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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Social and Economic Sustainability Performance Measures for Public Transportation: Final Guidance Document. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25461.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Social and Economic Sustainability Performance Measures for Public Transportation: Final Guidance Document. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25461.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Social and Economic Sustainability Performance Measures for Public Transportation: Final Guidance Document. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25461.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Social and Economic Sustainability Performance Measures for Public Transportation: Final Guidance Document. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25461.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Social and Economic Sustainability Performance Measures for Public Transportation: Final Guidance Document. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25461.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Social and Economic Sustainability Performance Measures for Public Transportation: Final Guidance Document. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25461.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Social and Economic Sustainability Performance Measures for Public Transportation: Final Guidance Document. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25461.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Social and Economic Sustainability Performance Measures for Public Transportation: Final Guidance Document. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25461.
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Below is the uncorrected machine-read text of this chapter, intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text of each book. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

2019 T R A N S I T C O O P E R A T I V E R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M TCRP RESEARCH REPORT 205 Research sponsored by the Federal Transit Administration in cooperation with the Transit Development Corporation Subject Areas Public Transportation • Passenger Transportation Social and Economic Sustainability Performance Measures for Public Transportation: Final Guidance Document Heather Unger Adrienne Heller Leigh Blackmon Lane Deborah Matherly Louis Berger u.s., inc. A WsP comPAny Morristown, New Jersey

TCRP RESEARCH REPORT 205 Project J-11/Task 32 ISSN 2572-3782 ISBN 978-0-309-48086-4 © 2019 National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. COPYRIGHT INFORMATION Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously published or copyrighted material used herein. Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permission is given with the understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB, AASHTO, FAA, FHWA, FMCSA, FRA, FTA, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Research and Technology, PHMSA, or TDC endorsement of a particular product, method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the material in this document for educational and not-for-profit uses will give appropriate acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of the material, request permission from CRP. NOTICE The research report was reviewed by the technical panel and accepted for publication according to procedures established and overseen by the Transportation Research Board and approved by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The opinions and conclusions expressed or implied in this report are those of the researchers who performed the research and are not necessarily those of the Transportation Research Board; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; or the program sponsors. The Transportation Research Board; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; and the sponsors of the Transit Cooperative Research Program do not endorse products or manufacturers. Trade or manufacturers’ names appear herein solely because they are considered essential to the object of the report. TRANSIT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM The nation’s growth and the need to meet mobility, environmental, and energy objectives place demands on public transit systems. Cur- rent systems, some of which are old and in need of upgrading, must expand service area, increase service frequency, and improve efficiency to serve these demands. Research is necessary to solve operating prob- lems, adapt appropriate new technologies from other industries, and introduce innovations into the transit industry. The Transit Coopera- tive Research Program (TCRP) serves as one of the principal means by which the transit industry can develop innovative near-term solutions to meet demands placed on it. The need for TCRP was originally identified in TRB Special Report 213—Research for Public Transit: New Directions, published in 1987 and based on a study sponsored by the Urban Mass Transportation Administration—now the Federal Transit Administration (FTA). A report by the American Public Transportation Association (APTA), Transportation 2000, also recognized the need for local, problem- solving research. TCRP, modeled after the successful National Coop- erative Highway Research Program (NCHRP), undertakes research and other technical activities in response to the needs of transit ser- vice providers. The scope of TCRP includes various transit research fields including planning, service configuration, equipment, facilities, operations, human resources, maintenance, policy, and administrative practices. TCRP was established under FTA sponsorship in July 1992. Proposed by the U.S. Department of Transportation, TCRP was authorized as part of the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991 (ISTEA). On May 13, 1992, a memorandum agreement outlining TCRP operating procedures was executed by the three cooperating organi- zations: FTA; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, acting through the Transportation Research Board (TRB); and the Transit Development Corporation, Inc. (TDC), a nonprofit educational and research organization established by APTA. TDC is responsible for forming the independent governing board, designated as the TCRP Oversight and Project Selection (TOPS) Committee. Research problem statements for TCRP are solicited periodically but may be submitted to TRB by anyone at any time. It is the responsibility of the TOPS Committee to formulate the research program by identi- fying the highest priority projects. As part of the evaluation, the TOPS Committee defines funding levels and expected products. Once selected, each project is assigned to an expert panel appointed by TRB. The panels prepare project statements (requests for propos- als), select contractors, and provide technical guidance and counsel throughout the life of the project. The process for developing research problem statements and selecting research agencies has been used by TRB in managing cooperative research programs since 1962. As in other TRB activities, TCRP project panels serve voluntarily without compensation. Because research cannot have the desired effect if products fail to reach the intended audience, special emphasis is placed on disseminat- ing TCRP results to the intended users of the research: transit agen- cies, service providers, and suppliers. TRB provides a series of research reports, syntheses of transit practice, and other supporting material developed by TCRP research. APTA will arrange for workshops, train- ing aids, field visits, and other activities to ensure that results are imple- mented by urban and rural transit industry practitioners. TCRP provides a forum where transit agencies can cooperatively address common operational problems. TCRP results support and complement other ongoing transit research and training programs. Published research reports of the TRANSIT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM are available from Transportation Research Board Business Office 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 and can be ordered through the Internet by going to http://www.national-academies.org and then searching for TRB Printed in the United States of America

The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, non- governmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Marcia McNutt is president. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to bring the practices of engineering to advising the nation. Members are elected by their peers for extraordinary contributions to engineering. Dr. John L. Anderson is president. The National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine) was established in 1970 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to advise the nation on medical and health issues. Members are elected by their peers for distinguished contributions to medicine and health. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president. The three Academies work together as the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to provide independent, objective analysis and advice to the nation and conduct other activities to solve complex problems and inform public policy decisions. The National Academies also encourage education and research, recognize outstanding contributions to knowledge, and increase public understanding in matters of science, engineering, and medicine. Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine at www.national-academies.org. The Transportation Research Board is one of seven major programs of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The mission of the Transportation Research Board is to provide leadership in transportation improvements and innovation through trusted, timely, impartial, and evidence-based information exchange, research, and advice regarding all modes of transportation. The Board’s varied activities annually engage about 8,000 engineers, scientists, and other transportation researchers and practitioners from the public and private sectors and academia, all of whom contribute their expertise in the public interest. The program is supported by state transportation departments, federal agencies including the component administrations of the U.S. Department of Transportation, and other organizations and individuals interested in the development of transportation. Learn more about the Transportation Research Board at www.TRB.org.

C O O P E R A T I V E R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M S AUTHOR ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The research team consisted of Heather Unger (principal investigator) and Adrienne Heller, Leigh Blackmon Lane, and Deborah Matherly (researchers and authors), all of Louis Berger U.S., Inc., a WSP Company, Morristown, NJ. CRP STAFF FOR TCRP RESEARCH REPORT 205 Christopher J. Hedges, Director, Cooperative Research Programs Lori L. Sundstrom, Deputy Director, Cooperative Research Programs Gwen Chisholm Smith, Manager, Transit Cooperative Research Program Dianne S. Schwager, Senior Program Officer Jarrel McAfee, Senior Program Assistant Eileen P. Delaney, Director of Publications Natalie Barnes, Associate Director of Publications Sharon Lamberton, Editor TCRP PROJECT J-11/TASK 32 PANEL Field of Special Projects J. Barry Barker, Retired, Louisville, KY (Chair) Aliesa Marie Adelman, Wendel, Williamsville, NY Sarah Buckle, TransLink, New Westminster, BC, Canada Robert Hastings, TriMet, Portland, OR Susannah Kerr-Adler, Jacobs, Arlington, VA Matthew Krupp, Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority, Washington, DC E. Cris B. Liban, Los Angeles County (CA) Metropolitan Transportation Authority, Los Angeles, CA Matthew McKee Miller, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT Peter J. Varga, Interurban Transit Partnership (The Rapid), Grand Rapids, MI Sergio Coronado, FTA Liaison Antoinette Quagliata, FTA Liaison Darnell Grisby, APTA Liaison Elizabeth Lovinggood, APTA Liaison Robin Riesa Phillips, National RTAP Liaison

TCRP Research Report 205: Social and Economic Sustainability Performance Measures for Public Transportation: Final Guidance Document is designed as a practical tool to help transit agencies of all sizes develop and use social and economic sustainability perfor- mance measures to plan, evaluate, and report on social and economic sustainability. The document is intended to complement the APTA Recommended Practice on Social and Economic Sustainability for Transit Agencies, which has been developed to provide a framework for approaching economic and social sustainability along with an overview of recommended practices. Sustainability includes social, environmental, and economic issues in what is often referred to as the triple bottom line. To date, transit agencies have focused primarily on environmental sustainability. APTA developed guidance for transit agencies on how to use performance measures to quantify transit’s impact on environmental sustainability and is moving toward the development of similar guidance to measure social and economic sustainability. TCRP Research Report 205 will support APTA’s efforts and those of transit agencies seeking to improve sustainability. Transit agencies regularly use performance measures (sometimes referred to as perfor- mance metrics or simply metrics) to track progress against agency goals and objectives over time. Transit agencies track many performance measures of service (called service measures in this report) that cover services offered/utilized (e.g., annual ridership), transit availability (e.g., service coverage, hours of service), transit convenience (e.g., travel time), vehicular capacity, and vehicular speed/delay. These traditional service measures are now often supplemented with measures that focus on social, economic, and environmental outcomes. Social measures reflect a transit agency’s commitment to community development, equity, and safety; economic measures reflect a transit agency’s contribution to economic develop- ment and operational efficiency; and environmental measures indicate a transit agency’s progress toward protecting the environment (e.g., by reducing pollution from single- occupancy vehicles). This guidance document (1) presents key findings from the literature review and transit agency interviews; (2) identifies a list of 57 top social and economic sustainability perfor- mance measures and 56 transit service measures selected using evaluation criteria established in collaboration with the research panel; and (3) provides transit agencies with guidance on how to set goals, determine objectives, establish measures, implement and evaluate the measures, and report progress on social and economic sustainability. F O R E W O R D By Dianne S. Schwager Staff Officer Transportation Research Board

The report is presented with a companion Excel® workbook that can be used by transit agencies to develop their own initial list of performance measures. The workbook, called the “Social and Economic Sustainability Performance Measures Database,” includes 606 social and economic sustainability performance measures and 93 transit service perfor- mance measures. This workbook is available for download and may be found by searching on the TRB website (www.trb.org) for “TCRP Research Report 205”.

1 Summary 5 Section 1 Introduction 5 1.1 Social and Economic Sustainability for Public Transportation 7 1.2 Purpose of the Guidance Document 8 Section 2 State of the Practice 8 2.1 Methodology 14 2.2 Findings from the Literature Review 17 2.3 Findings from Transit Agency Interviews 20 Section 3 Performance Measures 20 3.1 Performance Measure Identification 20 3.2 Performance Measure Evaluation 22 3.3 List of Performance Measures 22 3.4 Social and Economic Performance Measures Database 27 Section 4 Operationalizing the Performance Measures 30 4.1 Set Goals 32 4.2 Determine Objectives 35 4.3 Establish Measures 40 4.4 Implement and Evaluate 42 4.5 Report 45 Section 5 Suggestions for Additional Research 45 5.1 Topics Suggested for Future Research 46 5.2 Additional Resources 47 References 50 Appendix A Literature Review Summary 106 Appendix B Interview Summaries 114 Appendix C Performance Measure Evaluation Process 128 Appendix D Performance Measure Survey and Results C O N T E N T S

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A sustainable transit agency provides environmental, social, and economic benefits to the communities it serves. Transit agency efforts to quantify these benefits have focused primarily on environmental sustainability. The American Public Transportation Association (APTA) has developed guidance for transit agencies on how to use performance measures to quantify transit’s impact on environmental sustainability. APTA has yet to develop similar guidance to measure social and economic sustainability, which is the focus of this research project.

The TRB Transit Cooperative Research Program's TCRP Research Report 205: Social and Economic Sustainability Performance Measures for Public Transportation: Final Guidance Document explores a practical tool to help transit agencies of all sizes develop and use social and economic sustainability performance measures to plan, evaluate, and report on social and economic sustainability.

The report is intended to complement the APTA Recommended Practice for Social and Economic Sustainability for Transit Agencies (2018). APTA’s Recommended Practice provides a framework for approaching economic and social sustainability, along with an overview of recommended practices; however, the document does not include performance measures, which are a key component to reporting progress and gauging success.

The report is presented with a companion Excel workbook that can be used by transit agencies to develop their own initial list of performance measures. The workbook includes 606 social and economic sustainability performance measures, as well as 93 transit service performance measures.

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