National Academies Press: OpenBook

Guidebook for Developing a Comprehensive Renewable Resources Strategy (2019)

Chapter: Chapter 5 - Renewable Resources Goals and Metrics

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Page 47
Suggested Citation:"Chapter 5 - Renewable Resources Goals and Metrics." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Guidebook for Developing a Comprehensive Renewable Resources Strategy. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25433.
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Page 48
Suggested Citation:"Chapter 5 - Renewable Resources Goals and Metrics." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Guidebook for Developing a Comprehensive Renewable Resources Strategy. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25433.
×
Page 48
Page 49
Suggested Citation:"Chapter 5 - Renewable Resources Goals and Metrics." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Guidebook for Developing a Comprehensive Renewable Resources Strategy. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25433.
×
Page 49
Page 50
Suggested Citation:"Chapter 5 - Renewable Resources Goals and Metrics." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Guidebook for Developing a Comprehensive Renewable Resources Strategy. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25433.
×
Page 50
Page 51
Suggested Citation:"Chapter 5 - Renewable Resources Goals and Metrics." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Guidebook for Developing a Comprehensive Renewable Resources Strategy. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25433.
×
Page 51

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47 Setting Project Goals The international aviation community has agreed to ambitious emissions reduction goals. According to the International Air Transport Association’s 2017 Annual Report, the industry has set near- and long-term goals to accomplish the following: (1) improve fuel efficiency by an average of 1.5 percent annually through 2020, (2) cap net emissions through carbon-neutral growth from 2020 onwards, and (3) cut net carbon emissions in half by 2050 compared with 2005 levels (International Air Transport Association, 2017b). The industry plans to achieve these goals by utilizing sustainable low-carbon fuels, making airport operations more efficient, improving infrastructure at airports, and executing a global market-based measure to fill the remaining emissions gap. This section explains how an individual airport of any size can do its part to help achieve these industry targets. A renewable resources strategy is intended to facilitate the completion of tasks, projects, and procedural changes that align with an organization’s objectives. The goals of the renewable resources strategy should be clearly stated in the document and should provide sufficient detail and rigor to be actionable and measurable using key performance indicators. Setting strong goals that align with the purpose of the renewable resources strategy requires that goals fulfill the following: • Specify a defined outcome that constitutes success; • Specify a defined timeframe for completion; • Be reasonably achievable, given the skills and resources realistically available; and • Be measurable with current or created monitoring and evaluation methods. Table 7 provides examples of weak and strong goals for airport renewable resources planning. An airport should define goals that can be accomplished in the short-term as well as those requiring more long-term planning and additional resources. The plan should include a vision for sustainability and a feasible plan for attaining this. It is advisable to first consider renewable resource projects that can be implemented imme- diately, with little time or money investment. These “low-hanging fruit” can build momentum and support for larger, more resource-intensive projects. For example, converting to green roofs or installing solar PV systems may produce large impacts ultimately, but the airport may find it more feasible to conduct an energy-efficient lighting upgrade first. A simpler project to under- take, this would also reduce the airport’s energy demands and minimize the amount of solar PV required later. Combining near-term and long-term goals will aid in meeting the industry’s goal of carbon- neutral growth by 2020. Goals presented in each airport’s renewable resources strategy should C H A P T E R 5 Renewable Resources Goals and Metrics

48 Guidebook for Developing a Comprehensive Renewable Resources Strategy reflect industry goals and community goals. Engagement of local and state stakeholders can help shape reasonable goals for the airport and support the process of selecting and planning various renewable resource projects. Additionally, engaging local or neighboring communities through strategic outreach may help in the identification and support of viable renewable resource initiatives. Evaluating Success Evaluating and reporting results can spur even greater improvement levels by validating pro- gram effectiveness in the eyes of decision-makers, ensuring new equipment operates as intended (or alerts facility operators if the equipment requires calibration) and generating enthusiasm and participation levels among stakeholders. This section describes some key performance indicators and methods for measuring progress toward adoption of renewable resources and the possible impacts of renewable resource projects on an airport’s economic, environmental, and social performance. Performance Indicators The project plan should include a strategy for measuring project success, and the O&M plan should identify the parties tracking and reporting project success. The renewable resources Weak Goal Strong Goal Use more renewable energy Increase renewable energy consumption at airport facilities by 25% from the baseline by 2020. Decrease carbon footprint/emissions Reduce landfill waste from airport facilities by 20% in the next 5 years. Reduce energy usage Transition all indoor fluorescent lighting to 100% energy-efficient lighting by 2050. Use less water Reduce water consumption per passenger by 15% within the next 10 years. Table 7. Weak and strong renewable resource goals. Spotlight: San Diego International Airport San Diego International Airport’s (SAN) sustainability program has evolved over time in response to individual sustainability issues. Given this commitment to sustainability, the airport has issued an annual sustainability report since 2012, based on the Global Reporting Initiative guidelines. The report focuses on three major categories central to the Initiative’s process, such as economic resources, environmental resources, and social resources (including community, employee, and customer resources). The annual report documents environmental performance and analyzes that performance in comparison to previous years. San Diego International Airport is also developing an SEP with five major goals. Under the carbon neutrality goal, the airport emphasizes installations of renewable energy and green energy procurement. Under the interdependence and resiliency goal, the airport emphasizes installations of on-site energy generation and storage capacity.

Renewable Resources Goals and Metrics 49 strategy can highlight best practices for evaluating the airport’s renewable resource projects, both existing and planned, but different renewable resource types may require specific evaluation methods and timelines for success. For example, though potential solar PV project savings should be calculated before construc- tion begins, they should also be tracked over the life of the system. A rooftop solar PV system may provide a cooling effect for a building, reducing need for air conditioning in addition to generating energy. A bioplastic cutlery program may reduce water usage, and a recycling pro- gram may reduce waste tonnage leaving the airport facilities. For each project, airports should consider the total “before and after” qualitative impacts of each project, beyond the obvious benefits. Table 8 provides some examples of key performance indicators for renewable resource projects. In addition to tracking and recording progress toward a goal, it is important to inform and educate facility managers and on-site electricians and maintenance staff about the new equip- ment, how it works, and how to read the associated metrics and meters to confirm performance. Similarly, concessionaires may need information about the recycling program’s purpose and how they can manage waste. For example, restaurants will need to know what qualifies as compostable materials to avoid compromising the composting program. The success of renewable resource projects can be used to promote the airport and to entice passengers and vendors. The following section provides evaluation methods for renewable resource projects. Metrics for Renewable Resources Evaluation A variety of available tools and applications can help airports calculate baseline statistics and progress toward stated goals for their renewable resources strategy. ACI’s Airport Carbon and Emissions Reporting Tool (ACERT) uses an Excel spreadsheet that allows airport operators to calculate their GHG emissions inventory. Available for free, ACERT accommodates users of varying emissions or environmental expertise. EPA’s website provides the Greenhouse Gas Equivalencies Calculator, which allows users to enter energy or emissions data, and calculate the equivalencies in terms of annual emissions from households, cars, or power plants. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) PVWatts® Calculator allows users to estimate the performance of a potential PV system on their property by estimating energy pro duction and energy cost. Designed for state and local governments, EPA’s Measuring Recycling guide includes valuable information about ways to measure recycling progress. U.S. DOE provides valuable information about evaluation of energy consumption and improvements in energy intensity. U.S. DOE provides the Energy Performance Indicator Tool (EnPI), which helps determine baseline energy use, annual progress of intensity improvements, and energy savings. U.S. DOE also provides an array of feasibility resources for renewable resources that can be utilized when airports are determining projects. Key Performance Indicator Performance Objective kBtu* per square foot of building Reduce GHG emissions and/or energy intensity Annual gallons of water per passenger Water conservation Percentage of organic material composted Reduce waste generation Energy, petroleum, or emissions per mile of travel or per seat-mile Reduce energy, petroleum, or emissions *Thousand British Thermal Units Table 8. Key performance indicators for renewable resource projects.

50 Guidebook for Developing a Comprehensive Renewable Resources Strategy Energy Productivity Energy productivity = Revenue ($US) / Total energy consumption (GJ). Each airport’s energy productivity is percent-ranked against peer airports. The change in each airport’s energy productivity from the prior year is calculated and percent- ranked against that of the same peer airports. GHG Productivity GHG productivity = Revenue ($US) / Total greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions (CO2e). GHG productivity includes all systems and vehicles owned by the airport, but does not include aircraft owned by airlines or private companies or individuals. GHG productivity is compared against that of peer airports. The change in each airport’s GHG productivity from the prior year is calculated and percent- ranked against that of all peer airports. Water Productivity Water productivity = Revenue ($US) / Total water use (m3). Each airport’s water productivity is then compared against peer airports. The change in each airport’s water productivity from the prior year is calculated and percent- ranked against that of all peer airports. Waste Productivity Waste productivity = Revenue ($US) / [Total waste generated (metric tons) – Waste recycled/ reused (metric tons)]. Each airport’s waste productivity is percent-ranked against that of peer airports. The change in each airport’s waste productivity from the prior year is calculated and percent- ranked against that of peer airports. Spotlight: Boston Logan International Airport On Earth Day 2015, Massachusetts Port Authority (Massport) published its first SMP for Boston Logan International Airport (BOS). The 2016 Logan Airport Annual Sustainability Report provides a progress report, focusing on 10 sustain- ability goal areas: energy and GHG emissions; water conservation; community, employee, and passenger well-being; materials, waste management, and recycling; resiliency; noise abatement; air quality improvement; ground access and connectivity; water quality/stormwater; and natural resources. Some notable improvements include: a 20.5 percent decrease in energy use per square foot since 2004; a 22.6 percent decrease in water usage per passenger since 2012; and the implementation of a single-stream recycling program and a water reclamation system utilizing recycled water to wash the Green Bus Depot. These trends align with the airport’s goals of a 25 percent reduction in energy use per square foot by 2020, a 1 percent reduction of potable water use per passenger annually over 10 years (with a 2012 baseline), and an increase in the recycling rate to 60 percent by 2020.

Renewable Resources Goals and Metrics 51 Renewable Resources Purchasing Score Renewable resources purchasing score = Total expenses ($US) / Total purchases of renewable resources. Each airport’s score is percent-ranked against that of peer airports. The change in each airport’s score from the prior year is calculated and percent-ranked against that of peer airports. Next Steps Now that readers have the necessary background information on airport sustainability mea- sures, they can turn to the Renewable Resources Opportunity Assessment Tool in Appendix A. This tool will guide readers through the process of developing their own renewable resources strategy.

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TRB's Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Research Report 197: Guidebook for Developing a Comprehensive Renewable Resources Strategy highlights renewable energy sources, includes steps for developing a renewable energy strategy, and identifies metrics for measuring success. The report also highlights real-world examples of successful renewable resource projects at airports.

Renewable resources to reduce emissions from airports and climate impacts have been discussed for several years. Technological advancements have allowed organizations, specifically airports, to begin integrating renewable resources into their overall energy plans. In an effort to address climate impacts and achieve neutral carbon growth by 2020, a coalition of aviation stakeholders has adopted emission reduction targets.

Airports are also seeking to become energy independent, and using renewable resources as a strategy to get there. Further, as the costs for conventional energy sources increases, renewable resources become more financially attractive. Those airports who have implemented renewable resources have been able to do so at minimal cost.

While a business case can be made for the integration of any one particular renewable resource, an airport can be more strategic by adopting an overall renewable resource strategy. The renewable resources strategy can then become an input to other airport planning documents (e.g., airport master plan, strategic plan). The success of developing the plan as well as implementation require all internal and external stakeholders are involved in the process.

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