2005 Up to 12,499 Corporation 11945 AIRPORT WAY CESSNA BROOMFIELD, CO 80021-2564 2005 107FU FF048 COLORADO DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CLMAX ENGINEERING LLC FALCON FIXED WING 8/29/2016 UAV up to 55 Government 425 CORPORATE CIR GOLDEN, CO 80401 - 5635 106J 24-2668 LINDER MICHAEL A PA-24- 250 6/16/2005 Up to 12,499 Partnership 5355 HOWELL ST PIPER ARVADA, CO 80002 - 1523 1961 Source: FAA Aircraft Registry, http://registry.faa.gov/aircraftinquiry/StateCounty_Inquiry.aspx, February 8, 2018. Manufacturer Table 5-3. Example of data contained in the FAA Aircraft Registry, Jefferson County, Colorado. Customer Name Aircraft Address Email Phone Based Tenants Local Aircraft Owners Corporations Government Military *Available as an Excel worksheet in Appendix B. Search ACRP Research Report 192 at www.trb.org. Source: Prepared by KRAMER aerotek, 2018. Table 5-4. Prospective fuel customers.*

Airport Fuel Customers and Competitors 69 5.3.2 Airfield Comparison Once the competitors are identified, it is possible to compare airports on the basis of airfields, services, and fuel prices. Table 5-6 compares the airfields of each airport to gauge what kind of aircraft each airfield can handle and what types of approaches and navigation are available. Other factors could also be included such as the weight-bearing capacity of runways, airport lighting, and the availability of aircraft rescue and firefighting; however, at this point, basic comparisons are sufficient. 5.3.3 Fueling Services Table 5-7 compares who is the fuel operator at each airport, what fuels are sold, and whether the fuel is branded or unbranded and available as a self-service or full-service product. 5.3.4 Retail Pricing Comparison A number of websites post fuel prices at local and nearby airports. It is incumbent upon airport fuel operators to keep retail prices current on their own websites and other fuel price websites such as 100LL, AirNav, AOPA GO, FlightAware, FlightPlan, ForeFlight, FlyQ EFB, Garmin Pilot, and GlobalAir. Table 5-8 sets up a retail price comparison worksheet to update weekly. Retail prices, while a reliable indicator of Avgas prices, are not as reliable for setting jet fuel prices because a large proportion of jet fuel is sold at a discount. Still, on a posted basis, it is useful to know what competitors are charging for Avgas and to monitor the direction of price move- ments for jet fuel because discounts for jet fuel are based off its retail price. Rank as Competitor Competing Airports City State Reason for the Competition 1 2 3 4 5 *Available as an Excel worksheet in Appendix B. Search ACRP Research Report 192 at www.trb.org. Source: Prepared by KRAMER aerotek, 2018. Table 5-5. Competing airports (year).* Runways Approaches and Navigation (Yes/No) Airport Name Number of Runways Longest Runway Dimensions Other Runway Dimensions Precision Non- Precision Air Traffic Control Tower Part 139 (Yes/No) Home Airport 1 2 3 *Available as an Excel worksheet in Appendix B. Search ACRP Research Report 192 at www.trb.org. Source: Prepared by KRAMER aerotek, 2018. Table 5-6. Airfield and navigation comparisons.*

70 Airport Management Guide for Providing Aircraft Fueling Services 5.3.5 Airport Service Comparisons The last area of the competitive analysis includes comparisons of airport services. Table 5-9 lists many possible services that an airport can customize to suit the particular target customers. 5.4 Fueling SWOT The evaluation of the airport’s fueling business, its customer base, and its competition makes it possible to summarize the situation through a SWOT analysis (strengths, weaknesses, oppor- tunities, and threats). SWOT helps to organize the important characteristics of the airport’s fueling operation. To demonstrate how SWOT works, Figure 5-1 shows a SWOT for an airport’s fueling operation. The entries serve as examples of what might go into each quadrant of the diagram. 5.5 Moving Toward a Brand Identity The worksheets presented in this chapter and in Chapter 4 are intended to explore what aviation activity takes place at the airport, which customer segments the airport attracts, and how the airport compares with similar facilities that are direct competitors. Each of these factors contribute to the airport’s identity. Perhaps the airport fuel operator wants to expand the customer base and articulate a cohesive brand that reflects the airport’s mission, vision, and values. Chapter 6 describes how a fuel operator or airport manager can build and articulate a brand identity. Fueling Provided by: Avgas Jet Fuel Airport Name Airport Private FBO 1 Private FBO 2 Branded/ Unbranded Fuel Self- Service Full- Service Self- Service Full- Service Home Airport X Branded X X X 1 2 3 *Available as an Excel worksheet in Appendix B. Search ACRP Research Report 192 at www.trb.org. Source: Prepared by KRAMER aerotek, 2018. Table 5-7. Provision of fueling services at airport and competitors.* *Available as an Excel worksheet in Appendix B. Search ACRP Research Report 192 at www.trb.org. Avgas Price/Gallon Jet Fuel Price/Gallon Airport Name Self-Service Full-Service Self-Service Full-Service Home Airport 1 2 3 Table 5-8. Retail fuel price survey as of (date).*

Airport Fuel Customers and Competitors 71 Home Airport Competitor Airports 1 2 3 Airport Name Passenger/Crew Services Catering Coffee and Vending Concierge Services Conference Room Courtesy Transportation Crew Quiet Room Flight Planning Internet Lounge Pilot Supplies Rental Cars Restroom and Showers Work Areas Line Services Cleaning/Detailing Deicing Ground Power Unit Lavatory Towing Technical Services Checks and Inspections Avionics/Instruments Aviation Lubricants Components Engine Painting Refurbishment Fight Services Instruction Aircraft Rental Aircraft Charter Aircraft Management *Available as an Excel worksheet in Appendix B. Search ACRP Research Report 192 at www.trb.org. Source: Modified by KRAMER aerotek from ACRP Report 77: Guidebook for Developing General Aviation Business Plans, 2012. Table 5-9. Airport service comparisons.*

72 Airport Management Guide for Providing Aircraft Fueling Services 5.6 References Aviation Management Consulting Group, Kramer Aerotek, and Shafer, G. ACRP Report 77: Guidebook for Developing General Aviation Business Plans. Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, Washington, D.C., 2012. San Bernardino International Airport, Luxivair SBD/Brand Guidelines. Source: Prepared by KRAMER aerotek, 2018. Figure 5-1. Example of airport fueling SWOT.

73 6.1 Importance of an Airport Brand 6.2 Building a Brand 6.3 Brand Definition: Mission, Vision, and Values 6.4 Brand Development: Integrating the Brand into Business Practices 6.5 Brand Delivery: Brand Use in Fueling Services 6.6 Brand Nurturing: Evaluation and Fine Tuning 6.7 References Part 2 of this management guide encompasses different components of an evaluation of fuel services at the airport. Chapters 4 and 5 address current activity and the airport’s competitors for aviation fuel sales. Chapter 6 examines why it is important for an airport to understand its customer base and identity and presents a basic approach for airports to create a consistent, relevant brand that carries across all aspects of airport operations. 6.1 Importance of an Airport Brand It is common to associate brand with a product logo. Many fuel operators sell branded fuel associated with a particular refiner or distributor of aviation fuels. Figure 6-1 shows examples of common and ubiquitous fuel logos. Logos are trademarks that point back to the company. Fuel operators at an airport, if they are selling branded fuel, like to point back to the source of the fuel as a message of quality and support for aviation products sold. That said, airport brands and fuel logos are not the same. An airport brand describes the relation- ship between the airport organization and its customers, while logos are one way to reference the brand relationship. When an airport operates a fueling service, it is defining its relationship with its customers separately, but perhaps in coordination with the fuel supplier. The airport brand goes well beyond the particular fuel it sells. It speaks to the level of service offered, the airport’s values, and customer relationships. Airport brands translate across all aspects of airport operations and employee conduct, and is an expression of an airport’s identity. If the airport self-operates the fuel, the airport brand is a key component of the fueling operation as well. There are many expressions of airport brands—from “no frills” to luxurious facilities and services. Many private FBO networks have well-defined brands. To participate in the aviation fuel market, defining the airport brand helps to position the airport to attract certain customers and effectively compete in its chosen segment of the market. That is why an airport brand is important. C H A P T E R 6 Clarifying the Airport Brand

74 Airport Management Guide for Providing Aircraft Fueling Services 6.2 Building a Brand Figure 6-2 describes a logical way to develop the airport brand. Some airports develop their brand in-house; others hire consultants to assist with the branding process; or it could be a combination of internal and external resources. Each step in the process is discussed in the next sections. 6.3 Brand Definition: Mission, Vision, and Values Many airports or airport authorities have developed mission, vision, and value statements for their airports or for the airports within their jurisdiction. For airports that are self-operating fueling services, it is useful to brainstorm and consider how the fueling operation fits within the mission, vision, and values of the airport. Figure 6-3 presents a set of questions to clarify the current direction of the airport. By completing the statements in Figure 6-3, it is possible to prepare a set of statements about the airport and its competitive position. With these statements and review of the results of the Sources: Company websites. Figure 6-1. Examples of branded fuel logos. Source: Modified by KRAMER aerotek from ACRP Report 77: Guidebook for Developing General Aviation Airport Business Plans, 2012. Brand Definition • Mission • Vision • Values Brand Development • Airport Values Expressed in Operations • Focus on the Customers • Value Propositions Offers Brand Delivery • Living the Brand • Messaging • Initiatives • Action Plans Brand Nurturing • Check Progress and Results • Fine Tune • Revisit, Update, or Revise Figure 6-2. Airport branding process.

Clarifying the Airport Brand 75 fueling SWOT prepared Chapter 5.4, a new or revised set of statements about the airport identity is easily derived. Figure 6-4 shows some examples of airport identity statements. After a list of identity statements is prepared, the next step is to integrate them into a new or updated statement of the airport’s mission, vision, and values. To clarify these terms: • A mission and vision statement conveys the purpose of the airport, its core competencies, and aspirations as an airport. For example, the mission and vision of the San Bernardino International Airport’s (SBD) airport-operated FBO, Luxivair, states: “Centrally located close to all Southern California has to offer, Luxivair SBD extends an exceptional aviation experience to our customers by: – Delivering personalized proactive services that exceed expectations. – Offering luxurious, leading-edge facilities with an array of comfortable amenities. – Providing a premier terminal, international customs and support services to meet clients’ complete needs. – Adding outstanding value that contributes to our clients’ bottom lines.” Source: Prepared by KRAMER aerotek; first published in ACRP Report 28: Marketing Guidebook for Small Airports, 2010. Our most important customers are... We stand out from the competition because... Our airport is known for...... We are great at.... We want our customers to be.... We strive to... Our community would like..... Figure 6-3. Identify the airport identity and vision. Source: Prepared by KRAMER aerotek, 2018. • We are a community-supported airport with loyal, based tenants • We are fun, but serious about safety and security of the airport and our customers • We serve both single-engine enthusiasts and business jets based in eastern Connecticut • We are a gateway to NYC • We offer a safe, efficient, cost-competitive facility • Our self-service fuel prices are among the lowest in the region • Our full-service option offers concierge-level customer service • Pilots appreciate our long runway and taxiway • We are growing and attracting new aviation business • Our new restaurant and catering service already have a following • We are exciting and innovative • We listen to our customers Figure 6-4. Examples of airport identity statements.

76 Airport Management Guide for Providing Aircraft Fueling Services • The values statement outlines the shared beliefs held throughout the FBO or airport orga- nization. Again, drawing from San Bernadino International Airport’s statement of values, they are: – Put People First – Be Supportive – Exceed Expectations – Extend Value – Strengthen Community1 The mission, vision, and value statements help to define the airport brand. In the SBD case, the Luxivair SBD brand is intended to convey “luxurious, deluxe, upscale, personal, and premium service.” Every airport will have a different brand and relationship to its customers. 6.4 Brand Development: Integrating the Brand into Business Practices Once an airport can articulate its brand, the next step is to express it in everyday functions of the airport. For fueling, this would include customer service, line functions, employee relation- ships as well as relationships with tenants, fuel suppliers, and other vendors. To express the airport values, it is important to identify both internal and external customers of the airport. For a general aviation airport, external customers may include: • Local aircraft owners not based at the airport; • Destination visitors; • Executive travelers; • Private-plane passengers; • Meeters and greeters; • Transient pilots (service, fuel, food); • Student pilots; • Charter passengers for sightseeing/transit/aerial photography; and • Restaurant patrons. Internal customers would include: • Based aircraft tenants, • Aviation services companies, • Industrial tenants, • Employees, • Fuel suppliers and other vendors, • Maintenance contractors, • Rental car concessions, • Law enforcement and security, and • Other government agencies on airport. The airport brand is expressed across all of these internal and external customers. For commercial airports, the customer base is even more complex, as shown in Figure 6-5. Once the customer base is identified, it is important to clarify what each customer group wants out of their airport experience. In marketing terms, this is the “value proposition,” which explains how the airport operator can: 1 Luxivair SBD—Branding the FBO.

Clarifying the Airport Brand 77 • Address its customer’s needs and wants (relevancy), • Deliver specific benefits (quantified value), and • Present a strong case for why the customer should use this airport and not another (unique differentiation).2 Figure 6-6 provides examples of customer needs and wants from a GA airport. Sometimes different customer groups want the same specific benefits. As the airport shapes its brand identity, it can address the services, values, and unique reasons customers should use the airport. 6.5 Brand Delivery: Brand Use in Fueling Services At the beginning of this chapter, airport brand was defined as a relationship between the airport organization and its customers. How the brand is delivered consistently across all aspects of airport operations, including marketing and advertising is the scope of brand delivery. SBD, after completing its brand development work, summed up implementation of its brand within the entire airport organization, as shown in Figure 6-7. Brand delivery first involves its execution across the airport organization. For the airport’s existing customers, brand identity is reinforced each day by airport staff and activities designed to increase use of facilities such as tenant fuel or other line-service discounts. Brand delivery to external existing or potential customers involve custom messages and actions to influence a particular customer segment. Source: Prepared by KRAMER aerotek; first published in ACRP Synthesis 48: How Airports Measure Customer Service Performance, 2013. Figure 6-5. Airport customers at a commercial airport. 2 https://conversionxl.com/blog/value-proposition-examples-how-to-create/.

78 Airport Management Guide for Providing Aircraft Fueling Services Source: Prepared by KRAMER aerotek, 2018. Recreational Flyers • Safety • Friendly • Good service • Competitive fuel prices • Restaurant • Fly-ins Visitors • Safety • Access to Rental • Clean terminal • Concierge services Corporate Travelers • Safety and efficiency • Reliable access • Terminal and lounge • Concierge services • Rental cars Transient Pilots • Safety and efficiency • Reliable access • Aircraft services • Fuel • Deicing • Overnight hangar • Light maintenance • Flight planning • Cabin cleaning • Catering Industrial Commercial Tenants • Improved sites • Utility hookups • Highway access • Fair market value • Tenant synergy • Airport reinvesting • Transparent leasing program, process, design standards • Pilot terminal and lounge • Rental car or courtesy car & repair cars or shuttle Figure 6-6. Example of value propositions for the external customers of a GA airport. You Are the Brand Enlist Brand Ambassadors Be a Brand Filter Personify the Brand Bring the Brand to Life Luxivair SBD/Brand Guidelines The strength of our Brand rests not only with the way we execute it in communications, it also rests with you. Here’s what you can do to ensure that our Brand consistently reaches and resonates with our audiences to build awareness and affinity. Make sure every staff member understands the Brand and the key messages behind it. When they understand who we are and what we stand for, so will the people they serve. Keep off-Brand messages from getting out there. Be on the lookout for any communications or messaging that weaken our Brand position. Don’t just talk the talk, but walk the walk. Support and reinforce our Brand attributes in all your actions, not just your communi- cations. Our Brand is a living, breathing thing. It will continue to evolve as we grow and expand to reach more customers. Help us keep our Brand alive and fresh. Share your excitement about our Brand and believe in what it stands for. Figure 6-7. San Bernadino Airport brand development.

Clarifying the Airport Brand 79 When designing messages, it is important to state: what’s in it for the particular customer? This is much more important than a message that describes what the airport does. Messages that cater to a specific target audience may require a certain venue or delivery method to be most effective. Examples of these messages could include: • “Low-priced Self-Service for the Self-Sufficient Pilot” • “Our Weekend Warrior Discount Welcomes the Recreation Pilot Community” • “Premier Full-Service Fuel from Our Expert Line Service Staff ” Additionally, messages could come in the form of brief taglines that can effectively position an airport. For example, Salina Regional Airport in Kansas has a tagline, America’s Fuel Stop. Milwaukee’s General Mitchell International Airport tagline is Chicago’s Third Airport. Taglines could accompany the airport name and logo in all publications and advertisements. The fuel operator could also advertise special promotions on the airport website. For arriving aircraft, the first and perhaps most important encounter with the airport is made when dispatchers or pilots call ahead to make flight arrival plans. At focus groups with corporate flight departments conducted for this research, the number one request from dispatchers sending aircraft to new destinations was that someone answer the phone immediately and offer courteous and helpful customer service. Dispatchers use conferences to meet airports and private FBO operators as these relationships can solidify into future fuel stops. Many airports jointly market the airport brand with the fuel supplier brand. For pilots arriving at an airport, the fuel station may be one of the first stops. Regular maintenance of the fueling area, equipment, and signage is a direct representation of the airport brand. There are many other opportunities to deliver the airport brand including: • At the airport terminal; • During fueling operations or other line services; • On the airport website; • At industry conventions and trade shows (e.g., NBAA, AAAE, ACI-NA); • By advertising in hardcopy and online industry publications; • Volunteering for feature articles in industry publications; • Posting of current fuel prices and any fuel specials on the airport website, fuel pricing websites, Facebook, Linked In, and Twitter; and • Linking the airport to other industry websites such as Aircraft Owners and Pilots Association, GlobalAir, 100LL, AirNav, FlightAware, and the airport’s fuel supplier. Brand delivery involves an annual action plan and a budget. Five steps are suggested: 1. Identify specific target audiences to reach; 2. Prepare the objectives and anticipated actions and messages for each target audience; 3. Choose the best venue to achieve brand delivery objectives; 4. Develop and select the best tools to deliver the message such as brochures, flyers, hospitality rooms, giveaways, social media, face-to-face contact; and 5. Prepare an action plan for the upcoming year that addresses: a. Target audiences, b. The brand delivery objectives, c. What will be done to accomplish the objectives, d. Who in the airport organization is responsible, and e. How much each initiative will cost.

80 Airport Management Guide for Providing Aircraft Fueling Services 6.6 Brand Nurturing: Evaluation and Fine Tuning Brand nurturing is a dynamic and iterative process. Best practice is to make an action plan each year with a budget, ensuring a portion of the budget is reserved for unexpected opportunities. At 9 months into the year, check progress and results, fine-tune existing initiatives, and revise the next year’s action plan and budget. Each brand delivery option has an objective or action associated with it. Examples of objec- tives are: • At the NBAA Schedulers and Dispatchers Conference, make six appointments in advance and meet individually with these flight departments to acquaint them with the airport fueling operation, customer service, and discount programs. • Build an airport website separate from the city website and launch it within 12 months or build a mobile version of the website including live airport weather conditions, aircraft traffic, and navigation charts available. • Offer a 20-cent discount on full-service Avgas every Sunday. Each brand delivery objective specifies an activity, measurable outcome, and a time frame. This makes it possible to measure progress and the effectiveness of each initiative. Not all initiatives will work out. At 9 months, review results and make adjustments for the remaining year. In the example of the Sunday discount program for Avgas, the evaluation may reveal that improvements to the advertising of the program are likely to increase sales volumes. Checking progress and fine tuning can occur more frequently, but once per year is the minimum. 6.7 References Aviation Management Consulting Group, KRAMER aerotek, and Shafer, G. ACRP Report 77: Guidebook for Developing General Aviation Business Plans. Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, Washington, D.C. 2012. Burns, N. M. “Reputation Management: Maintaining Your Airport Brand in Challenging Times.” Presented at ACI-NA Conference, Center for Brand Research, University of Texas at Austin, October, 2009. Available: http://www.aci-na.org/static/entransit/concurrent2_burns_ut.pdf. Kramer, L., Bothner, A., and Spiro, M. ACRP Synthesis 48: How Airports Measure Customer Service Performance. Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, Washington, D.C. 2010. Kramer, L., Hazel, R., Harig, G., and Fowler, P. ACRP Report 28: Marketing Guidebook for Small Airports. Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, Washington, D.C. 2010. San Bernardino International Airport, Luxivair SBD/Brand Guidelines.

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TRB’s Airport Cooperative Research Program has released ACRP Research Report 192: Airport Management Guide for Providing Aircraft Fueling Services designed to assist airports that are considering or are currently self-providing fueling services directly to their customers.

The management guide includes a methodology to help evaluate whether an airport should or should not provide fuel service, a checklist of action items required for providing fuel service, and a sample request for proposal to solicit bids from fuel suppliers.

The management guide also addresses a wide range of topics including feasibility evaluations for new or improved fueling facilities, fuel pricing and marketing strategies, and organizational considerations when starting or expanding a fueling service. In addition, there are introductions to how aviation fuels are produced and to the components of an airport fueling system, which can be used to brief municipal decision-makers or airport employees.

The management guide offers useful information about branded and unbranded fuel products, setting price, inventory controls, customer service, staffing levels, regulatory requirements, capital investment, and operating and maintenance costs associated with the fueling services.

There are three online appendices related to the guide.

Appendix A contains case studies of the fueling operations of 16 airports;

Appendix B contains Microsoft Excel worksheets (that can be downloaded and customized by airports to keep track of inventories, sales, operating expenses, and profit and loss) and a Microsoft PowerPoint presentation (to help airports produce their own PowerPoint presentations for their sponsors); and

Appendix C contains a detailed bibliography.

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