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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 1 - Introduction." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Guidebook for Developing a Comprehensive Renewable Resources Strategy. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25433.
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Page 2
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 1 - Introduction." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Guidebook for Developing a Comprehensive Renewable Resources Strategy. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25433.
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Page 3
Page 4
Suggested Citation:"Chapter 1 - Introduction." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Guidebook for Developing a Comprehensive Renewable Resources Strategy. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25433.
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Page 4

Below is the uncorrected machine-read text of this chapter, intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text of each book. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

2 What Are Renewable Resources? Renewable resources are resources that can be replenished over a period of time shorter than a typical human lifespan. This guidebook focuses on renewable resources that provide airport stakeholders with utility equivalent to (or greater than) that offered by non-renewable resources. For example, consider an airport that installs a biomass boiler to provide heating for a terminal building and reduces the use of heating oil. That airport uses a renewable resource (biofuel) to provide utility (heating) to airport tenants, staff, and customers. This guidebook assumes that most airports will prioritize renewable resources that offset a non-renewable resource and reduce costs. In addition, renewable resources that improve a customer’s experience will likely be well-received. Given the list of available renewable resources provided in Table 1, it may be a challenge to identify the best options for individual airports. Using several examples, drawn from airports of varying sizes and types, this guidebook presents the benefits from the various renewable resource options and how these can fit into existing airport operations as well as future strategic planning. Some options may involve relatively minimal planning, such as switching from con- ventional to bioplastic cutlery. Other options necessarily involve greater planning and execution, such as solar photovoltaics (PV) or wind projects, though these can have major impacts on an airport’s electricity costs and carbon emissions. Appendix A provides a tool that airport staff can use to gauge the impacts and opportunities of some of the renewable resource alternatives noted in Table 1. Purpose of This Guidebook This guidebook provides airport planning staff, engineers, and operational teams with the information, resources, and guidance needed to incorporate renewable resources into the airport planning process. This guidebook is not intended to serve as an exhaustive reference to any specific renewable resource; rather, it is intended to frame a process that airport staff can use to incorporate renewable resources into their airport planning (e.g., the master planning process and sustainability planning). Adopting renewable resources as a planned process yields signifi- cant cost savings and facilitates a smooth adoption process, compared to ad hoc adoption of renewable resources. This guidebook assists airport planners and decision-makers in developing and implement- ing a comprehensive renewable resources strategy. Chapter 2 highlights key steps in developing that strategy. The subsequent chapters provide detailed explanations of these steps and include additional information to aid airports in understanding their renewable resource opportunities. This document is applicable to airports of all types and sizes, and includes various options for C H A P T E R 1 Introduction

Introduction 3 utilizing renewable resources with minimal effort or incorporating renewables into an airport’s vision statement. Though options will vary by costs, feasibility, resources, and effort, this guide- book will help airport decision-makers identify the best strategy for each airport. Foundational References In developing this guidebook, the authors conducted a literature review to establish the scope of existing information regarding renewable resources at airports and the planning and implementation processes required for renewable resource projects. Table 2 lists several of the more useful documents reviewed during this literature review. These references should serve as sufficient supplementary resources for airports seeking to develop a renewable resources strategy using this guidebook. The references section includes these documents and others. Utility Provided Non-Renewable Resource Used Renewable Resource Alternative Heating and cooling Fuel oil, natural gas Biomass Geothermal cooling Ground source heat exchange Anaerobic digestion Electricity Coal, natural gas On-site solar photovoltaic (PV) Small wind Power purchasing from off-site renewable energy systems Plastic cutlery Petroleum-based plastic Bioplastic Soil remediation Chemical fertilizer CompostWaste disposal Paid garbage handling Vehicle washing Pumped municipal water Gray water reclamation Irrigation Condensation catchment from cooling units Ingredients for on-site restaurants Open-loop food providers On-site or indoor gardens Transportation Gasoline/diesel fuel Renewable fuels—biodiesel; renewable diesel Table 1. Examples of renewable resources. (continued on next page) Document Title Authoring Organization Brief Description ACRP Report 80: Guidebook for Incorporating Sustainability into Traditional Airport Projects TRB This report identifies the benefits of sustainability and describes how a variety of applications can be incorporated into traditional airport construction and maintenance projects. ACRP Report 108: Guidebook for Energy Facilities Compatibility with Airports and Airspace TRB This report considers a range of energy technologies that may be considered for airport development. ACRP Report 151: Developing a Business Case for Renewable Energy at Airports TRB This report presents the business case for renewable energy in the context of a typical airport’s master planning process, and explains how proper evaluation of a proposed renewable energy project can contribute to the airport’s financial, environmental, and social viability. Table 2. Relevant critical reference documents.

4 Guidebook for Developing a Comprehensive Renewable Resources Strategy Table 2. (Continued). Document Title Authoring Organization Brief Description ACRP Report 141: Renewable Energy as an Airport Revenue Source TRB This report offers guidance to airport practitioners for identifying, evaluating, and selecting renewable energy projects that could provide financial benefits to the airport and its stakeholders. It also briefly walks through the selection and procurement process, in addition to financial analysis for a potential renewable energy project. ACRP Synthesis 85: Alternative Fuels in Airport Fleets TRB This report examines alternative fuel use in airport fleet vehicles at 33 airports in the United States. ACRP Synthesis 66: Lessons Learned from Airport Sustainability Plans TRB This report describes the EONS model and provides case studies on the effectiveness of specific sustainability measures, both recommended in plans and implemented. Advisory Circular 150/5070-6B— Airport Master Plans FAA This advisory circular provides information on developing an airport master plan for airports of varying sizes and functions. Advisory Circular 150/5300-13A— Airport Design FAA This document provides FAA standards and recommendations for the layout and design of runways, taxiways, aprons, and other facilities at civil airports. AIP Sponsor Guide—Central Region FAA This guide provides potential airport sponsors with an overview of airports’ main planning documents/processes.

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TRB's Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Research Report 197: Guidebook for Developing a Comprehensive Renewable Resources Strategy highlights renewable energy sources, includes steps for developing a renewable energy strategy, and identifies metrics for measuring success. The report also highlights real-world examples of successful renewable resource projects at airports.

Renewable resources to reduce emissions from airports and climate impacts have been discussed for several years. Technological advancements have allowed organizations, specifically airports, to begin integrating renewable resources into their overall energy plans. In an effort to address climate impacts and achieve neutral carbon growth by 2020, a coalition of aviation stakeholders has adopted emission reduction targets.

Airports are also seeking to become energy independent, and using renewable resources as a strategy to get there. Further, as the costs for conventional energy sources increases, renewable resources become more financially attractive. Those airports who have implemented renewable resources have been able to do so at minimal cost.

While a business case can be made for the integration of any one particular renewable resource, an airport can be more strategic by adopting an overall renewable resource strategy. The renewable resources strategy can then become an input to other airport planning documents (e.g., airport master plan, strategic plan). The success of developing the plan as well as implementation require all internal and external stakeholders are involved in the process.

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