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Guidebook for Developing a Comprehensive Renewable Resources Strategy (2019)

Chapter: Chapter 3 - Building the Airport Vision for Renewable Resources

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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3 - Building the Airport Vision for Renewable Resources." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Guidebook for Developing a Comprehensive Renewable Resources Strategy. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25433.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3 - Building the Airport Vision for Renewable Resources." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Guidebook for Developing a Comprehensive Renewable Resources Strategy. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25433.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3 - Building the Airport Vision for Renewable Resources." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Guidebook for Developing a Comprehensive Renewable Resources Strategy. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25433.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3 - Building the Airport Vision for Renewable Resources." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Guidebook for Developing a Comprehensive Renewable Resources Strategy. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25433.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3 - Building the Airport Vision for Renewable Resources." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Guidebook for Developing a Comprehensive Renewable Resources Strategy. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25433.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3 - Building the Airport Vision for Renewable Resources." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Guidebook for Developing a Comprehensive Renewable Resources Strategy. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25433.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3 - Building the Airport Vision for Renewable Resources." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Guidebook for Developing a Comprehensive Renewable Resources Strategy. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25433.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3 - Building the Airport Vision for Renewable Resources." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Guidebook for Developing a Comprehensive Renewable Resources Strategy. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25433.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3 - Building the Airport Vision for Renewable Resources." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Guidebook for Developing a Comprehensive Renewable Resources Strategy. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25433.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3 - Building the Airport Vision for Renewable Resources." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Guidebook for Developing a Comprehensive Renewable Resources Strategy. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25433.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3 - Building the Airport Vision for Renewable Resources." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Guidebook for Developing a Comprehensive Renewable Resources Strategy. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25433.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3 - Building the Airport Vision for Renewable Resources." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Guidebook for Developing a Comprehensive Renewable Resources Strategy. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25433.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3 - Building the Airport Vision for Renewable Resources." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Guidebook for Developing a Comprehensive Renewable Resources Strategy. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25433.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3 - Building the Airport Vision for Renewable Resources." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Guidebook for Developing a Comprehensive Renewable Resources Strategy. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25433.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3 - Building the Airport Vision for Renewable Resources." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Guidebook for Developing a Comprehensive Renewable Resources Strategy. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25433.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3 - Building the Airport Vision for Renewable Resources." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Guidebook for Developing a Comprehensive Renewable Resources Strategy. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25433.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3 - Building the Airport Vision for Renewable Resources." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Guidebook for Developing a Comprehensive Renewable Resources Strategy. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25433.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3 - Building the Airport Vision for Renewable Resources." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Guidebook for Developing a Comprehensive Renewable Resources Strategy. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25433.
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7 Vision Statement Adoption of renewable resources may be included in airport vision statements in regard to “greening” or sustainability, but some renewable resources also may find a place in parts of the vision statement related to improving customers’ experiences, differentiating the airport, or reducing costs. ACRP Report 80: Guidebook for Incorporating Sustainability into Traditional Airport Projects, ACRP Report 108: Guidebook for Energy Facilities Compatibility with Airports and Airspace, ACRP Report 141: Renewable Energy as an Airport Revenue Source, and ACRP Report 151: Developing a Business Case for Renewable Energy at Airports cite renewable energy integration as a cost- stabilizing mechanism to reduce and steady an airport’s operating costs over time, contributing to more manageable and predictable budgets. In addition, ACRP Report 151 affirms, on a basic level, that economic, self-sustainability, environmental, and social benefits should be considered and weighted for each category’s importance to the airport (although all four categories are vital to any airport’s long-term sustainability). Adoption of renewable resources may be included in airport vision statements or be incor- porated as part of a mission statement in other airport planning documents (e.g., an airport sustainability plan). Including renewable resources in an airport’s vision statement enables consideration and consistency within the context of an airport’s long-term CIP. Typically, the specific alignment of a renewable resource project in an airport’s vision or mission statement is considered on a case-by-case basis. Further, as stated in ACRP Report 151, incorporation of a renewable resource project into a vision statement “is likely to support goals associated with developing and operating a modern and efficient airport that will be capable of mitigating economic and environmental risks in the future” (Barrett et al., 2016). C H A P T E R 3 Building the Airport Vision for Renewable Resources Spotlight: Vision Statement A vision statement serves as an organization’s roadmap, guiding its internal decision-making and defining its goals for the future. An effective vision statement will be clear, concise, inspiring, and stable, yet challenging. It will be applicable in the short-term while offering long-term perspectives for an organization. Thus, an airport’s vision statement is an ideal place to begin when considering both short- and long-term sustainability initiatives.

8 Guidebook for Developing a Comprehensive Renewable Resources Strategy Incorporating sustainability planning and renewable resources into an airport’s vision state- ment establishes a basis for incorporating sustainability planning into the airport master plan, sustainability plan or sustainability management plan (SMP). This integration can be accom- plished at individual airports or on a state level, as part of a statewide sustainability plan. Many individual airports have prepared SMPs following the Interim Guidance for FAA’s Sustainable Master Plan Pilot Program, which prescribes the preparation of a vision statement. FAA’s airport sustainability website lists some of those plans. For example, Coeur d’Alene Airport in Idaho prepared the following sustainability vision statement: [T]o preserve and improve the Airport as an economically valuable, socially responsible, and environmen- tally sustainable facility from which to provide an efficient gateway to the region. (TO Engineers and Mead & Hunt, 2016) Examples of statewide approaches include those adopted in Virginia, Colorado, and Florida. Virginia Department of Aviation’s statewide effort updated its mission statement to include a focus on sustainability. It also developed a detailed sustainability definition tailored to the needs, concerns, and priorities of public-use airports in the state. Key Stakeholders This section identifies the stakeholders involved in implementing renewable resource projects and strategies, and the airport system decision-makers that may have the authority to approve various types of renewable resource projects. This includes describing the role each individual or team may play in the process. The section seeks to ensure that stakeholders are included at the appropriate stages of planning and implementation, and that the correct decision-makers are involved. Stakeholder Roles and Engagement Process Typically, many types of stakeholders become involved in the planning, design, development, and implementation of an airport’s renewable resource project. Such stakeholders should be informed about the project early and should be engaged at appropriate times during the project’s development. In general, most airports have two types of stakeholders: internal and external. Internal stakeholders include those owning, managing, or operating an airport (e.g., an airport authority), the federal regulatory oversight agency (i.e., FAA), and airport tenants (e.g., airlines, air taxis, concessionaires, rental cars, fixed-base operators, ground support services, and other services and vendors). External stakeholders include state and local regulatory agencies, local utility companies, interest groups, local or neighboring communities, and the flying public. Table 3 shows the stakeholder types that may be involved in an airport’s renewable resource project, along with their general roles. Stakeholder outreach should be integrated throughout the project implementation process. Initially, the project concept will be developed within the airport organization. Once a solid project concept has been developed, it should be brought to decision-makers for an initial review. If approved internally, the next communications layer should include FAA and affected tenants. For FAA, the airport must make certain it can communicate how the project protects aviation safety and supports future airport business. For affected tenants, the airport should communicate any impacts the project will have and how these impacts can be minimized. All parties will seek to understand the concept for project financing and how the project demonstrates long-term cost-effectiveness.

Building the Airport Vision for Renewable Resources 9 Stakeholder Role in Renewable Resources Planning Airport Owner/ Governing Authority The airport owner/governing authority provides formal approval of a renewable resource project. This stakeholder ensures that the project is consistent with the airport’s mission statement and long-term interests, development plans, and overall operating budget. Airport Staff The airport staff define the renewable resource project. They provide (or direct consultant for) the planning, design, and construction and/or installation of the renewable resource project. The expertise of various staff is required throughout the process. Planning staff ensure that the project is consistent with the airport master plan and ALP. Environmental staff obtain necessary permits, reviews, and federal, state, and local regulatory approvals. Engineering staff oversee system design issues and compatibility with existing infrastructure. Finance staff identify funding sources and collaborate with airport owner/governing authority to secure funding. Facilities staff coordinate on O&M. Janitorial and support staff are involved in daily sustainability issues within the facility, such as waste, water use, and electricity use. FAA FAA has regulatory oversight over all U.S. federally obligated public-use airports. FAA reviews the renewable resource project for compatibility with the current approved ALP, does not obstruct current or future development of aeronautical uses, and does not impact the Federal Aviation Regulation (FAR). FAA ensures compliance with grant assurances associated with grants and leases. FAA facilitates, processes, and reviews any requests for Airport Improvement Program funding. Airport Tenants Airport tenants—such as concessionaires, flight schools, waste services, ground services, and hotels—may be vested in renewable resource projects. Tenants are advised of renewable resource projects through existing tenant communications, such as regularly scheduled meetings or e-mails. Tenants may also be funding partners. Airlines Air carriers may be vested partners in the development of renewable resource goals, potentially aligning them with their corporate sustainability or renewable resource programs and initiatives. For Part 139 airports, airlines are consulted regarding any project with the potential to affect their respective rates and charges at that airport. They also may serve as a funding partner. Additionally, airlines may directly work with airports on specific renewable projects, such as sharing refueling stations for renewable transportation fuels. State and Local Regulatory Agencies Depending on the airport’s ownership and the state and local regulatory structure at the airport’s location, an institutionalized intergovernmental coordination process may be in place. State and local regulatory agencies may require reviews and approvals of renewable resource projects. They also, however, may serve as funding partners. Politically, it is important for airports to coordinate closely with government authorities. Utility The organization owning and managing the electric grid is a key stakeholder for any renewable electricity project. At a minimum, the utility must approve the interconnection application to ensure that the project, as designed, proves compatible with the existing grid. A utility also may seek to purchase electricity produced by the project if it operates under a renewable energy purchase mandate or if the project fits into its grid modernization plan. A gas company may play a similar role for a renewable thermal project. Community Local or neighboring communities learn of (or further understand) an airport’s renewable resource projects through airport public meetings, either those scheduled regularly or those taking place as part of regulatory requirements such as the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA); the local community; or special interest groups, which vary by airport and project types. Flying Public The flying public learn of renewable resource projects though printed communications and typical airport media outlets. As this stakeholder group is uniquely transient, their involvement requires that these communications are both easily accessible and updated regularly. Table 3. Airport stakeholder roles.

10 Guidebook for Developing a Comprehensive Renewable Resources Strategy Once these initial discussions with key stakeholders have occurred, information can be communicated to other stakeholders interested in or affected by the project, and they can join a stakeholder list for invitation to any airport informational meetings, advertised public meet- ings, and site visits related to the project. For energy projects, specific technical meetings will be scheduled with the utility and its consultants to ensure that the project’s design remains consistent with existing utility regulatory requirements. Broader communication about the project can be provided to the community and flying public through local and social media, and through a public information campaign designed to meet the airport’s objectives. Airport Decision-Makers Typically, airport staff are led by an executive, who is supported by a board of directors that approves budgets and major decisions and provides policy direction. The staff’s size positively correlates with the airport’s size and annual business. Small airports tend to have an airport manager, with some administrative support. In such cases, airport managers must address all aspects of airport operations. At smaller airports, engineering staff address a wide variety of technical issues. Larger airports utilize individual departments, responsible for different aspects of airport management, including administration, facilities, planning, business/finance, and environmental. Currently, most large airports include sustainability staff. Ideas are usually developed at the staff level, then brought to the executive level for approval, and then are presented to the airport board of directors for formal approval and, if required, authorization of funds. Other times, ideas may be generated by a board member, delivered to staff for study, and returned to the board with a recommendation. Once the board signs off, other regulatory agencies may require approvals (such as FAA, but also state and local authorities that administer laws and regulations triggered by the proposed renewable resource project). Renewable resource projects should be considered and planned, as with any airport capital improvement projects. It is important to include projects in the airport master planning process and ALP development, and to remain consistent with the airport’s long-term strategic plan. As the project works through the planning process, numerous stakeholders must provide their review and approval. The airport owner or governing authority responsible for airport management works with airport staff to effectively and safely operate the airport. Airport staff gain formal approval from the airport owner or governing authority for all capital improvement projects, including renew- able resource projects. FAA serves as the approving agency responsible for ensuring the project remains consistent with the current ALP, providing a FAR 77 surfaces review to identify potential aeronautical hazards (thus preventing or minimizing the adverse impacts to safe and efficient use of navigable airspace), overseeing property rights and values, ensuring NEPA reviews, and authorizing use of federal funding through the FAA grants program. Similar to FAA reviews, renewable resource projects may require reviews by other federal, state, and local authorities and by regulatory agencies to receive approvals and permits. Table 4 identifies some airport staff who may be involved in the planning and approving of a renewable resource project. Making the Case for Renewable Resources Federal, state, and local governments have enacted renewable energy public policies for mul- tiple purposes, as shown in Figure 1. National investments in renewable energy have driven down solar panel production and installation costs, making solar electricity cost-competitive

Building the Airport Vision for Renewable Resources 11 with conventional sources. Some particular characteristics of airports enhance the potential financial viability of on-site renewable energy. Land and buildings can provide cost-effective physical locations for renewable energy facilities. The open landscape and geographic position of airports necessary for managing air traffic arrivals and departures also facilitates the capture of natural resources from the sun, wind, water, and earth that fuel renewable energy. Small rural airports may have surplus land available to site such facilities. Larger airports are often charged for electricity demand (peak usage) due to their large size and impact on the electrical grid. Avoiding these demand charges can make a big impact on the economics of potential projects, as electricity used during peak periods is often more valuable than electricity consumed at other times. All of these attributes, combined with improved, renewable energy market conditions, make airport renewable energy a viable solution to an airport’s energy needs. These same physical aspects of airports—specifically, the availability of open land and geographic positions—render these facilities ripe for producing other renewable resources. These can include apiaries, such as the one at Chicago O’Hare International Airport, or the space Department Authority Executive/Airport Manager All budgets, plans, capital projects, and O&M as approved by the airport’s governing board and presented to FAA Finance Director Budgets, including those for capital projects and utility contracts, as approved by the executive Planning Director ALPs, Airport master plans, and sustainability plans Engineering/ Facilities Director Engineering plans, infrastructure, and O&M, including utilities, as approved by the executive Safety Officer Part 77 surfaces, wildlife hazards, and project compatibility as coordinated with FAA Administration Procurement, existing tenant contracts Business Development Director Recruiting new business Environment Director Sustainability, noise, NEPA documentation Fleet Manager Decisions about airport fleet vehicle mix and fuel mix Table 4. Airport decision-maker roles. Figure 1. Reasons for renewable energy public policy.

12 Guidebook for Developing a Comprehensive Renewable Resources Strategy necessary for an on-site wastewater reclamation facility, such as the one at Fresno Yosemite International Airport. Further, as airports have a lot of passenger traffic on site, they produce a lot of waste, creating the opportunity for airport-wide composting endeavors and a variety of other recycling efforts. Similarly, airport vehicle fleets are an attractive end user of renewable transportation fuels. Airport fleet vehicles include passenger and employee shuttles, facility and maintenance vehicles, and emergency response and security vehicles. These vehicles have predictable drive cycles and can be centrally refueled, which helps drive down the cost of refueling infrastructure. Additionally, airport fleet vehicles—in particular shuttles—have long idle periods and make frequent start-stops near pedestrians, which means environmental and health benefits can be amplified with switches to renewable transportation fuels. EONS In 2005, the airport industry, through its collaboration with TRB, observed that in order for sustainability to be effective at airports, it needed to be included in both building design and land use management. In recognition of this, ACI–NA’s Airport Sustainability Committee developed a holistic approach to airport sustainability called EONS which has become the standard for airport sustainability programs. • Economic viability • Operational efficiency • Natural resource conservation • Social responsibility EONS expands the traditional concept of the Triple Bottom Line—economic value, environ- mental impact, and social responsibility—which argues that environmental and social aspects of business enhance financial performance. While the EONS definition explicitly adds operations as a fourth category, the concept of how sustainability produces economic benefits to organiza- tions remains the same. For airports, management is particularly important because while not all airports can or need to build new facilities, all have opportunities within the construct of their business model to leverage their operational and maintenance dollars in ways that promote sustainability. The EONS model defines “payback” through proven business practices that pay benefits to customers, employees, communities, the airport’s bottom line and the industry as a whole. EONS categories are summarized as follows. Spotlight: Fresno Yosemite International Airport The City of Fresno’s Department of Airports has taken multiple steps to make the Fresno Yosemite International Airport (FAT) more environmentally friendly. In 2008, the airport implemented a solar photovoltaic installation that has produced nearly 34.9 million kWh of electricity, as of this writing. The facility provides approximately 74 percent of the airport’s energy usage. The City of Fresno and the airport are embarking on a partnership for an airport wastewater reclamation facility, where city wastewater and sewage will be treated on airport property for reuse in irrigation. FAT is a small hub that has shown leadership and significant strides in sustainability and renewable resource adoption.

Building the Airport Vision for Renewable Resources 13 Economic Viability Airports face financial pressures to enhance safety, maintain competitive costs, and maximize available assets—all while best serving their customers. The airport’s economic standing is governed by the ability to increase revenue and decrease expenses. Sustainability investments help airports reduce their long-term operating costs and pass the savings on to prospective tenants, though some innovative projects may also provide new revenue. When considering a new project, airport managers will assess the costs of the project, funding sources available, financing options, and metrics to determine costs and benefits. A simple financial analysis is the baseline for any business case (see Chapter 4: Fiscal—Airport Ownership and Funding of Renewable Energy for more detail on specific funding programs). Further, it is important to note upfront that the pure economics of projects included in a long-term plan will be driven by factors such as: • Defining project cost metrics. Airports should consider metrics like simple payback, total cost of ownership, and rate of return as a way to measure economic performance. • Availability of grants and incentives. An airport’s ability to access grants to offset its own total contribution to the project is an important factor in evaluating the pure cost-effectiveness of a renewable resource project. Reducing capital investment will shorten the simple payback period when full project cost recovery can be attained. Funding may be available from the federal government; state agencies, particularly those that administer aviation block grants; and local governments. • Refining revenue streams. Renewable resource projects can generate a variety of revenue streams, from energy savings to reduced waste disposal costs. These must be considered in the economic analysis, including projecting any future changes in revenue streams (e.g., escalating utility prices for projects that offset electricity consumption). Operational Efficiency Efficiency, second only to safety, is the most critical function of successful airport management. Customers expect timely aviation travel services. Tenants must be able to work closely with the airport to provide expected services. The airport must closely coordinate its complex and diverse roles in landside transportation, building management, and airside operations to facilitate a smooth experience for the traveling public and aviation dependent businesses. Sustainability measures that can be readily integrated with existing airport operations without much disruption have the greatest opportunity to succeed. Smaller airports are especially keen to implement projects that increase their operational efficiency because such measures often translate directly into bottom-line savings. Coordination with the airlines and other airport tenants as part of the planning process to integrate sustainability and renewable energy projects into airport operations provides an opportunity for early “buy-in” and success of implementing the initiatives. • Considering compatibility of the new practice. Some renewable resource practices may not be appropriate for a particular airport given its characteristics even if cost-effectiveness is proven. Look closely at what changes will be required to make sure that the practice is compatible or significant inefficiencies may occur. • Comparing existing and future activities. While some sustainability actions, like energy conservation, require an initial investment proceeded by long-term savings, other sustainability measures require a new way of doing things that have the potential to slow down operations. To avoid disruption, chart existing activities, future steps, and the specific elements of change so that the changes can be planned for. • Train people for changes. An investment in training people will go a long way toward avoiding disruptions when new systems are put into place. The key, like when instituting recycling and compost, is to integrate and train quickly and effectively so new practices are quickly adopted.

14 Guidebook for Developing a Comprehensive Renewable Resources Strategy Natural Resource Conservation Environmental laws enacted over the past 50 years have improved quality of life and expanded business opportunities in many areas. Those investments had short-term effects on proposed development activity that was necessary to pay for past problems and invest in protection against future problems. The benefits of environmental protection are widely recognized as good for business. Similarly, airports of the future are at risk of constraining growth if they do not invest in mitigating potential environmental impacts of that growth. The following environmental and social benefits from renewable resource projects are easily identifiable, and the envi- ronmental and social investments made to date have benefited society financially. However, assigning a specific economic value of these environmental and social investments to a single project is difficult. Each airport will place a value on these factors when developing its renewable resources business case. This value can be calculated by assessing the following information: • Greenhouse gas reduction. GHGs, including carbon dioxide and methane, are known to trap heat in the earth’s atmosphere and accelerate the warming of the earth. Many public policies, business commitments, and changes in individual behavior have led to reductions in GHG emissions, yet carbon levels in the atmosphere continue to increase. Implementing renewable energy programs, either through the construction of on-site renewable energy facilities or through commitments to purchase renewable energy from off-site sources, are credible and measurable ways that airports are taking action despite the complexity of calculating the local benefits of such actions. • Reduced waste streams. Airports that enact renewable resource measures to divert waste streams from landfills can realize a variety of environmental benefits, largely related to clean water, clean air, and transportation fuel and emissions savings. • Environmental risk and liability reduction. As airports seek growth to meet demand, augment their businesses, and contribute to a regional economy, they are at risk that their growth plans will be constrained by concerns about environmental impacts. Airports are more routinely responding to this challenge by incorporating sustainability elements as a central part of their planning and development programs. Generally, sustainable design is considered to come at a premium upfront cost, but with returns through cost savings over time. The same is true for renewable resources. • Monetizing environmental benefits. Renewable resource projects with environmental benefits can, in some cases, be valued by examining alternative compliance costs. For example, a recycling program may generate revenue by reducing disposal costs or a renewable energy project built on site may reduce the number of renewable energy certificates (RECs) that the airport must buy to meet its renewable energy goals. In other cases, published studies on the social cost of pollutants can be used to show a broader societal benefit associated with the airport’s efforts. Social Responsibility Like the environmental benefits described above, businesses widely recognize the importance of social responsibility to fulfill their organizational objectives. This is particularly important for airports given their large presence on surrounding communities and their role as an agent of local government. • Achievement of public policy goals. Airports are often part of large government networks that have established goals and even mandates associated with environmental protection. Airports must respond to such directives and demonstrate the achievement of public policy

Building the Airport Vision for Renewable Resources 15 goals. In some markets, an airport may not directly benefit from meeting public policy goals, but reaching goals related to clean energy usage is critical to the long-term stability of the airport business. • Mitigating community impacts. Communities near airports are often active participants in the daily activities of the airport. Because airports have a relatively large impact on surrounding communities as a result of aircraft activity and its visibility, airports are often challenged to meet the demands and interests of the surrounding community, as well as to show a positive contribution. Renewable energy has a broad appeal, and most polls show that people support its adoption. The development of a renewable resource project or the purchase of renewable energy on the open market can have a direct and positive impact on an airport’s relationships with its neighbors. • Improving communities and public outreach. Airports can improve their public outreach and support their communities not only by using renewable resources but by involving them in the planning and/or implementation of the initiatives. For example, at Chicago O’Hare International Airport, the on-site apiary operates as a privately-owned business endeavor partnered with a local non-profit to provide ex-convicts an opportunity to reintegrate into society through employment at the apiary and its associated production facilities. Participating individuals learn valuable skills and develop expertise in honey-making and food production processes as well as other aspects of the business. In recent years, research has examined the business case for sustainability. Goldman Sachs reported that the stock price of firms identified as sustainability leaders outperformed the rest of the field by 25 percent (Goldman Sachs, 2007). Accenture conducted an extensive survey of 766 CEOs worldwide, showing that 93 percent of CEOs considered sustainability as crucial to business success (Accenture, 2010). As potential business risks from climate change and geo- political unrest have been increasingly studied, the value of sustainability in mitigating such risk has become a primary and pragmatic driver. A Price Waterhouse Cooper report concluded that businesses dependent on resources controlled by organizations in unstable geopolitical areas greatly expose themselves to negative impacts from environmental changes (Price Waterhouse Cooper, 2011). No matter how one defines sustainability, a compelling business case for airports using renew- able resources rests on the premise that environmental and social actions serve as investments in the airport business that enhance efficiency while ensuring safety—today and throughout the airport’s life. Spotlight: Chicago O’Hare International Airport Chicago O’Hare International Airport (ORD) participated in a city-wide sustain- ability effort with the Chicago Department of Aviation to reduce airport emissions, improve travel experience, and protect natural resources. ORD’s current renewable resources include an aeroponic garden, which houses over 1,100 planting spots, is entirely self-sustaining, and uses no fertilizers or chemicals. Airport restaurants feed passengers the fresh produce grown in the garden. The airport also is home to the largest on-airport apiary in the world. The apiary works toward replenishing the earth’s bee population. Additionally, about 52 acres of vacant land at ORD will be utilized for ground-mounted solar PV, and the south air traffic control tower has a geothermal heating and cooling system.

16 Guidebook for Developing a Comprehensive Renewable Resources Strategy Business Self-Sustainability Airports receiving FAA funding must operate in a manner that preserves their long-term self-sustainability. This principle fundamentally applies to an airport’s rates and charges structure: the airport must align fees with costs to maintain its facilities and services. Further, the airport must facilitate decision-making that reflects the airport’s vital role in the transportation network. As stable and long-lived organizations, airports are well placed to leverage the life- cycle benefits offered by renewable energy in support of their businesses’ self-sustainability objectives. Renewable energy projects provide four major advantages to business self-sustainability for airports: electric supply reliability, emergency preparedness, energy price stability, and cost control. As the renewable energy industry has grown and matured across the United States and throughout the world, airports have actively participated by integrating renewable energy into their improvement projects. Figure 2 shows renewable energy projects developed and operating at airports in the United States in 2017. Though solar PV has been the dominant technology deployed, airports have developed biomass, geothermal, and wind resources. Figure 2. Existing renewable energy projects at airports. Source: ACRP Report 151, 2016.

Building the Airport Vision for Renewable Resources 17 ACRP recently completed two research projects that describe the business case for renewable energy at airports. The resulting reports provide more detailed information regarding the finan- cial realities of renewable energy at airports, and will prove useful in providing further evidence and guidance in making the business case for renewable energy at airports. This guidebook on developing a renewable resources strategy complements ACRP’s previous research. The Airport of the Future Airports are considered unique among facility types, serving as a focal point of human activity, and providing primary service to the surrounding area (as its “home” airport), while welcoming visitors from all over the world. In this context, airports provide a source of pride and ownership, promoting local culture and character, and making a first impression on “arrivals.” They serve as the exit point to new experiences as well as a facility that fosters expectations. Though large metropolitan airports fulfill this image most completely, even smaller commercial airports can do so on a smaller scale. General aviation airports serve civil aircraft rather than accommodating scheduled air service, such as personal and corporate flying, flight instruction, charter services, or skydiving or air shows. In these and other ways, airports will continue to serve society into the future. As a place to showcase their areas, cities and regions invest in new airport infrastructure to demonstrate leadership and sophistication through advanced commerce, technology, art, and culture. Renewable resources offer powerful marketing tools to demonstrate an airport’s leadership and to make customers feel positive about using the airport. In a recent consumer poll regarding ORD’s aeroponic garden, an overwhelming 93 percent of participants developed good impressions regarding the airport’s mission, generally citing environmental returns and corporate social responsibility (CSR) as positive factors in shaping their opinions. For the general public, solar and wind energy appear to represent energy’s future, and airports have eagerly adopted renewable energy to show that the airports of the future have arrived today. The public also expects more from its business transactions. Nine in 10 consumers expect companies to do more than make a profit: they expect them to operate responsibly in addressing social and environmental issues (Cone Communications, 2015). Airports collaborate with many businesses (e.g., airlines, overnight delivery, cargo, food service, consumer goods) that integrate CSR into their daily business operations in response to consumer expectations. As agents of municipal, county, and state governments, airports often serve as proving grounds for new economic and social policies, and individual governing board members may see an airport’s mission as part of implementing CSR. These forces require that airports incorporate strategic renewable resource planning into their development programs. Smart Use of Resources According to the International Energy Agency, global aviation consumed 246 Mtoe (million tonnes of oil equivalent) in 2006, accounting for roughly 11 percent of all transportation energy used during that year (International Energy Agency, 2009). In addition to attracting customers to an airport, renewable resources can save money. In recent years, airports have become increasingly resource constrained and are expected to do more with less (e.g., smaller budgets, limited staff) due to stresses imposed on the aviation industry. At the same time, airports are being asked to improve environmental performance, including goals for reducing GHG emissions (Landrum and Brown, Inc., et al., 2012). Airport managers will need to show stakeholders the benefits from any renewable resource project, some of which may not be immediately apparent. For example, designing a new facility

18 Guidebook for Developing a Comprehensive Renewable Resources Strategy with a green roof may initially require a higher capital expenditure than a conventional roof. Because it will not require replacement for over 30 years (versus a conventional roof, which would require replacement twice in that timespan), a green roof over time offers the more cost-effective option. Further, it provides ancillary benefits through sound insulation, air quality improve- ments, stormwater management, temperature regulation, and public relations opportunities (Landrum and Brown, Inc., et al., 2012). Renewable Resource Opportunities As discussed below, renewable resources primarily relate to alternative means of energy consumption, such as electricity, heating/cooling, sustainable aviation fuels, and alternative ground transportation. An airport’s waste stream offers other opportunities to utilize renewable resources. Renewable Thermal Ground source heat pumps are the most common method of using geothermal energy, and the generated energy is mainly used for heating and cooling terminals. In a few cases, airports use it for deicing walkways and airside apron areas. Typically, these projects have been incorporated into the designs of new airport buildings or as part of major terminal renovation projects, given existing heating and cooling systems can be difficult to retrofit. FAA has provided additional funding for several of these projects through the Voluntary Airport Low Emissions (VALE) Spotlight: Seattle-Tacoma International Airport For almost 25 years, Seattle-Tacoma International Airport (SEA) has managed a waste minimization program that involves installing public area recycling bins and water refilling stations, requiring concessionaires to recycle and compost, and donating unsold food (Port of Seattle, 2017). In fact, this program donated approximately 57,000 pounds of food to a local food bank in 2016. Such concerted efforts by an airport can create positive relationships within the community, while providing social benefits to airport patrons. Even recent online customer reviews have praised the airport’s conservation and recycling efforts. Spotlight: South Bend International Airport In 2015, South Bend International Airport (SBN) installed a geothermal heating and air conditioning system that replaced a 20-year-old traditional boiler system. The geothermal system reduces natural gas emissions by 3.8 million cubic feet per year, equivalent to 38 households annually. The new system not only reduces the airport’s carbon footprint, it creates local jobs by utilizing a local contractor. More than $6.6 million in federal funds were allotted to create opportunities for the local workforce. The City of Chicago’s Department of Aviation awarded SBN the Airports Going Green honorable mention for the conversion; the award recognizes outstanding leadership in sustainability within the aviation industry.

Building the Airport Vision for Renewable Resources 19 Program, supporting the clean-power design’s added environmental benefits. Sample projects include Portland, Maine; Duluth, Minnesota; and Juneau, Alaska. Airports also have developed solar thermal facilities to heat individual airport buildings. Some designs use traditional hot water-based systems that direct water through roof-mounted solar collectors and heat the water for domestic use or heating. There have also been a few deployments of solar air heating facilities such as a SolarWallTM where a south-facing wall was equipped to trap heat and direct it with fans throughout the building for heating. A few airports use biomass for heating. For example, a wood-fired boiler provides heat for a small, LEED-certified airport terminal in Oregon. Larger facilities have been built at Heathrow Airport in London and Manchester Airport in Central England. All renewable thermal technolo- gies reduce the demand for fossil fuel heating and cooling on-site and produce long-term cost savings by avoiding fuel purchases for the life of the facility. Renewable Electricity Buildings account for more than three-quarters of the electricity use in the United States, and more than 40 percent of all of the country’s energy use (U.S. DOE, 2015). Yet only 15 percent of electricity generation and 10 percent of energy consumption derive from renewable energy sources (U.S. Energy Information Administration, 2016). Transitioning airports to rely more on renewable energy sources can potentially yield significant increases in the proportion of energy that the United States attributes to renewable sources. This process can begin with energy efficiency techniques, and progress into adopting alternate energy sources (e.g., solar or wind). Airports most commonly use solar PV as a renewable technology, primarily due to its siting flexibility and the availability of incentives for improving cost-effectiveness. As a modular technology, solar PV can be installed on rooftops, on open and underutilized land (on site and off site), or as canopies over surface parking areas. In some cases, solar facilities directly serve an airport’s electricity demand, reducing the amount of electricity purchased from a utility via the grid. In other cases, an airport hosts large-scale solar farms that export electricity to medium- voltage infrastructure associated with the grid, thus supplying regional electricity demand. For larger solar farms on an airport’s property, the airport typically leases the land to a private developer that capitalizes, builds, owns, and operates the facility. In turn, the airport receives an annual lease payment as a revenue stream. Airports also execute power purchase agreements (PPA) with developers; these long-term contracts set electricity prices over a 15- to 25-year period and help finance solar development. San Diego International Airport, Nashville International Airport, Newark Liberty, Minneapolis-St. Paul, Denver, and Fresno Yosemite International Airport have successfully implemented solar PV projects. Spotlight: Columbia Metropolitan Airport In 2017, South Carolina’s Columbia Metropolitan Airport (CAE) commissioned a 1.38 MW solar project. The airport invested in the solar project and energy efficiency measures to reduce long-term operating costs and to earn alternative revenues. The project will return $250,000 in annual bill credits to the airport that will help pay for the project over 10 years. Upon paying for the project, the airport will earn revenue from bill credits for a minimum of 15 additional years, through the 25-year project warranty period.

20 Guidebook for Developing a Comprehensive Renewable Resources Strategy Airport wind power development faces limitations, restricted to windy locations that can support a cost-effective project and the wind turbines’ height (they perform more economically at taller heights). This reduces development to the flat plains of the Midwest, high elevations, and coastal areas. Even in such locations, generating cost-effective electricity from wind turbines strongly correlates with the wind turbine’s height. Today, wind farms typically employ wind turbines between 400 to 500 feet tall. Large wind farms—even those far from airports—can impact regional aviation radar facilities, producing false signals and radar shadows that limit radar effectiveness. Single, tall structures near airports are regulated to ensure that they do not physically impinge on the airspace where aircraft may operate. Despite these limitations, wind turbines have been located at a handful of airports. A 125-foot tall turbine located at Burlington International Airport is the largest airport wind turbine in the United States. Several airports, including Boston Logan and Honolulu, use building-integrated turbines, given the units’ lower profiles. Unfortunately, because wind power generation is improved by height and the wind capture area, both of which are limited in building-mounted technologies, the electricity generation of these facilities is marginal. Energy Storage and Microgrids An airport’s ability to maintain operations during severe weather events and other emergen- cies can be vital to the surrounding community. One energy-related component of this resilience includes using energy storage or microgrids to harden airport electrical infrastructure against a loss of utility-supplied electricity. Energy storage technologies, such as lithium-ion batteries, can be used to provide backup power during a grid outage, and can be particularly effective when paired with on-site generation sources, such as backup generators or solar PV systems. When an airport mixes such generation sources, energy storage systems, and multiple buildings together, it can create a microgrid that can operate in “islanding” mode, independent of utility-provided electricity. In addition to well-established energy resilience applications, energy storage can provide an immediate economic benefit to airports. The market is rapidly developing, but even relatively small energy storage systems can be used to help airports reduce peak demand charges or shift electricity demand from periods of high prices to periods of low prices (a process known as arbitrage). Through these measures, a grid-connected battery system can provide immediate economic benefits, and the vibrant market features energy storage business models that frequently can be implemented with no upfront costs. Sustainable Aviation Fuel Sustainable aviation fuel provides another promising avenue for renewable resources at airports, given their ability to reduce operating costs and environmental impacts from airline flights. Jet fuel combustion produces 11 percent of the CO2 emissions coming from the trans- portation sector, and 3 percent of total CO2 emissions in the United States (Center for Biological Diversity). Additionally, jet fuel combustion accounts for 10 percent of petroleum use in the U.S. transportation sector, combining civil and military aircraft, as shown in Figure 3 (U.S. Energy Information Administration, 2016). In fact, recent epidemiological studies estimate that long- term exposure to aircraft emissions accounts for at least 10,000 to 16,000 premature deaths per year globally, with the largest health impact coming from the cruise phase of flights (Barrett et al., 2010; Yim et al., 2015). In addition to environmental and health effects, petroleum-based fuel prices nearly doubled between the start and end of 2016. These fluctuations have been commonplace for the past several years, with 2016 prices still lower than in previous years (International Air Transport Association, 2017a).

Building the Airport Vision for Renewable Resources 21 Currently, the commercial and military aviation industries aggressively pursue a set of fuels derived from biomass feedstocks. In total, ASTM has certified five non-petroleum jet fuels (also known as “sustainable alternative jet fuels” when their environmental footprint is low), and several more fuels are undergoing certification processes. Figure 4 describes each of the five fuels. Spurred by national policies such as the Renewable Fuels Standard (RFS) and growing interest in reducing fuel price volatility (Figure 5), several commercial airlines have pursued demonstration projects of these alternative jet fuels, and one airline has operationalized sustainable aviation fuel use at Los Angeles International Airport. The U.S. Department of Defense also heavily invests in sustainable aviation fuel. For example, the Air Force and Navy have set goals of using cost-competitive domestic aviation fuel from 50/50 alternative fuel blends. An airport’s role in supporting sustainable aviation fuel ranges from conducting promotional campaigns to helping coordinate efforts across airlines. For some airports, synergies may occur between converting ground service vehicles to biofuels and incor- porating such fuels into the aviation fleet. Transportation Fuels in Airport Fleet Vehicles While aircraft consume most fuel used at airports, airports own or contract sizeable vehicle fleets of hundreds or even thousands of on- and off-road vehicles. These include shuttles, Highway Vehicles, 80% Commercial Aviation, 8% Military Aviation, 2% Other, 10% Figure 3. U.S. transportation sector petroleum consumption. Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration, 2016. ASTM-Certified Alternative Jet Fuels • Alcohol to Jet Synthetic Paraffinic Kerosene (ATJ-SPK), derived from renewable feedstocks such as sugar, corn, or forest wastes • Synthesized Iso-Paraffins (SIP), created from sugar streams • Hydro-processed Esters and Fatty Acids Synthetic Paraffinic Kerosene (HEFA-SPK), created from fats, oils, and greases • Fischer-Tropsch Synthetic Paraffinic Kerosene (FT-SPK), created from renewable biomass feedstocks (e.g., municipal solid waste, agricultural wastes, forest wastes, wood and energy crops, fossil feedstocks [natural gas and coal]) • Fischer-Tropsch Synthetic Kerosene with Aromatics (FT-SKA), created from the same feedstocks as FT-SPK. Figure 4. ASTM-certified alternative jet fuels. Source: Commercial Aviation Alternative Fuels Initiative, 2017.

22 Guidebook for Developing a Comprehensive Renewable Resources Strategy emergency response and security vehicles, and facilities/maintenance vehicles. The four renewable fuels most widely utilized at airports are as follows: • Biodiesel. This renewable fuel derives from any oil feedstock, such as vegetable oils (e.g., soy- beans), animal fats (e.g., tallow), algae, and used cooking oil. Biodiesel is typically blended at rates of 5 (B5), 20 (B20), and 100 (B100) percent, indicating the mixture’s percentage as bio- diesel rather than petroleum-based diesel fuel. Biodiesel’s ability to reduce emissions depends largely on the feedstock used and the assumptions about alternative uses of that feedstock. Emissions of hundreds of different biodiesel feedstocks are available in Argonne National Laboratory’s GREET Model. • Ethanol (E85). E85 is a mixture of ethanol and gasoline at a volumetric ratio of approximately 51 percent to 83 percent ethanol. E85 is used in “flex-fuel vehicles” that can run on E85 or gas- oline. (Note that all gasoline sold in the United States contains at least 7 percent to 10 percent ethanol). Today, about 95 percent of ethanol sold in the United States uses corn feedstocks, while the other 5 percent mostly uses sugarcane and sugar beets. Most lifecycle assessments of ethanol demonstrate a small (10 percent to 20 percent) reduction in GHGs relative to gaso- line. However, evidence indicates that improvements in agricultural practices and production processes are improving ethanol’s environmental footprint (Liska et al., 2009). • Renewable diesel. This fuel is made from waste oils, fats, and vegetable oils that can be blended directly with conventional diesel up to 100 percent without modification to an engine. Also known as “green diesel,” renewable diesel is typically produced via a hydrotreating pro- cess. As with the above fuels, lifecycle emissions of renewable diesel depend on the feedstock and production processes. Currently, most of the renewable diesel consumed in the United States is produced overseas from waste oils (e.g., animal fats) and consumed in California and areas of the West Coast. This fuel has relatively low GHG emissions compared to diesel (California Air Resources Board, 2016). Renewable Fuel Standard The Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS) program was created under the Energy Policy Act of 2005, which amended the Clean Air Act. The RFS program is a national policy that requires a certain volume of renewable fuel to replace or reduce the quantity of petroleum-based transportation fuel, heating oil, or jet fuel. The RFS includes four renewable fuel categories: • Biomass-based Diesel • Cellulosic Biofuel • Advanced Biofuel (must be approved by the EPA; currently includes ethanol made from sugarcane; jet fuel made from camelina; cellulosic ethanol made from corn stover; compressed natural gas from wastewater treatment facility digesters) • Total Renewable Fuel Obligated parties under the RFS program are refiners or importers of gasoline or diesel fuel. Compliance is achieved by blending renewable fuels into transportation fuel or by obtaining credits to meet an EPA-specified Renewable Volume Obligation. The legislative goal for 2022 is 36 billion gallons of renewable fuel. The credits used to track renewable fuel usage are called Renewable Identification Numbers (RINs). A unique RIN is generated with and assigned to each batch of domestically produced or imported renewable fuel. Thus, these credits function as a type of "currency" for the RFS program and can present additional monetary value for organizations utilizing renewable fuels. Figure 5. Renewable fuel standard.

Building the Airport Vision for Renewable Resources 23 • Renewable natural gas. Chemically identical to fossil-based natural gas, renewable natural gas (RNG, also known as biogas, landfill gas, or digester gas) is produced using agricultural waste, manure, municipal waste, plant material, sewage, green waste, or food waste. RNG typically contains 50 percent or more methane. By avoiding the release of CH4 at the landfill, sewage plant, dairy farm, or other sources, very large reductions in GHG emissions can be realized relative to petroleum gasoline or conventional natural gas. The most common production pathway is anaerobic digestion of municipal solid waste. In addition to fuel costs, which vary among the options discussed above, an airport will need to consider refueling infrastructure costs and potentially vehicle replacement costs. ACRP Synthesis 85: Alternative Fuels in Airport Fleets shows that most of the current funding for renewable fuels projects at airports comes from grants and through public-private partner- ships. Among these grants, most derive from the federal or state governments (e.g., EPA’s Clean Diesel National Grants and FAA’s VALE Program and Airport Zero Emissions Vehicle and Infrastructure Pilot Program). In addition, the U.S. DOE website hosts the Alternative Fuels Data Center, which allows users to look up state specific incentives. Other Opportunities Composting, water reuse, biofuels, green roofs, and innovative gardening methods are other sustainability projects that may be appropriate for some airports. Most airports are situated on relatively flat and undeveloped lands, suitable for cultivating crops for biomass or food. Further, airports can use biofuels generated from anaerobic digestion of their wastes. Airports can also reuse water from on-site treatment facilities or from water collected through stormwater management systems used by their irrigation systems. Aeroponic gardening produces high yields per square foot and reduces water use. Identifying Synergies Renewable resources can be incorporated into existing programs and processes in place at airports. Finding these linkages will help airport operators make the case for a renewable resource project. For example, the airport’s air traffic control can benefit from a renewable resource project like geothermal, which can hasten the process of deicing runways. This addi- tional benefit will enable air traffic control to better manage flight takeoffs and landings with fewer delays. Airports and airlines can collaborate on the use of biofuels. By working together, they can increase the required total demand and negotiate better prices from suppliers, identify locations and infrastructure that serve their combined uses, and assess the strategic opportunities in scaling up to other lines of business. Introducing recycled water into the irrigation and grounds maintenance processes can reduce costs for the grounds department. In addition, if the airport is in a drought-stricken region, utilizing recycled water can reduce the burden on the rest of the community. Concessionaires at airports may dispose of high quantities of leftover food. Incorporating composting into their food and other compostable waste disposal processes can save money. Additionally, depending on congruent programs, compost could either be used on-site or sold.

24 Guidebook for Developing a Comprehensive Renewable Resources Strategy Spotlight: San Francisco and Los Angeles International Airports San Francisco International Airport (SFO) adopted ACI–NA’s Economic Viability, Operational Efficiency, Natural Resource Conservation, and Social Responsibility (EONS) guidelines to advance its mission of exceptional airport service. SFO utilizes sustainable, LEED-certified design techniques, employs a strong GHG emission reduction program, provides employee health and wellness programs, and much more. One of the most innovative aspects of SFO’s sustainability plan is a conve- nient and efficient transportation system. SFO’s latest air quality enhancement program employs fleet vehicles that use clean fuels, such as compressed natural gas and biofuels. SFO also was the first San Francisco city department to operate all of its own diesel vehicles, including one fireboat. The current plan is to increase the percentage of biofuel to 50 percent. Through these efforts, over 5,000 clean vehicles operate at SFO, saving 2.5 million gallons of gasoline every year. In spring 2016, Honeywell UOP (Universal Oil Products) announced that United Airlines flights between Los Angeles and San Francisco would use green jet fuel to power over 12,500 flights. United Flight 708 from Los Angeles International Airport (LAX) to SFO marked the first U.S. airline use of commercial-scale volumes of sustainable aviation fuel for regularly scheduled flights. The fuel created by Honeywell UOP is a green jet fuel that can replace up to 50 percent of petroleum jet fuel used in flights without any changes to aircraft technology. The fuel is cost-competitive with traditional fuels, but achieves more than a 60 percent reduction in carbon dioxide emissions on a lifecycle basis.

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TRB's Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Research Report 197: Guidebook for Developing a Comprehensive Renewable Resources Strategy highlights renewable energy sources, includes steps for developing a renewable energy strategy, and identifies metrics for measuring success. The report also highlights real-world examples of successful renewable resource projects at airports.

Renewable resources to reduce emissions from airports and climate impacts have been discussed for several years. Technological advancements have allowed organizations, specifically airports, to begin integrating renewable resources into their overall energy plans. In an effort to address climate impacts and achieve neutral carbon growth by 2020, a coalition of aviation stakeholders has adopted emission reduction targets.

Airports are also seeking to become energy independent, and using renewable resources as a strategy to get there. Further, as the costs for conventional energy sources increases, renewable resources become more financially attractive. Those airports who have implemented renewable resources have been able to do so at minimal cost.

While a business case can be made for the integration of any one particular renewable resource, an airport can be more strategic by adopting an overall renewable resource strategy. The renewable resources strategy can then become an input to other airport planning documents (e.g., airport master plan, strategic plan). The success of developing the plan as well as implementation require all internal and external stakeholders are involved in the process.

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